Background to the study      
Each family setting has to give attention for taking formal responsibility by parents for childrearing and therefore supports their primary role. Parents are in the strongest position to develop positive relationships with their children that facilitate the acquisition of standards and values; and also parents are better able to monitor and understand their children behavior than anyone else because of their long and sustained exposure to them, as a result to minimize the effect of a lower level of academic achievement and psychological problems.
Nowadays, the condition of parents’ marital status plays a great role for child development. Specifically, divorce and remarriage have an impact on children adjustment. For this reason, there is an increased attention being given by scientists to investigate the overall effect of family transitions on the well being of children. Regarding the relationship between family conditions and the behavior of children some studies show that harmonious marriages promote children’s competence and maturity. Others demonstrate that marital conflict tends to be associated with the children’s cognitive delay, school difficulties, and antisocial or withdrawn behavior in the early school years (Bond & Mcmahon, 2014; Emery, 2012; Gottman & Cherlin 2007).
According to different scholars, children from intact families, on average, display less behavior problems, less psychological distress, and greater academic achievement than do children of divorce (Allison and Furstenberg, 1989; Guidubaldi and Perry, 1985; Hetherington et al., 1985; Wallerstein et al., 1988;Gershoff, Aber, Raver, and Lennon 2007; Magnuson and Berger, 2009).
Somewhat differently, other studies have tried to examine the importance of the access to both parents than separated. In one study following parental separation, in general, 30% of the children has experienced a marked decrease in their academic performance, and this was evident three years later (Bisnaire et al., 2000;, Aughinbaugh, Pierret, and Rothstein 2015). Access to both parents seemed to be the most protective factor, in that it was associated with better academic adjustment. Moreover, the data revealed that non-custodial parents (mostly fathers) were very influential on their children’s development. These data also support the interpretation that the more time a child spends with the non-custodial parent, the better the overall adjustment of the child.
          On the other hand, remarried families with children’s have responsibilities for all family members. Olson and De Frain (2000) have indicated step parenting is challenging. In this regard, they indicate that some of the draw backs associated with step parenting include trying too hard to construct a successful relationship with their stepchildren, provoking resentment or jealousy in their stepchildren, typing to substitute the absent biological parent, and having special advantages to their own children over their stepchildren. However, they point out that the majority of remarried families have strengths similar to those of other types of families. This means that stepchildren do not differ significantly from children in intact families in terms of problem in self- image, academic achievement, or behavior difficulties (El-Sheikh & Elmore-Staton, 2004; Amato & Keith,2011).

Other studies showed that the level of family cohesion (Caplan et al, 2002 as cited by Diaz, 2004), and family relationships (Buote, 2001) proved themselves capable of predicting performance. Schiefelbaum and Simmons (2000) cited in Adell (2002) consider family background the most important and most weighty factor in determining the academic performance attained by the student. Among family factors of greatest influence are social class variables and the educational and family environment. Emeke (1984) stressed that the environmental condition and the nature of social interaction that goes on in the family may have some positive or negative influence on the academic achievement of a child. One of the tasks of Education is to train young people to become useful members of the society and this training begins at home in the informal way. The home of the child is the first place he/she enters when born into the world by parents.
A home is a place where pupils live with their parents or guardian and it is the place where they are groomed. It is a place where the pupils begin to learn the norms and values of the society in which they find themselves. The family is a social unit in any society and it is the source of early stimulation and experience in children (Collins, 2007). The home influences the child at the most earliest possible time of his life at a time when his mind is most receptive. It provides the first impression which may last through the whole life of the child. The child often sees the parents, siblings and things in their immediate environment to be most significant and they are capable of promoting or diminishing him in self worth and academic performance (Ekanem, 2004).
Statement of the problem
In spite of the numerous findings on studies that indicated the relationship between parental marital status, and academic performance, however, there is still gap in our knowledge of the relationship between  marital status as predictors of academic performance. While some research findings support age as predictor of academic performance, others have failed to find any relationship between the marital status and academic performance. The present study assessed parent marital status as predictors of academic performance of  pupils in
Awuwo Odofin Local government area of Lagos state

The major objective of this study is to determine parental marital status on primary school pupils academic performance in Awuwo Odofin Local government area
The specific objective is
  1. To investigate the influence of marital status of parents on pupil performance in Awuwo Odofin Local government area
  2. determine the influence of family type on the academic performance of pupils
  3. to find out the effect of parent socio economic status on primary school pupils academic performance
  4. To determine if negative influence from single parents lead to the poor academic performance of their children in schools?
Research Question
  1. Does parental marital status influence primary school pupils academic performance?
  2. To what extent does family type  affect academic performance of pupils?
  3. To what extent does parent socio economic status affect pupils academic performance in Awuwo Odofin local government?
  4. Does negative influence from single parents lead to the poor academic performance of their children in schools?
Significance of the Study
          The work of the nature when completed may help the parents to be aware of the effect of their marital status on pupils academic performance. From the available recommendation, they will be able to adopt measures of bringing up their children in such a way that they will perform well academically.
          Similarly, it is likely to engage parents to make their children relatively comfortable in schools. This study also could aid children of various families to be aware and bear in mind with their parents in ability to provide them with all the necessary requirement in schools, and also sympathize with them in family problems and situations.
          More so, educational and curriculum planners could be guided in planning the curriculum without rigidity to suit diverse cultural environments. In addition, the teachers would be aware that a cordial teacher – parent relationship may in a way improve the influence of family background on the academic performance of a child in school.
          The research of this nature is likely to help the state, nation and the world in general benefit from as adherence to the recommendation and implementation will help produce youth who would be better leaders of tomorrow.
          Finally, the research when completed may add to available literature and may encourage further research on the topic.
Scope of The Study
This research work is aimed at investigating parental marital status and parent school pupil academic performance in Awuwo Odofin local government area of Lagos state. The study cover five selected primary in the local government.
Definition of Terms
Academic- The process of teaching and learning in school. It involves reading, studying and examinations.
Educational level- The rank of a person’s formal education attainment
Family- A group consisting of blood related people including those adopted to the group.
Family background- refers to circumstances and past events that help to explain how a child develops.
Family background relationship- refers to any positive or negative impression or effect that families exercise on their children while studying in the schools.
Family size- it is the total number of children in the child’s family in addition to the child himself.
Family financial Status – This is the money that a person earns at a given time and place. It can be in form of monthly salary or wages as well as returns got from a business.
Performance - Refers to degree of attainment of the required grades in school situation.
Marital Status- The condition of being married or unmarriedindex

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