Free Research Guide For Student's - UNIPROJECTS




Free Research Guide For Student's

Free Research Guide For Student's


How to write a research project topic proposal to your supervisor for approval

How to Develop Outstanding Research Topics

How to Develop a Good Table of Content

How to Write an Abstract

A Step by Step Guide on Research Project Writing for Universities, Colleges of Education and Polytechnics in Nigeria

Avoiding Plagiarism: Smart Tips to Apply

Hypothesis for Beginners: A Step By Step Guide on Applying the Right Hypothesis in a Research Study

Time Management Tips in Research

How to Maintain a Healthy Student- Supervisor Relationship

Do's and Don’ts of Project Writing and Presentation

Secret Revealed: Discover what your project supervisor is looking for

Secret Revealed Part 2: The Awesome Literature Review

Primary and Secondary Data

Comprehensive Guide to Research Methodology

Note! It’s Taro Yamane NOT Yaro Yamane

How to Choose the Right Measurement Instruments

REVIEW: Data Analysis Software's Available For Researchers

Five (5) Incredible Sample Size Calculators: Software's every Researcher Must Have

REF 101: The Nitty-Gritty of Referencing in Research

Five (5) Seconds Quick Editing Guide For Microsoft Word

Handling Group Research: Sure Tips for Success

Making Awesome Presentations: Useful Tips for Project Defense

How to Ace the 25 Most Common Project Defense Questions

Four(4)Ways You can Contribute to the Body of Knowledge

All You Need to Know About the NUC Thesis Award

The Unwritten Rules of PhD Research

How to Apply for Scholarship in Nigeria and List of Scholarships Available to Nigerian Students.


How to write a research project topic proposal to your supervisor for approval

This chapter for our project guide article for student's is to help student get on the right track and its a very important phase too, as some supervisor's will say bring me topic's and let me approve one for you as some supervisor's will say write me a proposal of your research topic for approval, as so many student's are having little challenges in this phase, a sample of such proposal is shown below for your presentation.

                                                                XYZ University  
                                                                External/Internal System(- Campus)
                                                                Department of XYZ
                                                                1st of January 2016.

Dear sir,


I .................. with Matric Number .............................. hereby writes this proposal to you for my project research topic approval. I will be grateful if you can approve one of the topics below for me to commence my research as soon as possible;

I will be conducting a full research on the approved topic and arranging it in five chapters, which are:
1.       Background of the Study
2.       Literature Review
3.       Research Methodology
4.       Data Presentaion and Analysis
5.       Findings, Recommendation and Conclusion.

Thanks in anticipation of your prompt and favourable response.

Yours Faithfully

Students Name


How to Develop Outstanding Research Topics

Just like news headlines, your research project topic is your first selling point. If media houses do not caption a football match between Nigeria and Ghana as 'Nigeria and Ghana goes to War again' they may continue enjoying being broke. In essence, your project topic and the material you produce should be captivating. It should have the magical power to draw people’s interest, and achieve good grades for you.

Your ability to come up with an interesting and good research project topic is your first step in building an 'A' in Research Methodology. Fantastic research papers in Nigeria do not fall from heaven. They come about as a result of serious brainstorming mixed with great fun. Anyways in my little experience as an independent researcher, I do not entirely agree that developing a project topic should be too tasking. I rather see it as fun. When you are about to write a research project, the first skill you should have in order to get the best out of your project is your fun skills-What interest you? Throughout your stay in lecture rooms from semester one to the end, you should be able to identify that very topic or course you enjoy so much.

If you are a final year student in Nigeria, and you are eager to develop an outstanding research topic you should at least follow these few steps.
1. Think of a research area that is of great interest to you.
2. Brainstorm on possible subjects, titles and topics that could come out of the research area.
3. Narrow down the topic to a specific issue.
4. Look for trending issues in Nigeria.
5. Ensure there is adequate material for the study.
6. Take a time out to structure your topic properly.

Get a Research Area
The first step in developing outstanding research topics is by identifying a research area that interests you. Successful researchers align their work to their research area or interest. By doing this, you become an expert in your chosen research area, and your previous research papers become foundation for future research studies. Final year students in Nigeria should identify what subjects they love talking about. Good examples of research areas are Taxation, Employee Performance, Work-Life Balance, Electricity Conductors etc.

Brainstorm for that Outstanding Topic
That unique and outstanding research topic is deep down in your brains only that you have not yet realized it. After identifying a suitable research area, pick up a paper or a book and try to formulate as many research-able topics as possible (the more the topics, the better your chances of getting a good one). The topics may look weird at first, but you may not realize how important this process will be to you until you try it. One benefit I have achieved with brainstorming is that it gives me the freedom to put down as many whack ideas as possible. The truth is, after some days these ideas become very useful, as they serve as foundations for formulating better research topics.

Narrow Down your Research Topic
Since you have been able to identify your research area and a research topic, you should now avoid broad topics. Broad topics are killer research topics. They make you stress your self for no good reasons. Your topic is probably broad if:
1. You find your research topic too confusing.
2. You seem to forget your topic frequently.
3. Your supervisor is not interested in your project work.
4. You seem to find conflicting materials on your topic.
5. You frequently feel dizzy or lazy whenever you see you research topic.
If all these happen to you then you need help. Breakdown the topic! If you are writing on the role of management in an organization, then you are not on point!
Management can still be broken down to other variables, nouns, and subjects such as financial management, strategic management etc.

Look for Trending issues
One secret about outstanding researchers is that they are always solving current issues on ground. When new issues such as bank recapitalization in Nigeria and fuel subsidy arise, research topics and materials on them sell like pure water. When you present a research topic on a current issue that needs urgent attention in a country like Nigeria, your supervisor is happy with you. When defending it, you are assured of a good grade because, you are not only presenting a unique work, but you are also solving an urgent problem and building literature for that issue as well.
However, when developing research topics to suite trending issues in your country, you must be very careful. Writing on very current issues can get you hanging. Availability of materials to support your literature review-both theoretical and empirical review becomes a big challenge.
Before formulating research topics on trending issues, one must first make sure there are studies already conducted.
Students wishing to explore into newer research areas or topics with little or no materials are still encouraged to do so, but it is best done at a PhD level.

Source for Adequate Materials
Students wishing to get the best out of their research project are usually encourage to make sure that there is adequate literature concerning or relating to their study.

Structure your Research Topic
In structuring your research topic, follow the following steps:
1. Make sure your topic is not broad. Structure your topic to address a specific problem or answer a specific question. Do not write on every thing as you may get confused.
2. Identify variables in your research topic. Variables must be present in your topic. After brainstorming, arrange these variables in such a way your readers can easily understand what your study is all about. For more info read this article on research variables.
3. Avoid lengthy research topics.



once you decide to write a book, a novel or any type of essay, you might be met with the popular writer’s block. One of the ways of eliminating the writer’s block is to create a table of contents for the essay. This is because the table of contents will now give you guidelines to write your essay.
Do you know that an essential part of your essay writing is the table of contents? Sure because it's the part that shows the reader the organization and division of the information in your report. So do you know how to write it?

Did you answer no? Ok don’t worry. This article will teach you how to write a table of contents.
You can use a table of contents for your academic works like a project, thesis, seminar, and also for non-academic works like novels, eBooks, and others. We are going to discuss how to create a table of contents for both types of writing work here.

What is a table of Contents?
First off, you need to know what a table of contents is. A table of content (usually known as the TOC) is a linear part listing the tidbits of the document you wish to write about. The depth and the detail of your TOC will depend on the length of the document. That means that if you are writing a big document of say 120 pages, the table of contents will be much but if you are writing a smaller document of say 20-30 pages, it will have less table of contents. A table of contents is organized based on where the parts of the documents will appear. Most times documents that are fewer than 9 pages do not require a table of contents, unless of course your teacher requires one.

A TOC is important because it presents the topics of the essay or project work in a linear orderly form in which the reader of your book will encounter them. It is a useful summary of what comes after what topic in your essay, as some readers will use it to get an overview of what your essay is all about. Therefore it is essential that you have a TOC as it will help your reader easily find what they are looking for in the book. It is usually accompanied with the page numbers but the page numbers are added at the end when you have completed the essay.

Guidelines to Create a Table of Contents
As I said earlier one of the best ways of eliminating writer’s block is by having a table of contents before you start. The headings and sub-headings in your TOC will be determined by factors such as the content of the report, the type of problem being addressed, the purpose of the report and the audience. This is the guideline I usually use to set down my table of contents for my ebooks and other essays. I just start listing the topics I want to treat in that essay and numbering 1,2,3. After that, I start writing based on those topics and after, I will edit the TOC. For example, say you want to write about cats as a domestic. Your table of table of contents might look like this:
Carnivorous animals
•2.1 Cats as an example of carnivores
•2.2 Other examples of carnivore
Etc, etc. I just wrote the above now off the top of my head. You can do it, just list out the topics you will like to cover in the essay and start writing.

Formatting a table of contents
This means writing the headings and sub-headings with the roman figures and decimals beside it, like you can see above. I mean the 2.1, 2.2 etc. you can do this manually or automatically. By manual I mean writing out the figures yourself. For instance, in the example above, after writing carnivorous animals, you press enter. The computer write 3, but you delete and write 2.1, then write the topic and press enter and the computer will continue with that format until you change it.
But if you want to format a TOC automatically, you can do that easily with your computer. If you are using Microsoft 2010, open ms word, then identify the text you want to use as TOC. Now you go into the styles group within the home tab and click the style that you want, to select the heading you want to use. Then click on the references tab, at the left corner you will see table of contents, click automatic table 1 or 2 and it will appear on your page. As you can see, it has already been formatted. All you need to do is to change the headings and subheading.

How to write a TOC for your project
If you are writing your final year project, the TOC is a bit different as it consists of standard five chapters.

The first chapter is the introductory chapter.
This introductory chapter consists of the introduction, statement of the problem, the research questions, aims and objectives of the study, significance of the project, scope and limitations of the study and definition of term.

The second chapter is the literature review.
This is where you review previous works on the project topic. You search for other works that have been carried out on the topic of your project and write about it here.

The third chapter is called the research methodology.
This is where you write about how you will carry out the research work of your project. This chapter includes research design, the population of study, the sample and sampling techniques you will use, instruments for data collection and data analysis methods and procedures.

The fourth chapter is where you analyze your experiments and research.
This chapter is usually called data analysis and presentation. Depending on your course and the project topic, you will present the results of the research you have done; either in graphs, charts, drawings, or statistical tables.

The fifth and final chapter is the concluding part of the whole essay.
The name is usually summary, conclusion and recommendations. As the name suggests, here you write the summation of all that you done so far, the conclusion from your results and the recommendation you want to give. Then of course don’t forget your references at the end.
I am sure with the above; you can now write a table of contents for a novel, a report or your final year project.



Due to numerous interaction between me and other student's concerning difficulties they face when trying to write a good and standard abstract, I have decided to pick up my pen once again, do some research and tackle this issue once and for all.
Writing an abstract is an important phase in the research process; hence in order to make good grades with your research project and impress your readers, one must be familiar with the techniques of writing a good, concise and standard abstract.

Before I discuss on how to write a good abstract, let’s talk a bit about an abstract.
Is it a bird or an insect? Absolutely not a bird or an insect, an abstract in simple terms is a summary of a research project, thesis. Dissertation, research journal etc.
abstracts are usually seen at the beginning of research paper.
In-order to write good and standard abstract, students must first know how abstracts should be structured and things to avoid when writing one. This article torches on all of these. So enjoy!


Most well written abstracts by outstanding researchers all over the world are structured as follows:
i. Overview of the study/Background
ii. Methods
iii. Results or Findings
iv Recommendations and Conclusion

Now let us discuss these sections one after the other.

This is usually the first part of an abstract.
It depicts the central focus of the study.
When writing an abstract, students should know the central idea behind their study.
This section is very important as it tells readers whether to continue reading or not.
In essence when giving an overview of your study, you should make it concise and interesting enough to encourage readers to read your whole work. Students must ensure readers easily get a clue of what the research objectives are as well as problems motivating the researcher to pick up interest in the study.

Methodology employed by the researcher constitutes the second part of an abstract.
With a semi-paragraph or a sentence, state your research methods. This is where you briefly let readers know your data collection methods, research instruments employed, sample size and so on. To some extent depending on your institution’s research project format, you can state how the research instruments were validated and distributed (i.e. was it face-to-face distribution? or through email?).

The third section of an abstract is a brief summary of your key findings or results.
Findings or important results recorded in the study must be briefly stated in the abstract.

The last section of most abstracts tells readers recommendations or suggestions made by the researcher. This section is the most important section in an abstract as it brings out the essence of research which is solving identified problems, developing better ways of doing things and adding to the body of knowledge.


In-order to present a good abstract for academic award(s), the following should be observed by the researcher:

I. Avoid Ambiguous Words and Complex Grammar:
Remember an abstract is like a tip of the iceberg. Complex and ambiguous words/ sentences may discourage readers from reading the full content of your research.
Using keywords at the end of an abstract may help in letting your readers know the central theme or idea of the study.

II. Do not Loose Focus:
When writing an abstract, just go straight to the point. Do not beat around the bush.
Definition of terms, long stories that are not interesting may make your abstract too lengthy and boring…..leave all definitions and stories for your introduction.

III. Avoid Lengthy Abstracts:
Abstracts are meant to be brief and concise.
Avoid writing numerous pages and calling it ‘Abstract’. An ideal abstract should be on a single page. However, if you wish to write more, seek the advice of your supervisor first.

IV. Avoid Writing Abstracts When you have not completed your Study:
This particular point one is of great interest to me. I see students writing abstracts before completing their research studies, and it gets me wondering a lot. How did they get findings and recommendations before data analysis and interpretation? Or is there any such thing as pre and post abstracts? If there is any, please feel free to share your ideas by commenting below because, this one is killing me. An abstract is meant to be a summary of your entire work; hence it should be after you have conducted your study.

Below is a perfect example of an abstract:

This study was intended to evaluate the extent to which strategic planning affects organizational performance. The study was guided by the following objectives; to identify the various components and phases of strategic planning used in company ABC, to find out other factors affecting organizational performance other than strategic planning and to find out the relationship between strategic planning and organizational performance.
The study employed descriptive and explanatory design, questionnaires in addition to library research were applied in order to collect data.
Primary and secondary data sources were used and data was analyzed using statistical package which was presented in frequency tables and percentage. The respondents under the study were 30 employees of ABC, DEF branch. The study majorly focused on phases and components of strategic planning and how they affect the organizational performance.
The study findings revealed that there is lack of information gathering, where strategic planning does not begin with collection of the necessary information, there is strong review of the past performance where by past performance is considered to make the strategic plans. Pearson correlation coefficient is 0.692 significant at 0.01 level (2-tailed), 0.00 indicates the significance of interaction between two variables an indication that the significant is under the range of 0.0 and 0.05.
Using the above findings, it implied that there is a strong relationship between strategic planning and organization performance.
According to the study, strategic planning contributes 69.2% towards performance in banking services and this implied that other factors contribute 30.8%. Improvements should be made in the information altering systems and information should be gathered first before making the strategic plans.
Company ABC should evolve all the employees in decision making so as to improve on the performance.



Undergraduate research project is an independent effort required of students in tertiary institutions. The students, though supervised by an academic staff, are to carry out a pre-determined research within the constraints of their study.
The supervisor is primarily to receive proposals of the research interest, approve it, provide guidance and assess the work at the end. An external supervisor is usual, to provide an external and independent assessment of their research work.
The proposal for the topic is to include the intended subject of study, a brief description, justification for the work, aims and milestones, software and hardware to be employed, assumptions to be made, the methodologies involved and the references.
There are standards in the research build-up, actual research, presentation and print submissions. These put the students in shape for the strict rules they are to face after-school.
In developing the content, there are certain guidelines that would be beneficial.
The work is usually divided into five chapters (broadly) before any further divisions.

Hence the typical formats as such:
1. Title page
2. Approval page
3. Dedication
4. Acknowledgement
5. Abstract
6. Table Of Content
7. List Of Tables
8. List Of Figures
9. List Of Symbols/Nomenclature (Where Applicable)
10. Main Work (Chapter One To Five)
11. References
12. Appendices (Where Applicable)

1) Title page:-
Here, the name of the institution is put, the title of the report, the name of the Author, then the reason for the report (this is why it is required that students add that it is 'in partial fulfillment of the course requirement required for the award of the B.Sc degree.' Then the date is added.

2) Approval page:-
The name of the institution and department, then a statement signifying approval for the work by the supervisor, head of department and external supervisor. Space is reserved for signatures of all listed parties as well.

3) Dedication page:-
This is where the researcher dedicate the research to a deity, someone, dead or/and alive. This is different from the acknowledgement.

4) Acknowledgement:-
The researcher here writes to appreciate all that contributed, (technical, financial, moral and otherwise) to the success of the research.

5) Abstract:-
This is the synopsis of the research work. It is often written last with the tense in past. Usually less than 100 words summarizing the problem statement, the methodology employed, the findings, conclusion and recommendations. This should be in a single paragraph and the word limit not exceeded.

6) Table of content:-
The main heading s and sub- headings and page numbers are listed. This allows for easy page identification and reference. The table of content should be edited at the final stage as well, to correctly capture the reflections in the work.

7,8,9) List of tables/figures/symbols:-
The list is to aid the reader in locating tables/figures/symbols. It should contain the tag numbers, tag which reflects the content and the page numbers. It should be well-numbered and unambiguous. In the main content, the figure/ table should be well-labelled.

10) (The body of the work)
I) Chapter One:- This is usually the introduction.
This describes the background, scope and purpose of the.research. The rest of the report should be tied to the information supplied. The researcher should strive to present sufficient details regarding why the study was carried out. It shouldn't be rushed, a gradual build-up of the content from bottom to top is ideal. It should be closed with a linking paragraph that would disclose the objectives, constraints and limitations.
II) Chapter two:- This is usually the literature theoretical review.
This presents basically, the work done by others. It is on the ground work done by others that the current research is to be based, hence the review. It sums up the pros and cons of all past work but due credit should be given to the various Authors (see the guide on referencing on this website). The use of quotations should be less in use, more of paraphrasing (reading and making out meaning in your own words), making comments in the review is great as well, it just depends on the context.
III) Chapter three:- This is usually the research.methodology.
Here the language used should be in past tense. It is a sum-up of the research design, procedures, the area and population of study.
The data sampling and data sources are detailed as well. The method used, from all alternatives, should also be justified. The materials and equipment used is also included.
IV) Chapter four:- This is usually for data presentation and analysis (results and.discussion).
The results obtained in the.research are.presented here. Visual aids like graphs, charts and the likes should be well. The results should be discussed then compared with results of past Authors. The effects and applications of the results should be detailed as.well.
IV) Chapter five:- This part houses the conclusions and recommendations.
From the results of the research, conclusions are made, then suggestions for improvement for other researchers with similar interest. Based on the whole.happenings.recommendations are proffered.

11) References:-
This is a list of all the relevant journals, books and all sources of information consulted in the research work, either online or print. Plagiarism should be avoided at all costs, all quoted and exact words of different sources should be properly referenced, in-text and at the references' list/bibliography. MLA, APA and Chicago style are the commonest referencing styles. (See a comprehensive guide on blogs)

12) Appendices:-
This is for all extra materials that were not added to the body of the work. This encapsulates extensive proofs, official data from case study, list of parameters, et al.
P.S: After writing, the researcher should painstakingly proofread the whole content for grammatical and spelling errors. This could be very distracting while reading the material.
The page numbers are easily distorted by changing font size and type, spacing et al. The final submission very clear, error-free (to a.large degree) and as standard.



Information is power and excessive use of power with little control will definitely corrupt or worst still destroy! Every borrowed idea from books, magazines, research journals and the almighty internet must be properly acknowledged.
With our busy academic schedules as students coupled with family responsibilities, one may see research work as too tasking and may not really have the time to write from scratch. Unfortunately, as technology is advancing our dear lecturers are getting smarter by the day.
Nigerian students are now interested in producing un-plagiarized papers as some schools are beginning to use anti-plagiarism software's to screen term papers, essays and even research projects. However, no need for fears. Your concerns are our's too. This power packed article will show you awesome tips that will aid you in avoiding plagiarism and getting ahead of your supervisor. Even the likes of Turnitin, Viper , and Plagtracker etc will never see your brake lights. Enjoy!

Know the Meaning of Plagiarism
To excel in your school papers without hitches, you must first understand what plagiarism is and what it is not. Plagiarism in simple English involves using other peoples’ ideas, theories, models etc. without referencing them.
For example: Original Post: ‘’the rise in un-employment rate in Nigeria has resulted in the establishment of more small and medium scale enterprises in Nigeria’’ (Nnamoko, 2014: 13).

Plagiarizing: The increase in un-employment rate in Nigeria has led to the establishment of numerous little and medium scale enterprises in Nigeria.
Not Plagiarizing: The rapid growth of business ventures and entrepreneurial activities in Nigeria can be attributed to the alarming rate of un-employment in Nigeria (Nnamoko, 2014:13).

I) Learn How to Properly Rephrase:
From the above example, you can clearly see that both sentences were rephrased, but one was properly rephrased with adequate citation, while the former was pure plagiarism. Now in rephrasing, one must not only change few words to skip plagiarism, but must go ahead to add more meaning in the sentence while acknowledging the author at the same time. This will work in the literature review section of a paper. One’s ability to summarize a research journal or a book in an appropriate manner will help overcome any plagiarism checkers.

II) Develop Interest in the Subject Matter:
One factor that encourages plagiarism amongst students is that most students who plagiarize do not have adequate interest for the topic of their paper. Once there is no interest, originality and creativity dies off. To avoid plagiarism and its associate problems, one must first understand the topic or theme of the paper to be written, read extensively on the subject matter and interact with experts in that field. These processes will aid in making the topic or theme fun and a wider insight into the subject matter will be gained by the student.

III) Do not Rely on One Source:
The probability of plagiarizing is higher if you get all your information from a single source. Do not rely on a single article, book or journal to get information for your research project. Read extensively as more references will prove a thorough research and lesser probability for plagiarizing. With many sources, the writer will gain enough knowledge on the subject matter and this will help the writer to express his or her thoughts freely.

IV) Improve on Your Writing Habit:
To be an excellent student/researcher, you must inculcate the habit of writing in your academic life. Always feel free to use a pen and a paper to summarize articles in your own words, or better still try expressing your opinions and thoughts on paper.
Improve on your academic writing skills and try a bit of creative writing .

V) Try Google Translate Tools:
If you have read up to this point and you cannot still create your own original content, then you can opt for Google Translate. This tool can help you to apply some ‘surgery’ to an original article to become yours. Simply visit This fantastic tool will translate an original article in English to another language of your choice, then to yet another language and back to English.
The trick here is that by the time you translate an English article to French, French to Spanish, then Spanish to English again, the original article will now be in broken English. From there you can edit and add your own ideas to get your own original content. You may also try some article spinners such as spinbot and freespinner.

VI) Always Make Use of Anti-Plagiarism Tools:
Before you submit your term paper, essay, research project etc. to your lecturer or supervisor ensure you make good use of a good anti-plagiarism checker to ensure you do not fall a victim to plagiarism. Students can use free anti-plagiarism tools in websites such as or , These sites will help tell whether you are safe from plagiarism or not.

VII) Learn How to Properly Cite/Reference:
Finally, this is the most important tip in avoiding plagiarism. Now that you are fully aware of what plagiarism is and dangers associated with the act, you must learn to fully reference all borrowed ideas incorporated in your paper. Use accepted referencing style(s) by your institution.
i. Reputation and respect can be lost if you plagiarize.
ii. Grades can be affected because of plagiarism.
iii. Possible delays and expulsion from school can be caused by deliberate plagiarism.
iv. Awesome websites such as do not encourage plagiarism. 

Only use resources you get from the internet as a guide and do good by contributing to the body of knowledge!



Hypothesis is a testable prediction, a statement of specific results or a suggested answer to a research problem.or a conjectural statement of.the relationship between two.or more variable being.investigated or a deduction from a postulate (Akinade&Owolabi, 2009; Awoniyi, Aderanti&Tayo, 2011; Cherry, 2014).It can be regarded as the suggested answer to a research objective and problem. It is an idea or guess regarding how the researcher thinks the results of a study will look like. Simply put, it is a tentative assumption, supposition, guess, inference, explanation or prediction about some phenomenon that can be tested in a reasonable time frame. It is always put in declarative statement to relate the research variables to each other generally or specifically.While the hypothesis predicts what the researchers expect to see, the goal of research is to determine whether this guess is right or wrong (Cherry, 2014).

Sources of Hypotheses
Hypotheses could be derived from the following sources.(Akinade&Owolabi, 2009):
I. Directly from research variables
II. Directly from research objectives
III. Directly from research questions
IV. Directly from research designs
V. Directly from findings of other studies
VI. Review of literatures
VII. From personal or practical experience or observation and analogy
VIII. A haunch from a discrepancy, mismatch or feeling of incompatibility
IX. Logical reasoning; curiosity
X. From something that needs a solution
XI. Suggestions from students or colleagues or subject experts
XII. General culture; and
XIII. Disputation of findings in literature.

A testable hypothesis makes a statement about a presumed or theoretical relation between two or more variables (Kerlinger, 1986) – that can be observed or measured. Thus, a testable hypothesis should state or imply that the variables are observable and measurable. It should also specify the relation among the variables, e.g. higher grades are obtained after studying in the library than studying in the hall of residence.
Non-testable hypotheses may include, “abortion is wrong“, “stigmatizing ebola patient is bad”, “I seem to study better in the library than in your room” (Akinade&Owolabi, 2009, p. 19).

Characteristics of Good Hypotheses
According to Awoniyi et al (2011); Akinade and Owolabi (2009); Cherry (2014), each acceptable hypothesis should have the following features:
I) It must provide a specific and adequate answer to a problem that is limited in scope (i.e. give only one answer to a problem at a time).
II) It must be based on the research topic.
III) It must include independent and dependent variables. It should be framed in a way that the expected relationship between independent and dependent variables are clearly stated.
IV) Hypotheses should be testable and measurable.
One of the most common sources of difficulty for the student who embarks on research project is the selection of hypothesis that is not really testable.
V) It should be correctly, clearly and precisely stated.
VI) It should state expected relationships between research variables. Hypotheses should be appropriate as a basis for research.
VII) It should be limited in scope. A common error of the research student in planning research is to develop hypotheses of global significance. Students should seek hypotheses that are relatively simple to test, and yet are highly significant.
VIII) It should be consistent with most facts. Any hypothesis formulated as a basis of research must be consistent with a substantial body of established facts.
IX) The hypotheses selected should be amendable to testing within a reasonable time. Before any research is undertaken, the student should ask himself practical questions about whether he has the resources and time to undertake the investigation.
X) Hypotheses must be testable or verifiable by independent researchers using identical conditions, so as to ascertain its validity.
XI) Hypotheses should be tested without violating ethical standards.
XII) Hypotheses should be operationally defined.

Misconceptions of the Hypotheses
I)Hypotheses must always be stated in a positive mode.
II) Each study must have a number of hypotheses usually five or more, to be respectable.
III) Hypotheses must be upheld by the research data.
IV) There is usually no need to formulate hypotheses in historical studies.
V) All the aforementioned misconceptions are fallacies which must be jettisoned while carrying out a research work.

Testing of Hypotheses
The following steps should be observed when testing any research hypothesis (Awoniyi et al, 2011):
1) Formulate a null hypothesis (Ho). Hypothesis can either be accepted or rejected.
2) Set up a suitable level of significance. It means the level at which to accept or reject null hypothesis. It is conventional among researchers to accept or reject hypothesis at 0.05 or 0.01 level of significance. This implies that the researcher is allowed some margin of error in his research result. For instance 0.05 level of significance implies that the researcher allows 5% error margin and he is 95% confident of whatever result or conclusion is drawn from his study while for 0.01 level of significance the researcher allows only 1% error margin and he is 99% confident of the result or conclusion drawn from his study.
3) Select appropriate statistical techniques. There are many techniques from which a researcher can choose the most appropriate to test his hypothesis such as in the following cases:
4) When hypothesis has to do with a large sample (i.e. more than 30) and it is testing for a significant difference between two variables, the z - test implying normal distribution is used and when a sample is small (less than 30), t – test is employed.
5) When the hypothesis is started to test for relationship between two variables, the Pearson product moment correlation co-efficient is used, when there is equal distribution of subjects for non-parametric variables, the Spearman rank order correlation coefficient is used.
6) When the hypothesis is stated to test differences or relationship between two or more independent variables and one dependents variable, the analysis of variance (ANOVA) or analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) could be employed.
7) Multivariate Analysis of Covariance (MANCOVA) is used when there are two or more independent variables against two or more dependent variables.
8) Chi-square test is applied to data derived from normal scale of measurement, that is, data obtained in form of frequency counts. It is used for testing hypothesis concerning the difference between sample frequency observed within certain categories and those expected with the categories and those expected with the categories. Chi-square can only indicate whether or not a set of observed frequencies differ significantly from the corresponding set of expected frequencies.

Akinade, E.O. &Owolabi, T. (2009). Research Methods: A Pragmatic Approach for Social Sciences, Behavioural Sciences and Education. Lagos: Connel Publications.
Awoniyi, S.A., Aderanti, R.A. &Tayo, A.S. (2011). Introduction to Research Methods . Ibadan: Ababa Press.
Cherry, K. (2014). What Exactly Is a Hypothesis? Retrieved from on 22/12/2014.
Kerlinger, F.N. (1986). Behavioural Research: A Conceptual Approach. New Delhi: Sterling Publisher.



Research work could take the most unexpected twist and turn. It is a nerve-racking experience. Usually, if approached in a haphazard manner, valuable time could be lost.
In big research corporations, each researcher has a set of responsibilities and area of focus, this might help and aid timely completion of research work. However, in personal or unstructured research work, these tips on time management is life-saving. Without any bias to any form of research, these tips are generally applicable.

1. Read up! This is the first thing to do to ensure completion of research in the quickest possible timeframe. There is no end to the amount of underground pre-knowledge on any research work to be embarked upon. This will help guide in decision-making during the research.

2. Quite naturally, the first is to make a plan or strategy from the onset. This has been rehashed numerous times. But the key to the plan or strategy working out eventually is doing the right research project that you have the capacity, innate or available, to complete the research, on time! List all possible requirements; equipments and expertise, risks involved, financial commitment, raw materials, ambience et al and have them in place or at least in consideration.

3. Define the scope. This cannot be over-emphasized; researches could expand beyond the ends of the world. Before going further, a possible scope should be in mind. This should be after the underground work. The key is sticking to your guns, except in experimental research where the results could decide the next action.

4. Break actions into smaller units and understand in details each division. Place value on each division. Placing value would have to be in consonance with your supervisor's interest and guidance.

5. Prioritise the activities based on their value and happenings in the course of the research. Off all divisions, some would have a higher value, so prioritize on that.

6. Have a life cycle for each of the value. Let the tasks be accomplishable in bits. Each having a time bound. Specifically seek to accomplish them within specific milestones with reminders of the task schedule.
For example, instead of saying: 'Monday to Wednesday, project chapter one,' you could divide it in tad bits. Firstly, getting the underground data or theory; then dividing the chapter into sections; writing the first draft without editing - uninterrupted, straight from memory; then editing after writing, paragraph by paragraph; then using plagiarism checker, grammatical errors checker, spell checker et al before submitting to your supervisor for possible corrections. If there are, then finish up as required.
The break into phases like this helps you achieve specifics. If time is used up like this, it is more effective than having a larger task spread over a certain period; it might take a longer period, then messing up the initial plan or if shorter, the extra time could be spent less effectively than achieving the scheduled bit of work.

7. Put in place a support system. It could be a higher personality you report to or discuss with. This helps your psyche, as you'd have to meet expectations and/or impress, helping you tap into the deepest part of your creativity. If you attach huge importance to this, you'd likely want to sit up more to your responsibilities.

8. Being online for theory could waste time, get what you think you might need, shut yourself out and just work. When you are deficient on some part after everything, go back and fill it up. It could be very distracting to get the required while online at the same time. Social media is another leech.
It is advisable you have a working period and flexible time. On your working period, ruthlessly protect your personal time. Don't easily give in to non-relevant activities. These could distract work and extend the time to complete any phase of your research work.

9. Plan base on happenings, consider power and all other infrastructures you might require for your work. For example, as a student using the laboratory of your school, there would be times when power would be more stable or when the laboratory would be less in use, plan in that regard to avoid been stranded or waiting in turn. Optimize available time basically, depending on the situation at any point in time.

10. Seeking perfection is one of the biggest thief of time. Editing and fine-tuning on end. After a certain point, its best you declare victory and move on, especially when you exceed the time bound and  you close in on the picture in mind.



This is a common issue in the course of researching in an academic situation. The ideologies of the supervisor and the students might not always be similar.
This should however be handled with caution as a strained relationship would affect the tone of the research work, the drive of both parties, the final grade assigned to the student and the psyche of the student even. The conflict here is assumed nothing physical but any that might hinder or slow down the pace of work between both parties.

The possible causes of this conflict are numerous. A few of them include:

1) Prior knowledge: If the Supervisor has had contact with the student or heard about the students attitude or grade, this might lead to pre-formed notions about the student, even before their first appointment. Especially if the whole students were distributed randomly to different lecturers in the department for supervision. A minor slip from the student could elicit into reactions of unimaginable proportions from the supervisor. This is why students are advised to be of good attitude, as their reputation precedes them.

2) Very busy supervisor: This is another valid point that is common in our Nigerian situation.
The supervisor being always in one meeting or the other, working on one project or the other could also lead the student to developing certain issues with the supervisor as well. This could affect the student's dedication to the cause and lead to friction when the supervisor finally creates time and not deliver or meet up with the student's standard.

3) Student's attitude: This is when the student is accustomed to disappointing on projects deliverables and not turning in drafts when agreed. This could provoke the supervisor. A student's manner of speech, laziness and disobedience to rules is also included.

4) Different ideologies: This is when the supervisor is thinking in one direction and the student/researcher in another. The supervisor could be taking the research into a deeper dimension, while the student would have loved surface work. This becomes evident as the student grumbles and defies the order of the supervisor. The supervisor could be forced to develop an indifferent attitude to the plight of the student/researcher and this could be detrimental when the concerns of the student is now genuine.

5) Plagiarism: This is common with lazy students.
They look for related articles and just copy and paste as against the industry required of them by the supervisor. This would definitely take the relationship in a southward direction.

6) Inefficient supervisor: This is when the supervisor specializes in another sub-division on a department and is required to supervise a student/researcher in another. This could frustrate the student as the student would be left to do the bulk of the work on his/her own.
The supervisor would just be relegated to approvals. This might give room for a little friction.

These are some of the reasons that could result in minor confrontations, disagreements, and friction of some sort during research work between students/researchers and their supervisors. It is advised that each supervisor treats the student differently, relates with them openly with both parties working hard to achieve the common goal, which should have been well-defined form the beginning.



Project writing and presentation is a prerequisite of getting a degree by a student, either for graduate degree or postgraduate degree. You need to read widely and extensively so you can have a lot of materials, combined with what your lecturers thought you, to write a very good project. After the write-up, comes the presentation. To make a good presentation of your project, there are some rules you need to adhere to. There are some do’s and don’ts you should stick to, to make sure that your project presentation goes well. First let’s see the don’ts, the things you should not do.

Project DOs

1. To start, do prepare in advance of a presentation, don’t just wing it, as it will show badly.
2. Do write and submit your project on paper.
3. Do put your name, date and if possible the exact time you are presenting the project.
4. Do show all the information that is displayed in the sample project.
5. Do strategize your presentation on paper ahead of time, before you start creating it in PowerPoint. Summarise your story and the key slides with the key points, their objectives and key messages that you want to cover.
6. Do follow the rules of graphing stated during the lectures. If your computer program does not produce graphs with these rules, it is better to draw the graphs by hand.
7. Do send your presentation round to family and friends for comment/feedback, where appropriate before the day of your presentation. They may be able to pick up on errors/missing information or add additional info/insight to your topic. But, be careful of sending out your presentation to more people than necessary; don’t lose sight of what you are communicating!
8. Do keep your work tidy. Use a ruler and/or graph paper to draw your charts and graphs. Use a word processor or typewriter to write your analysis if needed.
9. Do present the sources of all your data giving titles, publication dates, locations, and dates you obtained the data from the internet.
10. Do organize your project presentation with the analyses of graphs being near the graphs.
11. Do make sure the descriptions and analyses you write, are clear and make sense to someone who has not taken your course at a higher level or probably has forgotten their course work.
12. Do break up your presentation with pertinent images or graphics. Though it's not everyone that needs them, however many people need to see imagery or graphical representations to understand as well as just the words on the screen as most people are better stimulated visually.

Project Presentation DON'Ts
1. First, don’t just dump all your ideas down onto PowerPoint as a stream of consciousness. Only the main points need to be on the powerpoint pages.
2. Don’t use covers, folders, notebooks or page covers for your thesis. If a standard staple won’t hold your project together, then you are doing something wrong.
3. Don’t use data from a sample project data or a sample project obtained from the internet.
3. Don’t copy the wording of a sample project word for word. Try to write what you read from the sample in your own words as your project topic may have different data and from a different situation, therefore the wordings of a sample project will most likely not apply in your situation.
4. Don’t mix up different approaches throughout your presentation, e.g. if you start out using title case in your headings keep this going throughout.
5. Don’t show your calculations. The supervisor just want to see your results. If your results look unreasonable, he will check the calculations himself.
6. Don’t assume that your audience has the same level of knowledge about your subject matter like you. This is very important when creating cascade presentations and it is important that you provide sufficient details in the lowest level of knowledge for your audience.
7. Don’t use 3D histograms or 3D bar charts if your thesis involves graphs and charts. The 3D style of charts are more difficult to interpret.
8. Don’t use computer-generated graphs if they don’t follow the graphing rules given in your lectures. If essential, you can always draw the graphs by hand.
9. Don’t create your presentation and then assume that it is unchangeable. After every presentation you do, you should think about the questions that came up and improve.


SECRET REVEALED: Discover what your project supervisor is looking for

Being a ‘regular customer’ to your project supervisor is something now common among many Nigerian final year students.
Believe it or leave it! Some students can meet their project supervisors up to 15 times before they scale through chapter one. If you are having headache convincing your supervisor to approve your chapter one or proposal, then this article is for you.

You are welcome to these our great topic of ‘Discover what your supervisor is looking for in your project work’. This first series will cover the proposal/introductory sections of your research work. As we all know, good grades do not just fall from heaven-it takes hard work and favor from God. Before you submit that seminar paper or research paper with the caption ‘submitted in partial fulfillment for the award of a degree’…. Your work must be good enough.

The first thing most project supervisors’ need from every student is their project proposal or a chapter one. This phase of a research work is the most important if you ask me. Why? Because this is the foundation in which all research designs, findings, measurement instruments will depend on. For instance your ability to link the background of the study with your problem statement will go a long way in helping you to develop good objectives and research questions to guide the entire study. So you now see why this research phase is so important?
To improve upon your project proposal or chapter one, I am going to handle each section one after the other and let you know what is required of you. Enjoy!

Depending on the school's format, the first section of a typical proposal or chapter one is introduction. Most universities and polytechnics will allow students to start with background of the study. For easy understanding, I will group them together.

The introduction/background of the study section allows readers to know a bit about the subject matter and the problem in a wider range. Here students’ ability to effectively bring out the central theme of the study is highly rewarded. Before embarking on most research work, there is usually a problem. Your ability to recount the problem in a concise and detailed manner will earn you your first mark in your introductory chapter.

For easy understanding, if you are writing on ‘the effect of ASUU strike actions on academic performance of Undergraduates in Nigerian Universities’ you should be able to recount various ASUU strike actions that has occurred in Nigeria, and implications on students’ academic performances thereafter. For the introductory part, you can start by defining ‘strike’ by one or two authors. After introducing the subject matter or variables/keywords, you start recounting the background of the problem under study.
The first recorded ASUU strike was on………..(Write more) After then the problem of poor infrastructure in Nigerian Universities now led to another disastrous……
Empirical studies recorded by some renowned Nigerian researchers have indicated that students do not study during this strike due to…….

I. Start with a little introduction on your major keywords or variables in the study.
II. Give a concise and historical background of the problem under study.
III. Reference authors and if possible bring in a little empirical study centering around identified problems for the study in the background of the study.
IV. Depending on your schools’ format, also take a little time to write on the background of the organization or area under study.
V. Do not make it too long. Ideally should not exceed two standard pages.

This is arguably the most important section of the introductory chapter of every project. Your ability to formulate a good background of the study will enable you to write a good problem statement. A problem statement is a summary of the background of the study. While the background of study talks more about the problem on a wider and detailed perspective, the problem statement is a brief summary of the problem.
A good statement of the problem must be concise, factual and relates with the background of the study. It should be brief enough to state the problem in a single line, then supported by previous research work(s) both empirical and theoretical .

In simple terms objectives of a study is like the ‘map’ for the study. Based on the problem(s) being investigated, students should be able to develop the aims for the study as well as specific objectives to be achieved. Just like the ‘SMART’ analysis,
your objectives must be specific to addressing your research problems, it must be measurable (research questions and hypothesis should be able to be formulated out of it), it must be accurate, realistic and timely.

Just like research objectives, your research questions give more insight into how the objectives of the study can be achieved.
Students must know that research questions correspond with research objectives. It must be relevant enough to provide answers to problems being investigated by the researcher. It must be good enough to achieve the objectives of the study. Your research questions should be open to answers other than ‘yes/no’.
Avoid questions beginning with ‘do does’ or ‘Are/is’. For example, do not ask research questions like ‘Does ASUU strike affects students’ academic performance?

Hypotheses are testament statements about a phenomenon. They are more like assumptions to be tested and proved.
Hypothesis formulated must be relevant to the problem under study and it should relate with both research objectives and questions of the study.

Students must justify the need for the study and how it will contribute to the society, the body of knowledge if successfully carried out.
To get good marks here, your study should be useful :
I. To Government establishments, organizations-both private and public, NGOs- How it will help the government and managers of organizations to address identified problems and be successful.
II. The Economy of your country:-Show how policies developed from the study can help improve the economy.
III. Students’ researchers-state how your work will serve as a guide or foundation for future research studies

Ability of the student to delimit the study to a manageable limit is rewarded here.
Students should explain the boundaries of the study as well as describe the aspect of the problem covered. For example, using our topic ‘the effect of ASUU strike actions on the academic performance of Undergraduates’, one can delimit it to a particular university or selected universities under study.
N/B: Scope could be managed in terms of geographical area, Time or period, research designs etc.

Ability of students to develop both conceptual and operational definitions of terms is rewarded. Students should evaluate the study carefully; define acronyms, keywords and variables in the study.

Additional marks will be added if:
I. The work is neat. Although typed, one may wonder how a work which is not hand written can be un-tidy.
II. How you arrange diagrams, headings, sub-headings, upper/lower case contribute to making your work neat.
III. Spellings and grammar are correct.
IV. The work is fully referenced with accepted referencing style.



welcome to our glamorous topic which is the second series of our planned for series on the theme ‘Secret Revealed: Discover what your supervisor is looking for and how your project is graded’. Without a doubt undoubtedly, the first series which covered the proposal and introductory chapter of a research project was a great read.
This second series will reveal to you our awesome reader what supervisors’ look out for in your literature review. So, as usual enjoy!

1. Introduction
2. Theoretical Framework
3. Conceptual Review
4. Empirical Review
5. Summary of Chapter.
N/B: The arrangement may vary considering different formats of some tertiary institutions.
But for a well written review of related literature, these components are needed. so keep enjoying the fun.

1) Introduction:-
A brief introduction in your literature review will enable readers know what the chapter is all about. Not just that, it will also earn you good points. The introduction in the literature review section should be concise and it should spell out or highlight items to be discussed.
Ideally, it should not exceed a standard page.
‘’This chapter gives an insight into various studies conducted by outstanding researchers, as well as explained terminologies with regards to the Challenges of Income Taxation in Ghana.
The chapter also gives a resume of the history and present status of the problem delineated by a concise review of previous studies into closely related problems.’’

2) Theoretical Framework:-
This section of literature review is very important and should be included in order to earn good marks in your research project. To ace your research project, you must do some research to develop relevant contents here.
Students are expected to capture theories related to their study. These theories will later form the basis in which you study is based on.
For easy understanding, if a student is writing on the effect of motivation on employee productivity; the Abraham Maslow’s Theory of motivation, Expectancy theory, Herzberg two factor theory etc., should come to mind.

3) Conceptual Framework:-
Another necessary aspect of the Literature Review is the conceptual framework or review.
The conceptual framework covers all terminologies associated with the variables in the research. At a higher level (especially at the Masters and PhD levels), conceptual framework comes in form of a diagram or a figure showing how various variables interplay in the achievement of the research objectives or constructed ideas to solve an identified research problem.
As revealed above, a conceptual framework should define each variable present in the research.
For example, using our topic ‘effects of motivation on employee productivity: two key- words stand out:
Motivation Independent variable
Employee productivity Dependent variables.
Picking out the independent variable (motivation), a good conceptual framework will encompass subject in form of sub-headings such as:
I. Types of motivation
II. Forms of motivation
III. Factors of motivation
IV. Problems of Motivating Employees in an organization etc.
Same should follow for the dependent variables.

4) Empirical Review:-
What has others done concerning your study?
What studies already conducted relate to your work?
Ever been asked these questions? Yes!…this is where you write your answers.
The empirical review section is basically where you bring into light previous research studies conducted on your field of research or studies.
It could be a related study or exact previous study on your research area.
Using our topic mentioned earlier, the empirical review will encompass the findings and recommendations on the effects of motivation on employee productivity probably in China, Germany, Ikeja, Agege, Uyo, Oshogbo, Hong Kong etc. Here you bring in a bit of empirical evidence, properly documenting the researcher (s), year, location, sample size, finding as well as recommendations.
‘’Recent research has examined the motivational effects of redesigning jobs to connect employees to their impact on the beneficiaries of their work-the clients, customers, patients, and other end users who are affected by their efforts (Grant, 2007).
Organization scholars also used self determination theory to explain the motivation effects of transformational values leadership to inspire employees, model important values, and provide and judge (2003) conducted a field study and a laboratory experiment showing that transformational leaders encourage employees to set austomous and higher performance.
Interestingly, their field study suggested that transformational leadership was associated positively with antonymous motivation but had no relationship with controlled motivation, while their lab experiment indicated that transformational leadership reduced controlled motivation more strongly than it increased antonymous motivation.’’

5) Summary of chapter:-
This section showcases your opinion on various related literatures reviewed in the chapter. This is where you are at liberty to state gaps identified in the research, your opinion on empirical and theoretical facts established, as well as where your study fits in the theoretical framework.


1. For conceptual framework, students can get good information from textbooks; research journals and the Internet (e.g. search engines like and bing, useful research site like

2. For empirical review and theoretical framework, it is imperative to read research journals. Published research journal will provide a solid foundation to source for authentic facts that relates to your study. The methodology, findings and recommendation section of a research journal will enable the student to develop empirical facts for his/her study.

Examples of research journal sites are:

Bonus marks
I. Literature reviewed must be related or related to the variables present in the research.
II. References must not be too old, ideally references should not be beyond a decade (i.e. beyond 2006)
III. All headings, diagrams and tables should be neatly arranged.
IV. Journal, text books, magazines, etc used in developing contents for the literature review should be related to your study Copy and paste from the journal published, textbook, internet, etc must be minimized.

Primary data and secondary data are two types of data, each with pros and cons, each requiring different kinds of skills, resources.
What does each and every research project need to get results? Data or information – to help answer questions, understand a specific issue or test a hypothesis.
Researchers in the health and social sciences can obtain their data by getting it directly from the subjects they’re interested in. This data they collect is called primary data. Another type of data that may help researchers is the data that has already been gathered by someone else. This is called secondary data.
What are the advantages of using these two types of data? Which tends to take longer to process and which is more expensive? This column will help to explain the differences between primary and secondary data.

(1)Primary data
An advantage of using primary data is that researchers are collecting information for the specific purposes of their study. In essence, the questions the researchers ask are tailored to elicit the data that will help them with their study. Researchers collect the data themselves, using surveys, interviews and direct observations.
In the field of workplace health research, for example, direct observations may involve a researcher watching people at work. The researcher could count and code the number of times she sees practices or behaviors relevant to her interest–e.g. instances of improper lifting posture or the number of hostile or disrespectful interactions workers engage in with clients and customers over a period of time.
To take another example, let’s say a research team wants to find out about workers’ experiences in return to work after a work-related injury. Part of the research may involve interviewing workers by telephone about how long they were off work and about their experiences with the return-to-work process. The workers’ answers–considered primary data–will provide the researchers with specific information about the return-to-work process; e.g. they may learn about the frequency of work accommodation offers, and the reasons some workers refused such offers.

(2)Secondary data
There are several types of secondary data. They can include information from the national population census and other government information collected by Statistics Nigeria. One type of secondary data that’s used increasingly is administrative data. This term refers to data that is collected routinely as part of the day-to-day operations of an organization, institution or agency.
There are many number of examples: motor vehicle registrations, hospital intake and discharge records, workers’ compensation claims records, and more.
Compared to primary data, secondary data tends to be readily available and inexpensive to obtain. In addition, administrative data tends to have large samples, because the data collection is comprehensive and routine. What’s more, administrative data (and many types of secondary data) are collected over a long period. That allows researchers to detect change over time.
Going back to the return-to-work study mentioned above, the researchers could also examine secondary data in addition to the information provided by their primary data (i.e. survey results). They could look at workers’ compensation lost- time claims data to determine the amount of time workers were receiving wage replacement benefits. With a combination of these two data sources, the researchers may be able to determine which factors predict a shorter work absence among injured workers.
This information could then help improve return to work for other injured workers.
The type of data researchers choose can depend on many things including the research question, their budget, their skills and available resources. Based on these and other factors, they may choose to use primary data, secondary data–or both.



Research can simply be described as a diligent and scientific inquiry or investigation into a subject or problem in order to come up with the latest discoveries so as to resolve an identified societal problem. In any field of knowledge, research is very important as it enables the researcher to discover new ground to cover in meeting human needs and thereby makes society worth living.

Research is the bedrock of any serious minded scholar which he/she has to carry out in order to salvage a decaying economy of a nation and also sustain development for his country. Adeniyi; Oyekanmi and Tijani (2011:49) posit research as “generally based on scientific inquiry in which available facts are closely examined or investigated” by a researcher. In making scientific enquiry and come up with a fact in which to base any meaningful research, it is pertinent to note that a researcher has to consult some educational resources and contact some group of people in order to ascertain the validity of his or research work. That group of individuals or respondents or elements or observable materials that a researcher has to contact is known as population of the study. Population in this sense, according to Adeniyi et al (2011) represents all conceivable elements, subjects or observations relating to a particular area of interest to the researcher.

However, it is quite not really possible for a researcher to make use of the entire large population for his study; this could be as a result of limited financial resources of the researcher, too large area to cover which may not be easily covered by the researcher or it could be as a result limited period allocated for such study.
Hence, there is need to draw out some fraction known as sample size out of the entire population which can be easily managed by the researcher. Basically, Popoola (2011) posits that the major components of research methodology especially in Library and Information science or in any research work include: research design; the population of study; sampling procedure and sample size; research instrument(s); validity and reliability of the research instrument(s) and methods of data analysis.

Nevertheless in this morrow, we shall be dealing with how to choose the best sampling technique and sample size for a study. It shall lay more emphasis on population of the study, also educate our readers on how to choose a sample technique and sample size for any study they are presently undergoing or intend to carry out in future.

Population of study:
Population of study for any research work has been variously defined by different scholars and their definitions pointed toward the same direction. Avwokeni (2006:92) refers to population of study as the “ set of all participants that qualify for a study” while Akinade and Owolabi (2009 :72) defined population as “ the total set of observations from which a sample is drawn ”; Adeniyi et al (2011:49) see it as the “total number of large habitations of people in one geographical area, for example, the population of a country” ; besides, Popoola (2011:2) defines population as the “totality of the items or objects under the universe of study. It often connotes all the members of the target of the study as defined by the aims and objectives of the study” . We concur with the definitions of the above scholars.

But we conceptualize population to mean the whole body of items, objects, materials or people that fall within the geographical location in which a researcher intends to investigate for his study. That is the whole participants of a study. The constituents of population have certain attributes in common; the number may be large or small. What should a researcher do if the population is large or small?
However, as earlier pointed out in this paper, it is quite impossible for a researcher to study the entire population due to some reasons. In objecting this view, Popoola (2011:2) points out some reasons under which a researcher may study the entire population, these include:
I. When the size of the population is small.
II. When there is no time constraint in carrying out the study. That is if there is enough time for the researcher to carry out his study.
III. When the resources (human, money and materials) available for the study are adequate.
IV. When the sole objective of the study is to take census of the elements in the population.

Types of Population:
According to Akinade and Owolabi (2009:73) and Adedokun (2003:43-44) population of a study can be classified to include:
1) Listed population:- All the elements or subjects are known and can be identified by name or number e.g. students who registered for a particular course or all employees in an organization.
2) Homogeneous population:- Population that consists of discrete elements that have common property with very little variation such as same age, sex, level of education and rank in a job, or people of the same skin colour (black or white).
3) Heterogeneous population:- Here the population consists of different categories of participants or elements that have uncommon characteristics e.g. children in all classes in a school or all categories of workers in an organization (lecturers, accountants, clerks, secretaries, managers, directors and artisans). This type is further subdivided into:
1. Unlisted population
2. Group population
3. Scattered Population
4. Clustered Population
5. Target population
6. Accessible population

1. Unlisted population: This is a very large and nebulous type. The elements cannot all be identified by names or numbers e.g. all the men or women in a country.
2. Group population: This is a structured and listed population e.g. students offering a course of study may be classified into male and female; local and foreign; single or combined honour students; workers (junior, senior) management and supervisory staff.
3. Scattered population: Population of listed members who are found in different geographical locations e.g. members of Nigerian Library Association or lecturers of private universities of a country or lawyers in a country.
4. Clustered population: Population of unlisted individuals who are known to exist together in different locations e.g. Nigerian footballers in European and Asian countries.
5. Target population: This consists of all members of a group of under the investigation to which the result of the investigation can be applied. They are population of interest (e.g. university students) but all of whom are not of interest to the researcher.
6. Accessible population: This refers to the members of a target population, which are within the reach of the researcher, work with and obtain their sample for his study.
Furthermore, it is pertinent to note that characteristics of a population of scores are called parameters and characteristics of a sample of scores from a larger population are statistics. The mean of an entire population of scores is a parameter and the mean of a sample is a statistics (Akinade & Owolabi, 2009). However, when the population is relatively too large to be covered within the period allocated for the study and also with the limited human and material (fund) resources of the researcher, it is necessary for the researcher to take sample size from the entire population for the study.

Sample and Sample Size
A sample is a manageable section of a population but elements of which have common characteristics. Also, it refers to any portion of a population selected for the study and on whom information needed for the study is obtained ( Awoniyi; Aderanti & Tayo, 2011; Akinade & Owolabi, 2009; Adedokun, 2003). It is the elements making up the sample that are actually studied and generalizations or inferences about the population are made. This generalization of result based on the sample to the population is the major purpose of sampling and also a major concern in any scientific investigation. It can be reemphasized here that, to study the entire population may be cumbersome, time consuming and of course very costly, hence, a sample takes a fair portion as representative of the entire population. In statistical analysis, population of the study is being denoted with ‘N ’ while sample size is denoted with ‘ n’
Sample size is the number of elements that can be selected for a research. This number varies from one study to another.
In homogenous population (where there is little variation) requires a small size.
Experimental studies tend to use relatively small sample size. But for heterogeneous population (where there is a wider variation) requires a larger sample size.
This is common in survey research as in education and behavioral sciences (Akinade & Owolabi, 2009).

Types of Samples
The following types of samples are adopted from Akinade & Owolabi (2009: 74), they include:
Sample and Sample Size
A sample is a manageable section of a population but elements of which have common characteristics. Also, it refers to any portion of a population selected for the study and on whom information needed for the study is obtained ( Awoniyi; Aderanti & Tayo, 2011; Akinade & Owolabi, 2009; Adedokun, 2003). It is the elements making up the sample that are actually studied and generalizations or inferences about the population are made. This generalization of result based on the sample to the population is the major purpose of sampling and also a major concern in any scientific investigation. It can be reemphasized here that, to study the entire population may be cumbersome, time consuming and of course very costly, hence, a sample takes a fair portion as representative of the entire population. In statistical analysis, population of the study is being denoted with ‘N ’ while sample size is denoted with ‘ n’
Sample size is the number of elements that can be selected for a research. This number varies from one study to another.
In homogenous population (where there is little variation) requires a small size.
Experimental studies tend to use relatively small sample size. But for heterogeneous population (where there is a wider variation) requires a larger sample size.
This is common in survey research as in education and behavioural sciences (Akinade & Owolabi, 2009).

Types of Samples
The following types of samples are adopted from Akinade & Owolabi (2009: 74), they include:
1. Random Sample: Is one in which all the elements have equal chances of being selected for a study. It is the basis of most of the other types of samples. For example, all the male students in a classroom.
2. Subjective Sample: This refers to a subset of an accessible population. It is deliberately or purposefully chosen. On the basis of researcher’s predetermined intention, selecting experimental subjects this way is open to bias. For instance, if a researcher wants to find out the reading habits of students in a university and uses the students he/she teaches. This sample is not representative of all the students in the university not to talk of the world. It is a sample that is neither random nor representative. It is a sample that the researcher has allowed his/her preferences to influence his choice of items to be selected for the study. It may not be a captive sample. However, generalization cannot be made from the results. Captive samples and biased samples are good for quick collection of data from the respondents.
3. Captive Sample: It is a sample obtained from a captive population such as students in a classroom or workers in an industry, patients in a psychiatric hospital ward.
The elements have no population and so one cannot generate finding from it. It is not used in serious research. It may be useful for pilot study or where a researcher wants a quick result before commencing the actual study.

Purpose of Sampling
Basically, sampling is done to ensure that there is no bias or subjectivity in the selection process. It also helps the researcher to work with reasonable size of elements since it is difficult to do so with the entire population. It thus saves time spent on each research and also reduces cost of research operations (Akinboye & Akinboye, 1998 in Akinade & Owolabi, 2009).
However, according to Adeniyi et al (2011: 50) other reasons for sampling include:
I. In a large population, there could be some similarities and uniformities along the line of research investigation, drawing up a sample along these similarities will give a general result for the whole population.
II. It makes the researcher more thorough and affords more time for better study.
III. Sampling makes data analysis easier and more skillful with qualitative results.
IV. Since sampling enables us to deal with a part of the population, it is obviously cheaper to study a sample rather than the entire population.
V. It enables us to obtain quicker results than covering an entire population with its attendant problems.
VI. At times, it is practically impossible to take a complete and comprehensive study of the population because of the nature and pattern of distribution or dispersion of the population elements.
VII. For research study involving practical enumeration of subjects, sampling is the only best option to achieve it.
VIII. Sampling helps the researcher to guard against incomplete and inaccurate instruments such as questionnaires.
IX. Sampling makes it possible to study infinite population.

Nevertheless, limitations of sampling include the following. Some samples may be too small or heterogeneous to collect a representative sample. In some cases, the researcher may not be equipped with sufficient knowledge of diverse or relevant sampling methods in that case there may be bias (Akinade & Owolabi, 2009: 75).

Sampling Techniques
Sampling techniques can be classified into two main groups, namely: probability and non-probability sampling.
1) Probability Sampling Technique:-
Here all the items/units in a population have equal chance of being selected as sample for a study. The advantages of this method of sampling is that it only when the items have been selected with known probabilities that one is able to evaluate the precision of the sampling result (Popoola, 2011; Adeniyi et al, 2011). The examples include:
I. Simple Random sampling
II. Systematic sampling
III. Stratified sampling
IV. Cluster/Area sampling, and Double sampling.
Each of the listed probability sampling techniques shall be discussed in turn:
I) Simple Random Sampling:-
In simple random sampling, every member of the population has equal chance of being selected for a study. It is a method that gives each member of the population non-zero probability of being selected. This type of sampling technique is used when the population has similar characteristics (homogeneous population), the sampling frame is available and the population size is determinate or finite. To ensure a random sample, the selection of samples may be done through balloting, table of random numbers and computer simulation. In most cases, the sampling is done without replacement (Popoola, 2011).
II) Systematic Sampling:-
This involves the selection of every nth subject or item from serially listed population subjects or units. Where n is any number determined from the population. For example, obtaining a systematic sample of 100 from a population of 800. The will be as follows:
I. Number the items serially up to 800.
II. Divide 800 by 100 i.e. N/n = 800/100 = 8
III. Randomly select a starting point, say number ‘8’ of the population list.
IV. Then select every 8th unit after the first. The list will include the following: 8th, 16th, 24th, 32nd, 40th, 48th, 56th, 64th, 72nd etc. on the population list (Adeniyi et al, 2011).
III) Stratified Random Sampling:-
This is a method in which the heterogeneous population is first stratified by dividing it into a set of mutually exclusive or non-overlapping sub-populations or strata, and thereafter random samples are then selected from each stratum for detailed study (Popoola, 2011). It must be noted that the stratified random sampling may involve stratifying the respondents into infected and uninfected; males and females; old and young; residents and non-residents; employed and unemployed; literates and illiterates; rich and poor. The author reiterates that four basic methods could be employed to determine the sample size per stratum or total sample size for all the strata. These include probability proportionate to size (PPS), optimum allocation, Neyman allocation and equal allocation.
IV) Cluster/Area sampling:-
This type of sampling technique is similar to stratified random sampling that had been discussed in this paper.
Cluster or area sampling is otherwise known as multistage sampling in that the population is subdivided into units and a random sampling of smaller units; that is, it is a population that exists in clusters over a geographical area. The selection of individual cases in the group may also employ simple random technique (Awoniyi et al, 2011). This method is used when the population is very large and covers a large geographical area. For example a country can be divided into regions or states which constitute sampling units called clusters.
V) Double sampling:-
A double sampling method is a sampling design in which some information is gathered from the whole sample and additional information is either at the same time or later collected from sub- samples of the full sample. With only one sub-sample, the technique is called two- phase sampling or double sampling (Popoola, 2011:8).

2) Non-probability Sampling Technique :-
Here the elements or items of the population to be studied have no equal chance to be selected for the study. Rather, randomness if it occurs is by mere chance. Examples of this sampling technique include:
I. Quota sampling;
II. Purposive sampling;
III. Accident/Availability sampling;
IV. Convenience sampling;
V. Snowball sampling; and
VI. Event sampling.

Each example of the non-probability sampling techniques listed above shall be briefly discussed in this write up:

I) Quota sampling:-
Quota sampling method is a subjective method of selecting samples from a population of study. It is always difficult to determine the probability of drawing samples from a study population. Also, quota sampling is the type of sampling scheme in which deliberate control factor is used to draw samples from a study population on the assumption that the chosen samples have similar characteristics with the sampling population (Popoola, 2011; Hammed & Popoola, 2006).
II) Purposive/Judgmental sampling:-
This is otherwise called judgmental sampling. Judgmental sampling is a non- probability sampling technique where the researcher selects units to be sampled based on their knowledge and professional judgment. It is a sampling procedure that is characterized by a deliberate effort to obtain representative samples from a study population ( , 2009).
Purposive sampling is used in cases where the specialty of an authority can select a more representative sample that can bring more accurate results than by using other probability sampling techniques. The process involves nothing but purposely handpicking individuals from the population based on the authorities or the researcher's knowledge and judgment. For example, in a study wherein a researcher wants to know what it takes to graduate summa cum laude in college, the only people who can give the researcher first hand advise are the individuals who graduated summa cum laude. With this very specific and very limited pool of individuals that can be considered as a subject, the researcher must use judgmental sampling ( , 2009). However, two major drawbacks of this method are that of reliability and the bias that accompanies the sampling technique.
III) Accident/Availability sampling:-
It is a sampling procedure whereby a researcher selects available samples without any scientific bases. This type of sampling procedure must be avoided when conducting a research in any research activity.
IV) Convenience sampling:-
A convenience sample is simply one where the units that are selected for inclusion in the sample are the easiest to access. This is in stark contrast to probability sampling techniques, where the selection of units is made randomly. For example in a population of 10,000 university students; where the researcher is only interested in achieving a sample size of 100 students who would take part in his research. As such, he would continue to invite students to take part in the research until his sample size is reached. Since the aim of convenience sampling is easy access, he may simply choose to stand at the main entrance to campus of the University where it would be easy to invite the many students that pass by to take part in the research (Lund Research, 2012).
Moreover, the merits of convenience sampling method include: it is very easy to carry out with few rules governing how the sample should be collected; relative cost and time required to carry out a convenience sample are small in comparison to probability sampling techniques and the convenience sample may help the researcher in gathering useful data and information that would not have been possible using probability sampling techniques, which require more formal access to lists of populations.
However, the convenience sampling technique has the following limitations: it often suffers from biases from a number of biases. This can be seen in the example aforementioned and since the sampling frame is not know, and the sample is not chosen at random, the inherent bias in convenience sampling means that the sample is unlikely to be representative of the population being studied. This undermines researcher’s ability to make generalizations from his sample to the population he is studying (Lund Research,2012).
V) Snowball sampling:-
This has to do with a situation when a researcher builds up a sample for his study through information from other people. He starts with one person who then suggests another people and so on until the researcher gets enough sample size for his study.
VI) Event sampling:-
According to Awoniyi et al (2011), it involves a situation when a researcher uses the opportunity presented by a particular event to gather information (sample) for his study. For example if a researcher is investigating the perceptions of Nigerian people towards 2014 FIFA world cup tournament, he can get his sample size from the football fans during the ongoing world cup event.

Thus far in this paper, we’ve tried to do justice to population and various types of sampling techniques that can be used in any research activity. However, researchers are not restricted only to what we’ve presented, the choice of which sampling technique to use depends solely on the researcher and the investigation he intends to carry out. Therefore, conducting a scientific investigation in any human endeavor is a peculiar task globally; hence, the accepted process must be taken in order to come up with a valid result.

Adedokun, J.A. (2003). Basics of Research Methodology. Sagamu: New Hope Publisher.
Adeniyi, A.L.; Oyekanmi, A.O. & Tijani, M.O. (2011). Essentials of Business Research Methods. Lagos: CSS Bookshops Limited.
Akinade, E.A. & Owolabi, T. (2009). Research Methods: A Pragmatic Approach for Social Sciences, Behavioural Sciences and Education. Lagos: Connel Publications.
Avwokeni, J.A. (2006). Research Methods: Process, Evaluation & Critique. Portharcourt: Unicampus Tutorial Services.
Awoniyi, S.A.; Aderanti, R.A. & Tayo, A.S. (2011). Introduction to Research Methods. Ibadan: Ababa Press Ltd. (2009). Judgmental Sampling. Retrieved from on Jun 27, 2014.
Hammed, A. & Popoola, S.O. (2006). Selection of Sample and Sampling Technique: In G.O. Alegbeleye; I. Mabawonku & M. Fabunmi (ed). Research in Education. Ibadan: Faculty of Education, University of Ibadan: 138–154.
Lund Research (2012). Convenience sampling. Retrieved from on 27/06/14.
Popoola, S.O. (2011, September). Research Methodologies in Library and Information Science. A paper presented at a training workshop on building research capacity for Library and Information Science professionals. Organized by the Nigerian Library Association, Ogun State Chapter, held at Covenant University, Ota, Nigeria on 18th – 22nd September, 2011.


NOTE! Its Taro Yamane NOT Yaro Yamane!

Do you ever used a popular formula to determine your sample size? Ya! thats the dude am talking about.-The great mathematician and statistician combined. If you have done a research project or currently conducting one, you will definitely come across this great statistician called Taro Yamane.
If you are also a good observer, you will observe that his name is often 'abused' by numerous scholars. I mean i have read numerous research journals and articles where he is being referenced as 'Yaro Yamane'. Now let me shock you a bit. Its actually Taro not Yaro. So if you referenced him as Yaro Yamane in your previous research, then you referenced the wrong man. If you are currently conducting a research study please take note. It written at the back of his cover pages of some of his books to fully convince you. Try use the internet to confirm on his cover book that he wrote.



Measurement instrument refers to various methods through which a researcher obtains data from respondents for his research work. The term data refers to all forms of information that researchers obtain from the participant of the study.
Adedokun (2003:57) asserts that data refers “to any fact, observation or facts relating to the subject of the study”. There are different types of measurement instruments that can be used by researchers for their studies; it depends on the nature of research that is to be carried out. In this write up, we shall discuss various measurement instruments that can be used alongside with studies that are suitable for them.
However, the collection of data is an important part of any research activity.
This is because; the conclusions of the study are based on what the data reveals.
Hence, no researcher is greater than his data. Basically, data can be obtained from two major sources; primary and secondary sources. 

Primary Data: It represents the information gathered by the researcher through the use of questionnaire or personal interview or observation method;

while in Secondary Data: the researcher collects information that has already been obtained and processed by government departments or various agencies before it is made available for other interested users. These are published and unpublished sources e.g. journals, textbooks, newspapers, magazines, fliers, annual reports, bulletins, periodicals etc.
As a result, the kind of data to be collected, the method of collection to be used, and the scoring of the data must be considered when undertaken any research activity.

Types of Data to be Collected
According to Aina, 2004; Adedokun, 2003; Avwokeni, 2006; Adeniyi; Oyekanmi and Tijani, 2011. Researchers can collect the following types of data from respondents:

I.  Demographic information or data e.g. age, sex, gender, educational background, ethnicity, religion, etc.
II. Test scores.
III. Events.
IV. Responses to researchers questions in an interview or written replies to a survey question
V. Grade point averages obtainable from school records
VI. Essay written by students e.g. projects, theses and dissertations.
VII. Anecdotal records kept by teachers or counselors or researchers.

In fact, the list of data to be collected is not limited to the one listed above. For this reason, it is important for every researcher to decide on what kind(s) of data he intends to collect and by what method to collect it. Those methods that researchers use in collecting his desired data are known as research or measurement instrument.

Data Collection Instruments
These are instruments that are used to collect data from participants of the study.
They are important for collecting data in all types of research methods. They are mainly used by researchers to collect reliable data which will later be analyzed (Aina, 2004). They include questionnaire, interviews, observations, focus group discussion and experiment. Each of the instruments shall be discussed in turn and also point out their merits and demerits.

1) Questionnaire:-
The questionnaire is the commonly used instrument for collecting research data from the participants of a study. “It basically seeks the opinions of individuals in a sample or a population on issues directly related to the objectives of the research study” (Aina, 2004:348). The questionnaire consists of a set of structured and unstructured questions designed by researchers to obtain data from the respondents. No research is better than its questionnaire and a faulty questionnaire means faulty research.
Hence, a questionnaire designed must be valid, reliable and must not be bogus so that the data collected can validate the research. Questionnaire has many advantages which include anonymity of the respondents is guaranteed; it facilitates the collection of large amounts of data in a relatively short period and it is cheap to administer. The major demerit of the method is that some confusing and misleading questions cannot be clarified as the researcher may not be there to explain the questions, and also, sometimes, the questions may not be easily comprehensible to individuals who are illiterate, thus, the method is restricted only to educated respondents.

Moreover, the characteristics of a good questionnaire according to Popoola (2011) consist of:
I. Questions should not be ambiguous:- This implies that it must be capable of only one interpretation.
II. Questions must be easily understood:- Questions should be capable of having a precise answer.
III. Questions must not contain words of vague meaning.
IV. Questions should not require rigorous calculations.
V. Questions should not require the respondent to decide upon classification.
VI. Questions must not be in such a form that the answers will be biased.
VII. The questionnaire should not be too long.
VIII. It should not be too wordy.
IX. The questionnaire should cover the exact object of the inquiry.

2) Interview:-
Interview is a measurement instrument otherwise known as oral questionnaire. It involves a process where a researcher solicits information from respondents through verbal interaction. A researcher would have previously prepared a schedule list of structured questions pertinent to the study before meeting respondents for their opinions on a subject matter. The researcher poses questions to the respondents and the answers are recorded by the researcher. Materials that could be used during interview period include tape recorder, paper and biro. The major advantage of this method is that it produces high response rate. Besides, it tends to be representative of the entire population of the study, and personal contact between the researcher and respondents enables the researcher to explain confusing and ambiguous questions in detail (Aina, 2004; Popoola, 2011). However, its disadvantages include interviewer’s bias; inaccessibility to wealthy respondents due to fear of insecurity and the amount of data that can be collected through this method is usually limited compare to questionnaire method. Interview can be conducted personally or through telephone or electronic mailing system.

3) Observation:-
This is an instrument that is employed by a researcher in which an individual behavior or situation is observed and recorded. There are two types of observation: participant observation and non-participant observation. In participant observation, the researcher is a member of the group to be observed. Here, accurate and timely result would be obtained by the researcher but it has the problem of biasness. Non-participant observation on the other hand, the researcher is not a member of the group to be observed. Here, the result will be viable as it is free from being biased but it has the problem of inaccuracy and delayed result. Both observation methods enhance first hand information, flexible and cheaper to carryout, demand less active cooperation of the observed and their results are reliable for research activity.
However, Akinade & Owolabi (2009) assert that observation method is popular tool in research especially in behavioral and social sciences; the authors argue that it requires special skills to make and assess behavioral observation in research. In carrying out behavioral observation, first thing to do is to develop behavioral categories (coding scheme). This involves identifying specific attributes that will give clues to the problem at hand. The authors further reiterated that researchers may observe the following guidelines when developing observation method:
I. “Clearly define the goal of the instrument;
II. Carry out preliminary observations of your subjects under the conditions that will prevail in the course of the study with the aim of identifying behaviors exhibited by the subjects; III. and Construct a complete list of the identified behavior. Also, behavioral categories can also be developed through literature search. These will provide opportunity to determine whether a similar study had previously been conducted. The result of such similar study may be adopted or adapted in the present study” (Akinade & Owolabi, 2009:97).

4) Focus Group Discussion:-
This data collection instrument refers to a process whereby researchers obtain data from large group of people at the same time. This method is different from interview method; in an interview method, researcher focuses on one person at a time but in a focus group discussion method, the researcher obtains data from large number (group) of people for his research activity. Focus group discussion method is very popular when carrying out research in the field of behavioral science, library and information science, archival science, records and information technology. It could be noted here that a need may arise for a researcher to use more than 2 or 3 approaches to obtain data for his research activity. This depends on the supervisor, nature of the research or problem to be investigated.
However, in focus group discussion; a researcher identifies key informants that may be contacted to elicit the deserved information on the variable(s) of interest in a study. It is very important to note that in evaluator study or when accessing the performance of a system or a project or when working at a policy and its impact on a particular operation in a society or organization; focus group discussion method could employed. The approach is used to generate qualitative data in explaining a phenomenon under study or investigation. Membership of the focus group discussion should not exceed 10 members at a time. It is like a mini conference where members of a group could be assembled in a conducive location. Before now, it is needful for the researcher to have obtained their consent to take part in the study.
 Besides, the researcher must design a focus group discussion guide. The guide
must contain outlines that capture variables of interest in the study. For example, in a study like: “Customers’ satisfaction with information services or products of Babcock university library”. 

The following guidelines may be prepared by the researcher:

I. Nature of the library services;
II. Nature of the products;
III. Level of satisfaction of the users;
IV. Quality of the users, etc.
The following materials are needed for this method of data collection:
I. Research assistants;
II. Video recorder and cassette;
III. Biro and paper;
IV. Tape recorder and cassette, and
V. Light refreshment to entertain the participants.
After the focus group discussion exercise, the researcher has to transcribe the data into qualitative information e.g. on the nature of reference services available in the library; in a group where 10 members are involved, if 7 members affirmed that they are having good reference services in their library while the rest members’ response are negative. Then it can be calculated/quantify as: 7/10 *100 = 70%; this is the figure that the researcher will report in his work. Moreover, the major advantage of this method is that it added credibility and originality to the research activity while it challenges include: too cost to carry out, it takes too much of time to conduct and some of the respondents may not be free to contribute extensively especially if their boss is invited to such gathering.

5) Experiment:-
This type of data collection instrument takes place in pure and applied science research. Here the researchers carry out some experiments in the laboratory setting in order to test some reactions that may take place in the object of research. The advantages of this method is that it produces immediate result, its results are viable and error free if it is well carry out under normal condition/circumstances. While, its problems include: it is too costly to undertake and those chemicals used may cause permanent damage to the researcher if they are carelessly handled.

Table1: Classification of Research Based on Data Collection Instruments...

Questionnaire, interview and observation.
Questionnaire, focus group discussion, interview, and observation.
 Case Study
Questionnaire, interview, focus group discussion and observation.
e.g. correlation
Observation, Questionnaire, research Focus group discussion, and interview.
Observation, focus group discussion, and interview.
Focus group discussion, interview and observation.
Pure science
Experiment and observation.
Questionnaire and interview.
Questionnaire, observarion, focus group discussion, interview and experiment in case of pure science research.
Questionnaire, observation and interview.
Source: Japheth Yaya, 18th June, 2014.

It could be re-emphasized here that researchers are not restricted only to different methods of data collection instruments and their classification as presented in this paper but the choice of which method to apply depends on the researcher, nature or problem to be investigated and prevailing circumstances at the time of carrying out the study. Thus, researchers are free to use any method they deem fit for their research.

Adedokun, J.A. (2003). Basics of Research Methodology. Sagamu: New Hope Publisher.
Adeniyi, A.L.; Oyekanmi, A.O. & Tijani, M.O. (2011). Essentials of Business Research Methods. Lagos: CSS Bookshops Limited.
Aina, L.O. (2004). Library and Information Science Text for Africa.
Ibadan: Third World Services Limited.
Akinade, E.A. & Owolabi, T. (2009).
Research Methods: A Pragmatic Approach for Social Sciences, Behavioural Sciences and Education. Lagos: Connel Publications.
Avwokeni, J.A. (2006). Research Methods: Process, Evaluation & Critique.



During or after research, there is usually a need to analyze; to present the information gotten in a presentable and easily understood format.
There are numerous packages or softwares that could be used to achieve this.
The choice of the method to use in the analysis depends on the function to be achieved.
However, even for the same.function, there are multiple means of analysing data, hence, certain things should be noted.
The method might be based on the popularity of the option in your environ. It might be based also on what you were taught with in school. It might be specially required for the kind of work you are doing. Possible options are discussed below. All options have their pros and cons.

This is a common medium. part of the Microsoft Office packages. Aside MS word, it is.easily the most used MS office.package, before PowerPoint.
The major advantage is that it is easy to use. It is cheap to.install and readily available.
You rarely get stuck in its use due to its widespread popularity. It is used for general analysis: regression, scatter plots, graphs and various charts, various functions, visual presentation of tables et al. Wide applications in the business area as well. It is not programming -oriented, rather it is analytical. However, it is belittled in advanced research and difficult as well as slow for large data . Seen as elementary.

SPSS and strata
This is common in science. They are specific for analysis and can do better in that regard. There is a possibility.of merging datasets together as well. The various sheets in excel can be exported and merged elsewhere.
Statisticians and some social scientists use it as well. Stata is easier and cheaper to use than SPSS. SPSS would most likely be preferred of the two. They are both analytical tools, they don't require programming skills. Excellent for ANOVA analysis, t and chi square analysis, multiple regression analysis etc.

Full meaning: Matrix laboratory. This is common in engineering and scientific communities. It has good matrix support but lesser statistical analysis support. It is expensive and requires programming capabilities. Great for developing mathematical algorithms.
These are the few i have experience in. There are several others available.
MatCAD is another powerful tool with lots of engineering applications.

This is another stat tool like SPSS though with very poor reviews due to its limits and use. Its distinctive quality is its large dataset. The range is in GB and might not be fitted at once.
The learning curve is pretty high as well. Then there's R, Scipy, PolyMath and the others.
Whichever option is chosen for analysis, consideration of the intended function, limits and alternatives is critical as it would save the researcher a whole of stress in the course of the analysis.



In statistics, determination of sample size to be used for research has generated a lot of controversy. Sample size and power estimation is an important concern for researchers undertaking research projects but most often than not they have been misunderstood or ignored completely.

What is sample size?
According to inferential and descriptive statistics, sample size of any population is a subset or a smaller unit of the main population on which a research is to be carried out. For the outcome of any research about a population to be generalized, the sample size has to be able to explain the characteristics of the main population under study. In order to enhance the precision of our survey or research, some software has been developed to assist researchers at all level in determining the right sample size to be used when studying any population. Sample size calculation, when done manually can be achieved but it can be nearly impossible when confronted with large population.
Manually calculating the sample size of a large population can be hectic and conclusions reached on those sample size calculated manually cannot be confidently generalized across the population under study. But with the help of these softwares, researchers can determine the following;
i) The power of the test
ii) The sample size suitable for your experiment/survey.
Within little or no time and the interesting part is that generalizations reached on these sample size can confidently be generalized across the population.

These softwares help to determine the following;

As the name implies, the power and sample size calculator/software is a unique software that helps to calculate the power and sample size of a research/survey.
Most times, researchers make the mistake of rejecting a true null hypothesis (Ho). The power of the test needs to be ascertained as a guide in knowing if the research is making the right decision i.e. rejecting a null hypothesis that is actually false and accepting its alternative or vice-versa.
This unique software helps in determining if the research is judge “powerful” by placing it on a probability scale of 0 to 1. A value close to 1 indicates a very powerful research or a research that rejected the hypothesis to be rejected and accepts the one that should be accepted. A value close to 0 indicate a weak research or survey whose generalization or.recommendations may be false.
For your research/survey to be powerful, then the software should be called.upon in every research that is being embarked upon.
Also, before every research should be carried out, the exact sample size should be focused on. Under or over estimating sample size of any population may yield non-powerful or weak results. This software helps to ascertain the actual sample size to be used and hence, make the test powerful.
This Software can be gotten at pass
The steps to complete a sample size or power calculation in PASS software are as follows;
I) Selected and load a procedure using the PASS home window. This can be done using the navigation tree or by entering a search keyword. Check on a procedure button in the main display areas to load the procedure
II) Input the analysis parameters on the procedure window.
III) Click the calculate button on the procedure window to perform the calculation and view the results in the output window.

The Raosoft sample calculator is basically a software that primarily calculates or generates the sample size of a research or survey.
Estimating a sample size for a survey, project or research can be confusing and frustrating, as a result, the Raosoft sample size calculator offers both sample size confidence interval calculation to minimize these frustrations encountered during research.
This software takes into account the margin of error, the confidence level and response distribution. It also offers to show viz-a-viz what the margin of error would be like with various sample sizes.
This Software can be gotten at

This software is a unique software used to calculate the power and the sample size of any survey. It is mostly used in domains such as biology, bio-statistics, the social Sciences, agriculture and medicine.
This software can be used for studies with dichotomous continues or survival response measures. This is a handle tool meant for students, professionals and researchers with at least minimal statistical knowledge. A cardinal advantage of the PS: power and sample size calculator is that it can be used in various study designs like T-test, regression, design and analysis of experiment, analysis of variance, correlation and revival test. Also, this software can generate graphs that make it less stressful to analyze the relationship between the power of the survey, sample size and the detectable alternative hypothesis.
This software can be gotten at

This has features which enables a researcher to conduct sophisticated surveys and produce professional report. The survey system can record any typed of answer and even records respondent actual voice with the help of VOICE CAPTURE SURVEY MOUDLE.
This software helps to guide respondent through correct questions, helps to modify questions to generate or yield more accurate data and equally check the validity of answers given. This software is mostly useful to researchers involved in field survey or research.
This survey software also helps researchers in creating unique survey and helps to distribute researchers’ questionnaires adequately online for adequate data.
This software is the most complete software package available for working with survey questionnaires.
This software can be gotten at www.surveysystem .com

The power and precision was created by bio-stat Inc. the software helps to ascertain the power of a test or it helps researchers in making decisions i.e. rejecting false null hypothesis. It basically helps to increase the precision of a research or survey. The more precise the survey/research is most professional the work will be. Most times, researchers make the mistake of accepting the false null hypothesis which at the end of the day can lead to false recommendations. In general, the power precision software as the name depicts, helps to increase the precision/power of a survey.
This software can be gotten at



I once stumbled upon a sentence that greatly inspired me. The saying goes thus: Every writer is a thief! Certainly you'd be quick to dispute that. The thing is, we were born without the knowledge we have now garnered overtime, it is the work of others that we have digested to become this informed.
In research, it is usual that there would be an in-depth digging of past and similar work.
It is required that due credit is given to the author of what-so-ever sentence, experimental work, or excerpt adapted into your work. This is to acknowledge their efforts, sponsor hard- work and discourage theft of any form.
This also helps the readers/reviewers of your work locate the past work and go over.
Plagiarism - claiming someone else's work as yours is a terrible offence and a laugh-off of creativity. This is strongly discouraged in all climes. Hence, the need for this guide.

Referencing styles/methods
There are numerous methods of acknowledging past work in your writing, but there are three major revered styles (citation guide, 2008). The key, however, is consistency in application.
APA (American Psychological Association)

Print Sources - Book
In the text, it is required that the author and year of publication is used. In parenthesis or only the year of publication in parenthesis, e.g.: (Archibong, 2014) or according to Archibong (2014).
At the citation page/list of references/bibliography, it is written out in full:
The author(s) surname is written, then a comma and initials. The year of publication in parenthesis. The title of the work in italics, with edition and particular pages in parenthesis. Then the publisher's details.
E.g. : Archibong, A. (2014). Referencing basics (2nd ed.) (Pg. 66). Lagos State: Research clue publishers.
NB: For whatever purpose, the rules are sacrosanct. Same principles. For more than one author, '&' is used.

Print sources - Journal
Same in-text citation, but in the list of references, the article title is not italicized.
The journal title is italicized. The journal volume and page number could be added. E.g.: Archibong, A., & Michael P. (2014).
Referencing basics. Journal of research , Vol 2, 400-403.

Print sources - Magazine, newspaper and encyclopaedia
Same in-text citation, but the publication date is in full. The newspaper/magazine/ encyclopaedia article title is not italicized, the newspaper/magazine title and volume is italicized. The page is then added.
E.g.: Archibong, A. (2014, December 1).
Referencing basics. Research clue magazine, Vol 2, 400-403.

Online sources
For articles in Journals, newspapers, encyclopaedias and magazines, it is referenced as above (exact principles) but the URL and date retrieved online is added.
E.g. for Journal: Archibong, A., & Michael P. (2014). Referencing basics. Journal of research, Vol 2, 400-403. Retrieved November 1, 2014

For DVD/CD source
The article title is not italicized but the title of the referenced work. Then the publisher.
E.g.: Archibong, A. (2014). Referencing basics.
Gambatt project hint compilation (DVD).Lagos:
Gambatt project hint publishers. If there is no Author, the article title is used first, then the year of publication in parenthesis. Then the publication title in italics (Journal, magazine, encyclopaedia or online), before the publication source.
E.g. for Journal online source: Referencing basics. (2014). Journal of research , Vol 2.

CHICAGO Manual of Style
Similarly, in the text, it is required that the author and year of publication is used. Page number can be added though. In parenthesis or only the year of publication in parenthesis, e.g.: (Archibong, 2014, 29) or according to Archibong (2014), referencing can be difficult (29) ...

Print Sources - Book
At the citation page/list of references/ bibliography, it is written out in full: The author(s) surname is written, then the first name in full. The year of publication without parenthesis. The title of the work in italics, the edition and with particular pages without parenthesis as well. Then the publication source.
E.g. : Archibong, Austine. 2014. Referencing basics. 2nd ed. Lagos State: Gambatt Research publishers.
NB: For whatever purpose, the rules are sacrosanct. Same principles. For more.than one Author, 'and' is used.

Print sources - Journal
Same in-text citation, but in the list of references, the article title is not italicized.
The journal title is italicized. The journal volume and page number could be added.
NB: No parenthesis in the dates and page numbers.
E.g.: Archibong, Austine U., and Michael Peter G. 2014. Referencing basics. Journal of research: 400-403.

Print sources - Magazine
The article title is not italicized, the title and volume is italicized. The page is then added.
E.g.: Archibong, Austine U. 2014. Referencing basics. Research clue magazine, Vol 2, 400-403.

Print sources - Newspaper and Encyclopaedia
Newspaper articles are not listed as bibliography, it is cited as a running part of the text. It is not in parenthesis.
E.g.: In the Research clue Magazine on December 1, 2014, Archibong put out that ...

Online sources
For articles in Journals and magazines ONLY, it is referenced as above (exact principles) but the URL and date accessed online is added (in parenthesis).
E.g. for Journal: Archibong, Austine. 2014.
Referencing basics. Journal of research , Vol 2, 400-403. http.// (accessed November 1, 2015) For online encyclopaedias and Newspaper, it is not added to the bibliography. Referenced as above.

DVD/CD ROM encyclopaedia source
It is not listed in the bibliography, but as a running part of the text.
E.g.: In the article on Referencing guide by Awe Ayowale in Gambatt project hint [DVD],....

MLA (Modern Language Association)
In the text, it is required that the author and year of publication is used. In parenthesis, no comma then page number. e.g.: (Archibong Pg 12) or according to (Archibong).
NB: For whatever purpose, the rules are sacrosanct. Same principles. For more than one Author, 'and' is used.

Print Sources - Book
At the citation page/list of references/ bibliography, it is written out in full: The author(s) surname is written, then the first and middle name in full. The title of the work is underlined with the edition in aparenthesis, then the publisher and year of publication without parenthesis.
E.g. : Archibong, Austine Ubong. Referencing basics (2nd ed.). Lagos State: Research clue publishers, 2014.
NB: For whatever purpose, the rules are sacrosanct. Same principles. For more than one Author, 'and' is used.

Print sources - Journal
Same in-text citation, but in the list of references, the article and journal title are not italicized. The article title is put in quotation mark. The journal volume and page number could be added.
NB: No parenthesis in the dates and page numbers.
E.g.: Archibong, Austine Ubong, and Michael Peter Gabriel. "Referencing basics." Journal of research, Vol 2 (2014): 400-403.

DVD/CD ROM encyclopaedia source (no author)
E.g.: "Reference guidelines."Gambatt project hint[DVD]. Lagos: Gambatt project hint publication, 2015.
If there is no Author, it is the article title in quotation. The publication title is underlined.

Citation guide. (2008). Microsoft Student 2007 [DVD] . Redmond, WA: Microsoft Corporation.


Most researches would require that you submit a copy of your findings after your research. The commonest means of doing this is by the use of Microsoft word. This has been in existence for long and the knowledge of its use is expected even before admission into most tertiary institutions. Yet, the submissions from students, and researchers generally, show that they lack this knowledge; are not enforced strictly to comply with guidelines; are just lazy or they do not just edit their work at the end, after all the apparent work. This just screams unprofessionalism and recklessness.
The is a dearth of final editing in even in most final drafts. Negligence evidently, after doing all the 'hard work.Presented with the aid of illustrations are quick editing tips for Microsoft word, to make the presentation of your work after the research professional.

It is quite amazing when you go through a master's thesis and notice this anomaly as well. The font is responsible for the way the letters appear.
There are several font types in available in all versions of Microsoft Word.
For formal use: Times New Roman, Calibri, Verdana, Arial are commonplace. The most preferred being Times New Roman because of the feel of professionalism.
Standard font sizes that are most accepted is 10.5 - 12.5. The best being either font size 11 or 12.

You get to see something like:

The above illustration would require an effort to notice but what is worth doing, is worth doing.well. The 'on' and 'supported' are not in the same front as the rest. A hard copy/print-out would have revealed this better. This is common when the typist copies and pastes directly, without proper checks for fonts consistency.
SOLUTION: Hold down the CONTROL key and press 'A' + select a font type and size to put this all in place.



We were assembled. We argued. We were at each other's throats. Then we settled. We laughed hard. We played, prayed and hoped.
Together We presented. We failed. We were blamed altogether. Then we pointed accusing fingers at each other. Finally, we accepted our fate and moved on.
This is a condensed depiction of what happened in a group research project I was once involved in one. You see in life, at some point we would all have to be engaged in group work of some sort.
Assuming In a case, we were asked to work on the refining of castor oil. As chemical engineering students, this was to entail the process description, materials sizing, process design and simulation, full plant layout, economical and environmental considerations and what-have- you. It was to be massive.
You can imagine the tussle, utter confusion and nervousness that would ensue at first. Group projects? Different shades of experiences, especially my class which is a basic composition of individuals with sizeable age difference from various tribes, with different ideologies and religious beliefs. Sure, different temperaments, the hardworking and the lazy ones, as well as the smart ones and otherwise.
This is a microcosm of the demography available in most settings. The crux is now handling this successfully, especially in the critical area of research!

Firstly, in academic environments most times, the members do not get to choose their teams.
The instructors divide available students into groups, on whatever basis they decide to employ.
In such case, each member was supposed to take a part at the presentation after detailed research work. Some will forgot theirs; some will be too dazed to speak; some wouldn't answer questions thrown at them by the panel. Different types of students in tertiaries.
 You will imagine that despite some not showing up at meetings, they will just present their parts well and added to the morale of the presentation. Some, despite the hard work, slipped and it will really be disappointing. Many will not even follow the plan when it got to their turn. Some, you will feel like taking excuse and slapping sense into them.

Gosh! Some members will even start crying at the presentation when theirs went bad. You can imagine. After trading blames and dispersed, you might not be able to eat that night. and you will just keep asking how a seemingly well-planned work went awry.
Group research projects must just be well - handled to enjoy maximum satisfaction! There were some things if you do not do at all or if you approached wrongly you can blame yourself at the end.
The first thing I suggest is for the leader, if available, to establish calm. If none, any outspoken member should call for a meeting and one should be selected first. One, that all members would likely listen to. One with mental stability and emotional intelligence. A leader, not necessarily the most brilliant or the eldest.
Then meeting period chosen. In these case, we had to consider the Muslims' prayer period and set that as our mini-break each time. The schedule of everybody in the team is to be considered but the final time should be in favor of the majority, in most situations. The venues and other basics like rules at meetings, kinds of words acceptable at the meetings et al should be sorted out as well.
Next, the team needs to understand the theme very well. The entire length and breadth. Then all should be encouraged to read around the theme so a basic scope of work is drafted out.
The beauty of group research projects is that there are supposed to be more hands available, more finance, increased knowledge source and the stress distributed. Even as this is true, the ills can be terrifying.
After the scope of work is defined, the strengths of the team members should be evaluated.
Some will be bold hence relaxed at presentations; some will be good at typing and can use the required softwares better; some will be better at content writing or deep intellectual work while other are proficient at just editing. This is critical to maximize the gains of team work in research.
The leader should be wise whilst delegating members to various tasks. The seemingly 'lazy' members should be paired with seemingly 'hardworking' ones. Each sub-group should brief the general team at meetings with all members taking note, as in some presentations, a general score is given to all team members, hence all should be knowledgeable about each part, to be able to represent the team well.
The entire group should be accommodating of other member's ignorance and rant, even if it is irrelevant. As a matter of fact, the freedom of speech rule is usually advised. However, a limit is to be established, so reasonable time is not expended in irrelevant discussions. Resentments should be handled with caution by the leader as well, as it would definitely arise due to different interests in the course of the research. A support system should be set up by the leader as well. For example, the indigent members who cannot meet up with financial expectations or the more physically capable assisting the others, and so forth.
After the presentations, no matter the disappointments and embarrassments, the team should stay positive. No accusations no matter how the situation. Lessons should be learnt and the group members urged to move on. The presentations should be rehearsed before time.
Rules during presentations should be clear and all members should stick to it. Religiously Group research project is not death sentence.
Many loathe it but if handled like this, the members would spend less time transferring their spittle in the name of quarreling.


HOW TO MAKE AWEOME PRESENTATIONS: Useful Tips for Project Defense.

Just imagine a project defense room where you are presenting your research work in such a fabulous way and your panel members just can’t stop nodding, gazing at you with their mouths wide open and clapping non stop for you…It is just an imagination, so wake up! Put more work to it by reading this article, apply it and pray your panel members do not turn your project defense to project attack! 

Project defense has come to stay, and the only way to graduate in Nigerian universities is to at least defend what you have written (or copied and paste) in a convincing manner. Gone are the days when you could just copy and paste an article from the internet and dump for your school. Our Nigerian school system is changing from dumping grounds to speech oriented institutions, which means that you must be good at presentations in order to scale through. At times students confuse themselves with content of their work. The truth is that it is better to be more confident with a poor content, than to be unable to defend an excellent research work.

In this article, I am going to give out some useful tips and tricks on how you can have an awesome project defense and presentation. In order to make reading this article more pleasurable, I am going to give tips on how what to do before the defense day, on the defense day, and inside the defense room. So enjoy!


First before your project defense, you must ensure you have a romantic relationship with your project topic and the whole content. When I say ‘romantic relationship’, I mean your research topic or research thesis must be of great interest to you. If your topic is too difficult or it was imposed on you by your project supervisor, you better start loving the topic or better still; look for a way to get it changed for you. In my little experience, I have discovered that students who hate their topics usually have problems flowing in the defense room, and it can mean bad for you. One trick to choose a nice research topic is by looking for subjects that you love talking about. If you’re a car freak, you should be considering topics like ‘the impact of official cars on employee productivity’. You would be amazed how this simple trick will go a long way in helping you.

Second, do adequate research on your topic. Before defending or presenting your project, you should source for similar materials on your topic. Focus on how the problem was identified and addressed. Do not dream of having an awesome presentation if you do not know common terminologies associated with your topic.
Identify your keywords, variables, background of the study, history of the study and all the variables before your defense date. If you writing on ‘employee motivation and its impact on productivity, you should be able to know your two variables-‘employee motivation’ and ‘productivity’.

Third, know your motivation for the study or research. Most final year students in Nigeria defending their projects do not perform well because, they fail to identify their motives for the study. The motivation for your study is probably the first answer to numerous questions you may be asked in the defense room. Before a research is undertaken, there is usually a problem to solve. The desire to solve that problem becomes your motivation for the study.
Please do not use money, or the need to graduate as motivations for your study. Motivation for the study is best applied in questions like ;
‘why undertake this study’?
‘Tell us about your work’?

Fourth, know your strength as well as your weaknesses. Knowing your strengths and weaknesses will help you prepare a backup plan in case the direction of the defense changed in an unfavorable way.
Fifth, discuss with professionals in your research field and do group discussions with friends. Make your friends your panel members, and defend in front of them. Tell them to criticize and ask numerous questions. With this little training you will be tuning your mind set for what a defense room will look like. You can also seek professional help.


On the day of defense, a lot of students panic and some may even forget their project topics. Just apply the following tricks and tips and you will be just fine!

First, rehearse with friends again. Look for people to discuss your project with all over again. This will help you remember your key points.

Second, develop good self esteem and confidence. Before you enter the defense room, make use of some good self esteem!

Think well about your self, and have in mind that these professors and senior lecturers you are going to face are human beings that do not know every thing. So be in control. See yourself as someone going to lecture a bunch of people that do not know much. Remember 90% of your fears cannot be seen at first, unless you start showing it.


· Knock first before you enter.
· Greet the panel members with lots of smile
· Wait for your first question
· Answer with great confidence. While answering your questions look straight into the eyes of your panel members, and never be rude. All is well!



When I wrote ‘Making Awesome Presentations: Useful Tips for Project Defense’, I never knew it was going to be a great success story. So many success stories and commendations from over 100 readers were just enough to make my yesterday, today and tomorrow and give me more grace to write more these morrow.
Well, enough of the hyping! That great piece was still lacking some smaller pieces to make it totally awesome as some ‘Oliver Twist-Like’ student's still needed more to it.

Questions like, what should we expect on the D-Day? What type of Questions do the committee members ask? Can you suggest possible questions and answers that will be asked when defending a dissertation or thesis paper? These questions fill my message box by the day and since I adore my
fellow student's. I have decided to write a sequel to ‘Making Awesome Presentations’. This time around, with the help of some senior lecturers, friends and my own experience, I have compiled some common questions you may face on your defense day and suggested answers/approach to these questions. So as usual, Enjoy!


Below are likely questions you may face in a defense room. Take note of these questions and suggested answers, do good by researching more and not limiting yourself to just these questions.

Question 1: In few sentences, can you tell us what your study is all about?
The question is simple right? Many professors will tell you that most students get choked on a question like this.
Anyways the question is simple, but a bit technical. To answer this question, you need to know every detail of your research project from chapters one to the end. The question needs an answer in form of a summary of the entire study, therefore, to ace this particular question you need to know every detail in your abstract. If you wrote a good abstract, this question will be a cross over for you.

Question 2: What is your motivation for this study?
Now you must be careful here. This question can be very tricky and it goes a long way in convincing your panel members that your study is worth their time.
To answer this question, you may decide to elaborate on the problem investigated in the study. Your zeal to solve this problem becomes your motivation. Do not state financial reasons or the need to graduate as a motivation as you may easily go off point.

Question 3: How will this study contribute to the body of knowledge?
At some point the need for justification will arise and that is when you will be asked to mention how your study will add to the body of knowledge if approved.
Here you will need to use your methods, case study or any unique model or conceptual framework used in the study to defend it.

Question 4: What is the significance of the study?
Just like stating how your study will contribute to the body of knowledge, you will need to state the importance of your study. To answer this question, you will need to highlight how your study will aid the government in policy development and implementation, how it will help other students who may wish to conduct research studies on the subject matter and how organizations and the society will benefit from your study.

Question 5: Did you bridge any gap from your study?
Every research study must have a problem.
Your ability to solve this problem and explore into areas not yet researched on gives you the full marks allocated for answering this question. You must be able to convince the committee members that your approach is unique and it has covered areas where much have not been done by other researchers.

Question 6: What limitations did you encounter?
This is another simple but tricky question.
Most times the question is not asked to sympathize with you, rather to get loopholes to criticize your work. To answer this question, you must be careful with words as you may implicate yourself. Be careful enough not to sell out yourself. Do not discourse limitations in your methods or data analysis techniques as this may imply that your study may be biased or not well researched. Use simple limitations like difficulties encountered in combining lectures and project instead of limiting your study.

Question 7: What are your findings?
At this point it is expected of you to present your results or findings from the study in a clear and concise manner.
Always link your findings to your research objectives/questions. This will make your panel members to easily be carried along.

Question 8: What Methods or Sampling Technique did you employ?
To answer this question, you must be familiar with your research methodology.
Your chapter three (in Most Projects) must be at your fingertips. Your ability to justify your sample size and technique will be highly rewarded here.

Question 9: Why choose this method?
As discoursed above, you should not only state a particular method for the study.
You must also be ready and able to justify why you chose the method in a convincing manner. At this point you are free to quote sources or similar studies where such methods were adopted.

Question 10: Based on your findings what are your recommendations?
Recommendations are very vital in every research study and should not be joked with. In essence you should know your recommendations off hand.

Question 11: Based on your findings what areas will you suggest for future research?
Questions like this are just there to test your reasoning and authority in your research area. Based on your findings in a manageable scope, you should be able to suggest future research areas in line with your study. For example, if I researched on the challenges of personal income tax collection in Nigeria, a good area for further study will be in other forms of taxation such as VAT, Company tax etc.

Question 12: How can your research study be put into practice?
Easy for the computer scientist and engineering students, but a bit tough for management and social sciences since most management/social science projects are more of abstract in nature. However, you should try your best to be realistic here. Relate your study to current trends in your environment, office, economy, government, schools, church etc. Use of relevant examples and illustrations will score you good point here.

Question 13: How would you summarize your study to a practitioner in a few sentence?
Your ability to convey technical information from the study will score you good points here.

Question 14: What would you change if you were to conduct the study again?
Hmmm. Be careful! Do not be too jovial.
There is a loophole here! Just like your limitations, this question can be asked to identify your week points.

Question 15: What is your measurement Instrument?
In simple terms, what data collection method did you employ for the study?
Here you state if questionnaires were distributed or data was gotten from secondary sources.

Question 16: What are your research variables?
Here you will need to convince your panel members that you know what you are talking about. You need to explain your independent and dependent variable(s) to convince them that you are on point. Your variables are present in your project topic.
You need to identify these variables and know their definitions as well to ace your defense.

Question 17: What are your research questions?
Very simple question. It should take about 0.015 seconds to answer this question if you are fully prepared.

Question 18: What do you plan to do with your research project after Graduation?
Here you are at liberty to say your mind. If you intend to publish it, this is the best opportunity to discourse and interact with the committee members-maybe a professor there can be of help.

Question 19: What source of data was employed for the study?
At this point you have to state the source (s) you got data from. In general you have to state whether data was gotten from primary or secondary source or both. You can further convince the committee members by discoursing on literature reviewed for the study-both theoretical and empirical.

Question 20: What theories or theoretical framework is your study based on?
This is a very technical question but interesting. Before you step into the defense room, you should know at least two relevant theories that relate to your study. For example, the “impact of motivation on employee productivity” will be based on Maslow’s Theory and other theories of motivation. If you cannot find relevant theories to back up your study, consult your supervisor for help.

Question 21: How would you relate your findings to existing theories on the study?
To ace this question, one will have to read extensively. You should know existing theories on the subject matter as well as empirical studies too. Your ability to link your findings to previous research studies (Whether they agree or not) will go a long way in validating your study. You will score good points here trust me.

Question 22: What recommendations do you have for future research?
Your problem solving skill is put to test here. You should be able to identify areas that will need more research.

Question 23: What is the scope of the study?
This one is a cheap or should I say bonus question? Here you quickly state the delimitation of the study in brief.

Question 24: What question(s) do you have for the committee?
Not a likely question in our Nigerian context, but I have defended a seminar project where this question was asked and I was shocked to my marrows. This is an opportunity to interact with your committee members and ask some constructive questions. Do not ask silly or too difficult questions as the goal should be to make the committee members feel as the “boss”. It will also go a long way in showing that you are a brilliant individual.

Question 25: Do you have any closing comments?
This is praising time! Use this opportunity to thank your committee members for their time and questions. Tell them how much you have learnt from them and how you intend to correct errors (if any) identified in your work. This can go a long way in impressing your internal and external supervisors. All the best!

*When confronted with a difficult question, adopt a strategy to make them rephrase or repeat the question,   This will give you more time to think.
*Before your defense day. Practice with? your supervisor or your friends,  Make them to drill you with likely questions.
*Talk calmly with confidence. Do not talk too fast as this may pave way for tension and stage freight.
*Read your project thoroughly. Know basic definitions and terms used in the study.
*Expand the likely questions to 50. 
Then the victory is yours.



The essence of research is to find more knowledge and add to the existing body of knowledge. How has your study contributed to the Body of Knowledge?
This is one question students especially at the Masters or PhD level must answer one day. The body of knowledge (BOK) encompasses every field of study from medicine to soap making and even our regular sports. You may choose to look at it as a vast library that needs constant updates from brilliant and creative minds to solve newer issues in the society. If you do not contribute, posterity may suffer because they cannot rely on old data and theories to survive and keep up with the pace at which the world is evolving today coupled with rapid growth in technology.

Just imagine if we were to be using research studies on Malaria conducted in 1890 to cure Malaria today...imagine how many people that will die as a.result of no current work to show that nutrition has improved, life styles have changed, hygiene is getting better, mosquitoes are getting smarter, newer herbs and chemicals exist- now that is the essence of research! So do not feel bad when asked if your work will or has added to existing knowledge.
From my little observations, most Nigerian students develop negative mind sets that portray their work is not adding to the body of knowledge... if possible, it may actually be subtracting. It is very funny how some students feel that every researchable idea or topic on earth has been tackled by someone.

Some go to the extent of feeling that there are no fresh research areas anymore, unless you are willing to tackle the 'impossible'. The most difficult areas where little or nothing has been done on is tagged the 'impossible'.

The funny fact is you can still contribute positively without researching on the 'impossible' or trying to tie yourself down to a new research area where no one has ever may hang on the way as material availability may rob you. Various ways you can go ahead with your normal research and still contribute meaningfully to the body of knowledge are addressed below, so take a good time out, read them, apply them and contribute by bringing in your own ideas in the comment box below. Enjoy!


Being smart in the defense room is your number one strength. Do not allow your panel members to intimidate you with statements like 'this study has been conducted by plenty people already, I do not see how it can add to existing knowledge'. Very funny right? You may not know how many Supervisors have frustrated students with this statement.

You may not know how many recognized and international Journal websites have refused to publish original work done by students because it is deemed 'popular' so no addition to knowledge. The first secret in countering that statement is by using your area or case study as a major contribution to knowledge. Remember you have got to be smart and logical here. For the mere fact that you conducted that study in your village is enough reason for it to be of great significance. A popular topic like 'The Impact of Motivation on Employee Productivity in New York' may not have the same findings if conducted in a town in Nigeria say- Oshogbo. The mere fact that we have researched on the impact of motivation on employees in Oshogbo, (which may be totally new) is a contribution to the body of Knowledge. Surprised?


Another way students can add great significance to existing knowledge is by methodology adopted. By reviewing empirical studies on a subject matter, a student can discover a new method or approach in tackling the same problem identified in prior research studies. For example, data collection method, sample size, data analysis can be changed to tackle the same problem in order to bring out a unique study. If Mr. A and B used questionnaires in their study, you can also contribute by reviewing secondary data instead or opt for other measurement instruments such as observations, focus group studies, interviews etc.

Different Inferential statistics or data analysis methods can also be adopted here to bring a difference and hence add to the body of knowledge. If appropriate, deeper analyses such as regressions, ANOVA and the rest can make you outstanding.


Your ability to solve trending or new issues in the society is an added advantage to you. This could be used in justifying the study as well as a way of adding to existing knowledge. Through asking the right questions and doing a thorough data analysis, one could solve current issues in his or her environment from the findings of the study as well as good recommendations listed. These trending issues are still new and enough research may not have been carried out on the subject matter. So the ability of the student to boldly tackle this new issue and surviving the problems of new research areas and building literature for the subject area is highly rewarded, hence it is a major contribution to knowledge.


Although not easy as it looks, but very possible. One can actually make meaningful contribution to knowledge by using a different approach to solving an identified problem. New models, conceptual frameworks/concepts and hypotheses that are valid and result oriented will definitely add to existing knowledge on the subject matter.

For Example:
‘The primary aim of the researcher in this study is to relook at the concept of leadership from a new perspective.
So far most studies on leadership have focused on the individual and the personal qualities and traits that shape leaders.
In this study the researcher has tried to shift the focus to the issues rather than the individual glorification and this has lead to the development of The Global Leadership Model which is based on contemporary issues.
This model or the concept is The Global Leadership Model which is issue based’.



The enormous achievements in development in most of the developed countries comes mainly through research. This made former president Goodluck Jonathan to task the.nation universities in the art of research. Following this.mandate by the federal government, the regulatory body of all universities in the nation, the Nigerian Universities Commission (NUC) has been introducing various commendable schemes and awards to advance the standard of education in the country as well promote research among university students.
One of such award scheme was the Nigerian Universities Doctoral Thesis Award Scheme (NUDTAS) which evolved from the Nigerian Universities Postgraduate Thesis Award Scheme (NUPTAS) also instituted by the NUC (Nigerian Universities Commission). According to the NUC, the scheme was introduced to promote best practices among universities, identifying and encouraging best PhD thesis, encourage academic research among students and to boost postgraduate scholarship. This can be achieved by the students and their schools investing their intellect and time in research. This is important as research plays an important role in nation building.
The low enrollment of.students in the area of.research in our universities has been attributed to the fact that the role of research in the nation’s development not been accorded its right of place. Our higher institutions of learning need to understand that research plays a huge role in our nation’s desire to be among the best nations of the world in terms of growth and development. Our postgraduate students and their schools should play a major part in providing the needed human resources and fields of studies required for our economy to thrive.
The world economy is driven largely by those who possess knowledge and the required expertise and for Nigeria to attain her Millennium Development Goals, she has to posses the required manpower equipped with the right knowledge. This can be gotten from the research carried out by our postgraduate students and their schools. Former President Jonathan made this known to the universities when he charged them to help the nation to realise its goal of being among the best 20 economies of the world by the year 2020.
Therefore the NUC has to support the universities to build a culture of academic excellence and intellectual research. The selection process for the NUDTAS award starts with a selection process where every university nominate the best thesis they have for the year to a team of experts selected by the NUC. This selection committee then evaluates, assesses and selects the best thesis that meet the requirement of the original and most important contributions to the needed disciplines. They are able to do this effectively by adhering to the NUC’s guidelines. The needed disciplines include Environmental sciences, Agricultural Science, Medicine, Administration, Pharmacy, Education, Science, Engineering, Social Science and Law.
The winners of the best thesis that adequately addresses the nation’s needs in the areas mentioned above, receive their prizes at the NUDTAS annual ceremony. The occasion also provides ample opportunity for future and intending awardees to learn the lesson that hard work pays. An award winning thesis will among other things show that the student understood the proper research process, gotten from the teaching by the teacher who gave great value in the education. There should also be a favourable culture of learning environment, adequate amount of needed resources and availability of relevant data.
Due to insufficient funding of research in Nigerian universities, there has been a slow growth of research in the schools. Since no meaningful research can be carried out without money there is a need by government to increase the funds available to Nigerian universities. According to NUC policy, there is a five percent allocation for research purposes, given to Nigerian higher institutes of education as recurrent grant which is grossly inadequate, inaccessible to the schools and most times irregular. To make matters worse, there is the hope of earning more in other countries which draws away our seasoned lecturers. They go there to earn more and leave the young ones they would have tutored.
In Spite of all these challenges, the Nigerian student thrives on. The NUDTAS awardees are a perfect testimony to the fact that if given a conducive environment the Nigerian student can soar to great heights.



The highest level of education that exists is the PhD. While it can be frustrating and tiring, your dissertation, which is your final result is a very rewarding thing for you and a major achievement in your life. With a zeal to help PhD students with their thesis, the duo of Dr. Gordon Rugg and Dr. Marian Petre wrote the book - The Unwritten Rules of PhD Research. This is a no-holds-barred look about what you as an individual needs to know when it comes to PhD research. The tone of the book is witty from the start so that you will smile as you learn the important messages it passes across. In the book, doctoral thesis is seen as a respected work of art, one that you learned from your master as an apprentice. This means that when you present your thesis research, you should present it as someone who has thoroughly learned all about your subject and done all the necessary research on it.

Carrying out a PhD research is a huge undertaking and it is not at all like an undergraduate degree where you are only expected to write some essays and pass some exams. For you to be awarded a PhD, you need to prove that you are a competent researcher. That is why an area of emphasis in the book is the on the aspect of reading. In the life of any researcher, reading is an important part as that will help him assimilate all the information necessary for his research work. According to the authors, your major working knowledge as a researcher is about 50-100 pages gotten from the materials you read obviously.

The book is a complete manual that can help you to be a truly independent researcher.The authors has a table (table 2) which showed the transition of a student from the stage of entering to the stage of completing his work. When the student enters, he surveys, he collects and he reports the information. From there he is ready to know what isn‘t known and from there judges the collected information. There are many topics in the book like supervision, independent research, writing, reading the literature, the viva, presentation and some topics such as the importance of building an active contact list for networking.

In the Unwritten rules of phd research, you can find the various papers that can be written for a PhD research. They are demonstration of concept papers, data-driven papers, review papers, tutorial papers, theoretical papers, method-mongering papers and consciousness-raising papers. There are many information and explanations of each type of research paper in the book. The writers recognised the flaws or mistakes you can make in your research which might hurt you later. There are some checklist in the book that a new researcher can use to avoid making these mistakes.

Dr. Rugg and Dr. Petre laid a lot emphasis on the need to gather information from people around you. This is due to the big differences in the researches of different disciplines. They gave a major rule while doing this, that is to maintain the image of a hard working individual rather than a lazy fellow. The authors also gave three golden rules of public speaking which can be very helpful to you when it time to present your thesis. Number one is don’t lie, two is don’t try to be funny and three is don’t panic and blurt out the truth. There are detailed explanations about these three rules in the book and it is worthy of reading. There is also a chapter on writing, with a bulleted list of great advice for writing your thesis. The same goes for the other short chapters where there are much tables and lists of things you should do and those you should not do.

The book is highly recommended for current and intending PhD students, as it will help you get good advice on reading, writing and presenting your thesis. After going through the book you will realise that there are more to research than the usual find a problem, work on it, get a result and  communicate your findings. This book will open your eyes to the world of academia and show you what you really should be doing to become a great researcher.



Many Nigerian students require some form of financial help to further their studies. Sometimes they may need this money to travel abroad and complete their studies. This can be obtained through scholarships and grants. There are many scholarships and grants available to Nigerian students either to help them complete their education here in the country or to travel abroad for their schooling. These scholarships are provided by government, non-governmental organization, international agencies, individuals, educational institutions and corporations.

The grants and scholarships are meant to give students financial relief from schooling and education affordable to the winners. To be able to win these scholarships there are certain guidelines you need to know, there are methods of applying for scholarship that will get you accepted for the award. Here are some of the things you need to bear in mind before you apply for a scholarship so as to increase your chance of being selected.

Need for the Scholarship: You have to know why you are applying for this scholarship. This is because most of the scholarship are need based, academic based and courses based. What I mean is that there are some scholarships and grants that are given to people who need it, others are given to people who wants to go for their Bachelor's degree, master's degree or doctoral degree. But the majority is given to people who are ready to study a specific course or discipline. So you need to know what your need is, so as to know what type of scholarship to look for.
Are you eligible: You should be sure that you are eligible for any scholarship you applying for, to avoid being denied. The eligibility status is usually written on the website or application notice of the institution offering the scholarship. It comprises of many things which include having a pass mark in exams like SAT, GMAT and GRE. Sometimes the eligibility condition may be that you’ll be an indigene of a state, country or region, so check the eligibility criteria well, to make sure that you are eligible before applying.
Application letter: Applying for a scholarship involves you writing an application letter to the institution giving the award. A well written application letter always increases your chances of being accepted by the deciding board and getting you the award. You should write your letter in a formal way like you are applying for a job. There are sample scholarship application letters in the internet that you can check out to see how it's done.
Proper documentation: You need to have all your documents ready. There are many documents that will be required of your for your application to be granted. This totally depends on the type of scholarship you applying for, but mostly it's your school's results, certificates, transcripts, birth certificate or sworn affidavit, a form of identification among others. To increase your chances of success, make sure you have all your certificates and papers ready before you start applying so you don’t stop along the way and start looking for them with deadline approaching.
Beat the deadline. All the scholarships opportunities have deadlines attached to them so make sure that you beat the deadline. To do this ensure that you start getting all the materials you need for the scholarship on time. You can start a month ahead and make sure you apply at least one week before the deadline. It is always to go to be among the first to apply but don’t rush so that you don’t make mistakes. Again don’t wait till the last day to apply as you might make mistake in a rush to beat deadline and forget some things. Therefore check for scholarships on time and start preparing early enough.

So there you have it. There are many opportunities available to Nigerian students both here on the country and outside for you access scholarships and grants for education purposes. Whether you are going for graduate or postgraduate degree in any part of the world, there may be one or two scholarship available to you. The internet has made such information available to you so you have no excuse. Also check our article on the list of scholarship available to Nigerian students so you see if you are qualified for any and start applying. Goodluck

List of Scholarships available to Nigerian Students
А numbеr оf sсhоlаrshірs fоr Аfrісаn studеnts аrе аwаrdеd аnnuаllу bу fеdеrаl gоvеrnmеnts, оrgаnіzаtіоns аnd unіvеrsіtіеs іn dіffеrеnt раrts оf thе wоrld. Gеnеrаllу, Ѕсhоlаrshір аwаrd рrоgrаms аrе аvаіlаblе іn lаrgе vаrіеtу fоr іntеrnаtіоnаl studеnts, but sоmе оf thеsе іntеrnаtіоnаl sсhоlаrshірs аrе nоt ореn fоr Nigerian studеnts. Іn suсh саsеs whіlе sеаrсhіng fоr sсhоlаrshір, аррlісаnts mау hаvе tо соmb thrоugh sеvеrаl sсhоlаrshір раgеs оnlіnе tо fіnd оnеs thаt ассерts studеnts frоm Nigeria. Іntеrеstіnglу, thеrе аrе а gооd numbеr оf sсhоlаrshір-аwаrdіng рrоgrаmmеs fоr Nigerian studеnts аvаіlаblе еvеrу уеаr аnd а lоt оthеr nеwlу іntrоduсеd рrоgrаmmеs.

Рrоsресtіvе studеnts lооkіng fоr sоurсеs оf fіnаnсіаl аwаrd tо furthеr thеіr еduсаtіоn nееd tо dеvоtе tіmе аnd еffоrt wіth thе аvаіlаblе rеsоurсеs оnlіnе tо fіnd аnd аррlу fоr sсhоlаrshірs. Вut thіs dоеs nоt gо wіthоut sауіng thаt уоu nееd tо fulfіll сеrtаіn rеquіrеmеnts tо bе еlіgіblе. Yоu саn fіnd а numbеr оf sсhоlаrshірs fоr Аfrісаn studеnts оn sсhоlаrshір wеbsіtеs thаt рrоvіdе frее rеsоurсеs оn nаtіоnаl аnd іntеrnаtіоnаl sсhоlаrshірs fоr Аfrісаn studеnts. Wіth thе usе оf sеаrсh еngіnеs lіkе Gооglе аnd Yаhоо, уоu саn tасtісаllу fіnd sсhоlаrshірs thаt suіtе уоur рrеfеrеnсе.

Ѕоmе sсhоlаrshірs аrе mаdе аvаіlаblе fоr аll Аfrісаn соuntrіеs (іnсludіng оthеr іntеrnаtіоnаl studеnts іn sоmе саsеs), whіlе а lоt оthеr аrе аvаіlаblе fоr sресіfіс соuntrіеs іn dеvеlоріng соuntrіеs (Nigeria іnсludеd). Неrе аrе sоmе оf thе mајоr sсhоlаrshір рrоgrаmmеs thаt ассерt Аfrісаns уеаrlу whісh уоu саn tаkе аdvаntаgе оf.

Аustrаlіаn Dеvеlорmеnt Ѕсhоlаrshір
Тhе Аustrаlіа Dеvеlорmеnt Ѕсhоlаrshір Аwаrds fоr Аfrіса іs аn іnіtіаtіvе оf thе Аustrаlіаn Gоvеrnmеnt аіmеd tо mахіmіzе thе bеnеfіt оf thе Аustrаlіаn Gоvеrnmеnt's ехtеnsіvе sсhоlаrshір рrоgrаms, аnd tо suрроrt еndurіng tіеs bеtwееn Аustrаlіа аnd nеіghbоrіng Аfrісаn Соuntrіеs. Аustrаlіаn Dеvеlорmеnt Ѕсhоlаrshірs (АDЅ) аrе аvаіlаblе fоr full-tіmе Роstgrаduаtе Dірlоmа оr Маstеr Dеgrее studіеs аt Аustrаlіаn unіvеrsіtіеs.

Fоrd Fоundаtіоn Іntеrnаtіоnаl Fеllоws Рrоgrаm
Тhе Іntеrnаtіоnаl Fеllоwshірs Рrоgrаm (ІFР) іs а рrоgrаm suрроrtеd bу thе Fоrd Fоundаtіоn, аnd сооrdіnаtеd іn Wеst Аfrіса bу thе ААU (Аssосіаtіоn оf Аfrісаn Unіvеrsіtіеs) іn соllаbоrаtіоn wіth Раthfіndеr іntеrnаtіоnаl іn Νіgеrіа. ІFР рrоvіdеs fеllоwshірs fоr аdvаnсеd studу tо ехсерtіоnаl іndіvіduаls whо wіll usе thеіr еduсаtіоn tо furthеr dеvеlорmеnt іn thеіr оwn соuntrіеs аnd grеаtеr sосіаl аnd есоnоmіс јustісе wоrldwіdе. ІFР fеllоwshірs аrе аwаrdеd tо аррlісаnts thаt lасk sуstеmаtіс ассеss tо hіghеr еduсаtіоn. Ѕоmе раst fеllоws hаvе rеturnеd tо thеіr рrеvіоus wоrk іn gоvеrnmеnt, unіvеrsіtіеs, аnd wіth ΝGОs, whіlе оthеrs аrе nоw wоrkіng іn rurаl соmmunіtіеs.

Fulbrіght Ѕсhоlаrshір
Тhе Fulbrіght sсhоlаrshір рrоgrаmmе іs оffеrеd thrоugh Еduсаtіоnаl ехсhаngеs thаt strеngthеn undеrstаndіng аnd соmmunісаtіоn bеtwееn thе Unіtеd Ѕtаtеs аnd studеnts frоm оvеr 140 соuntrіеs, іnсludіng sеlесtеd Аfrісаn соuntrіеs. Ѕtudеnts іntеrеstеd іn аррlуіng саn dо sо thrоugh thе Fulbrіght Рrоgrаm Оffісе іn thеіr hоmе соuntrу.

Rоtаrу Fоundаtіоn Аmbаssаdоrіаl Ѕсhоlаrshір
Тhе Rоtаrу сlub оffеrs sсhоlаrshір tо іntеrnаtіоnаl studеnts еасh уеаr thrоugh thе Rоtаrу Fоundаtіоn Аmbаssаdоrіаl sсhоlаrshір. Аfrісаn studеnts whо аrе mеmbеrs оf thе Rоtаrу сlub fоundаtіоn аrе еlіgіblе tо аррlу thrоugh thеіr lосаl Rоtаrу Сlub.

ОРЕС Fund fоr Ѕсhоlаrshір Аwаrd
Тhе ОРЕС Fund fоr Іntеrnаtіоnаl Dеvеlорmеnt (ОFІD) оffеrs Ѕсhоlаrshір Аwаrd tо suрроrt роstgrаduаtе studеnts frоm dеvеlоріng соuntrіеs іn рursuіt оf hіghеr еduсаtіоn. ОFІD аіms tо hеlр hіghlу mоtіvаtеd, hіghlу drіvеn іndіvіduаls оvеrсоmе thе соst оf аdvаnсеd рrоfеssіоnаl оr grаduаtе trаіnіng.

Аnd thе lіst gоеs оn, but lеt's lеаvе іt аt thеsе fоr ехаmрlе рurроsе.

Тhеsе аrе fеw оf thе mаnу sсhоlаrshір рrоgrаmmеs fоr Аfrіса studеnts. Тhеrе аrе lіkеwіsе а lаrgе numbеr оf nоt-sо рорulаr sсhоlаrshірs fоr Аfrісаn Ѕtudеnts tо tаkе аdvаntаgе оf. Whаt уоu nееd іs dіlіgеnt rеsеаrсh оn thе іntеrnеt wіth thе rіght оnlіnе rеsоurсеs tо fіnd thеsе рrоgrаmmеs.

Аррlуіng fоr sсhоlаrshір
То mахіmіzе thе роssіbіlіtу оf wіnnіng sсhоlаrshірs, studеnts shоuld stаrt lооkіng fоr suіtаblе sсhоlаrshірs еаrlу (аt lеаst оnе уеаr bеfоrе уоu іntеnd tо аррlу fоr аdmіssіоn). Моst studеnts mаkе thе соmmоn mіstаkе tо stаrt sеаrсhіng fоr sсhоlаrshірs аftеr thеу hаvе gаіnеd аn аdmіssіоn fоr thеіr undеrgrаduаtе оr роstgrаduаtе studіеs. Ѕtаrtіng еаrlу wіll hеlр уоu tо саrеfullу sеlесt thrоugh sсhоlаrshірs уоu wіll bе еlіgіblе tо аррlу fоr, аnd usе іt tо рrіоrіtіzе уоur сhоісе оf соuntrу, unіvеrsіtу оr соursе оf studу. Yоu'll аlsо bе іnfоrmеd оf thе роssіblе аррlісаtіоn реrіоd еасh уеаr (fоr аnnuаl рrоgrаmmеs) аnd thеn саrеfullу рrераrе уоur аррlісаtіоn. То іnсrеаsе уоur сhаnсеs оf wіnnіng а sсhоlаrshір, уоu shоuld fоllоw thrоugh thе рrосеss rеlіgіоuslу. Fееdbасks frоm sсhоlаrshір аwаrdіng соmmіttее shоws thаt uр tо 90% оf studеnts thаt аррlу fоr sсhоlаrshір dо nоt fоllоw thrоugh thе rulеs аnd guіdеlіnеs. Тhіs іs аn аdvаntаgе fоr studеnts thаt рut mоrе tіmе аnd еffоrt іntо thеіr sсhоlаrshір аррlісаtіоn.



Are you a final year student? NCE or ND or HND or BSC or MSC/MBA or PHD

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