AN INVESTIGATION INTO PHONOLOGICAL INTERFERENCE OF LANGUAGE OF IMMEDIATE ENVIRONMENT IN LEARNING ENGLISH - UNIPROJECTS

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AN INVESTIGATION INTO PHONOLOGICAL INTERFERENCE OF LANGUAGE OF IMMEDIATE ENVIRONMENT IN LEARNING ENGLISH




TABLE OF CONTENT
Title                                                                     Page No
Title page                                                                    
Certification                                                                          
Dedication                                                                   
Acknowledgement                                                       
Table of content Abstract                                             
Abstract                                                                        
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
Background of the Study                                                        
Statement of the Problem                                                       
Purpose of the Study                                                    
Significance of the Study                                                        
Research Question                                                                  
Scope of the Study                                                                 
Limitation of the Study                                                 
Definition of Terms                                                      
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
Bilingualism/Multilingualism                                         
The Status of English in Nigeria                                   
Language Acquisition                                                   
Mother Tongue Interference                                         
Phonological Interference                                              
Nigeria English                                                             
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Research Design                                                            
Area of the Study                                                         
Sample and Sampling Procedure of the Study              
Research Instrument                                                     
Reliability of the Instrument                                         
Validation of the Instrument                                         
Method of Data Collection                                           
Method of Data Analysis                                                       
CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND CONCLUSION
Results                                                                          
Discussion                                                                     
CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
Discussion                                                                    
Conclusion                                                                     
Recommendation                                                          
REFERENCES
APPENDIX 

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ABSTRACT
          The topic of the study is an investigation into phonological interference of language of immediate environment in learning English in Anglican Secondary school Efon – Alaaye, Ekiti. The aim is to know the language of the immediate environment affects the learning of English in secondary schools especially in Anglican Secondary school in Efon – Alaaye under Efon Local Government Area of Ekiti State. The targeted population for the study was 200. The research instrument (questionnaire) were distributed to students. The data were analyzed using simple percentage. The following were the researcher findings:
          That the student’s home background influences their performance in oral English; that poor teaching of pronunciation had a negative effect on the performance of the student’s in oral English; that inadequate teaching equipment/materials had a negative effect on the performance of the students in oral English; that the availability of teachers and their teaching methods influences the student’s performance in oral English.
          In view of the above, the researcher recommends that parents should encourage their children to speak English always, parents should also assist the school to equip their language laboratory.
          The students also need to be enlighten on why they should be able to use their leisure hours to read novels, newspaper and magazines at home.
          Teachers should be made to make use of correct teaching method in teaching of English. also, mother tongue should be restricted as stipulated by the national policy on education 4th edition.


CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Background to the Study
The existence of the English in Nigeria arose through the missionaries who brought Christianity to Nigeria.  These missionaries discovered on their arrival that their new convert who had no Western Education needed to read the Holy Bible and related religious literature, therefore the need to educated them arose. The missionaries, who initially settled in Badagry and calabar established some schools and their main objective was to teach literacy that is, reading and writing. English in Nigeria has acquired the status of official Language, according to Akano (2004), English performs numerous functions in Nigeria. It serves as lingua franca, it is language of instruction in schools and communication, it is the language of constitution among others. This is because Nigeria is a multilingual country and English serves as a link among the people.
          English is introduced to a child from the fourth year of primary school up to the university level as stated clearly in the Federal Republic of Nigeria’s National Policy on Education. Importance is attached to English in Nigeria, the practical oral aspect of the English becomes even more important for the purpose of interaction and articulation in our day to day use of the language. The role of English in Nigeria stresses the need for Nigerians to learn and understand English.
          Mother Tongue according to Ashworth (1992) is a native language which a person acquires in early years and which normally becomes his/her natural instrument of thought and communication. On the other hand, Ashworth (1992) States that “the second language is a language acquired by a person in addition to her mother tongue”.
          Interference, according to Ellis (1999) “Transfer is the process of using the knowledge of the first language in learning a second languages” for the purpose of this research, transfer will be considered as same as interference, therefore, interference is the transference of the elements of one language to another.
          Interference has been observed as a cogent influence that mother tongue language has on English sources of the interference therefore could be phenology, morphology or syntax. The concern of this project is on the phonological aspect of English. (Oral English).
          Phonology, according to the Collins paper back English Dictionary is the study of the sound system in a language. There could be poor teaching of pronunciation by the teachers. Some of the teachers use grammatical translation method especially in the elementary schools. They often explain meanings of English words using the mother tongue language. The pupils transfer the idea of having explanation of meanings being made in the mother tongue language over to the secondary school. It is therefore the intention of this study to identify problems that affect the oral English of students in the secondary schools as regards the influence of mother tongue language on it. In addition, suggestions and recommendations would be made on how to reduce the influence of mother tongue language on oral English.
Statement of the Problem
Statement of the problem, According to Ellis (1999) is a statement that outlines the problem addressed by the study.     
There is no doubt that secondary school students in Nigeria are being faced with the problem of mother tongue language. The phonological aspect (oral aspect) is the main focus of this research.
The influence of the mother tongue language on the pronunciation of English words is one of the problems. The influence of the home background on the students’ pronunciation of English words is also a problem. Hence, series of works have been done concerning the problems of mother tongue language interference on the oral English of secondary school students in English but it was observed that little or no emphasis has been made on the phonological interference of mother tongue on the learning of English. Consequently, there has been a need to conduct a research work, on the influence of mother tongue language on the oral English of secondary school students.
Purpose of the Study
The general purpose of this study is to examine the influence of mother tongue language on the oral English of secondary school students. Specifically, the purposes of this study are to determine the influence of home background on the student’s performances in oral English, the influence of non- availability of language equipment on students performances in oral English, the influence of poor teaching on the influence of the teacher’s qualification on the performances of students in oral English.
Significance of the Study
The findings of this study would be of immense benefit to students, teachers, stakeholders and government. This would be facilitated by making the study available in places where the public could gain access to it, for example, the library internet, and print media houses.
The essence of this study is to show the result of the co-existence of the mother tongue (Yoruba) and English. The co-existence will allow students to be exposed to the interference of the two languages, where the interference occurs and how to minimize it. The study will help the teachers of English to know the measures to be taken in order to help student minimize their mother tongue language interference on oral English.
Finally, the suggested solutions in the study would be of great benefits to educational curriculum planners. It would help the education curriculum planners to place premium on the essential aspect of the study of English which would be of immense help in alleviating the problems of mother tongue interference in oral English.

Research Questions
Based on the purpose of this study, the following questions are raised to direct the study
1.     What are the influences of home background on the students’ performance in oral English?
2.     What are the influences of language equipments/teaching materials on the students spoken English?
3.     What are the effects of poor teaching on the performance of the students in oral English?
4.     What are the influences of the teacher is availability and teaching method on the performance of students in oral English
Scope of the Study  
The study focuses on the phonological interference of language of the immediate environment on the learning of English, case study of Anglican secondary school, Efon Alaaye, Ekiti state.
Limitation of the study
Since it is impossible to devote years to studying a single research problem, the time available to investigate the research problem and to measure change or stability within a sample is constrained by the time limit, therefore, the researcher devote most of the time carrying out the research.

Definition of Terms used in the Study
a.     Interference : According to Lott (1983) Interference is the situation whereby the feature of the first language (L1) manifests in the second language( L2) usage
b.     The language of immediate environment (mother tongue) (L1): According to Ashworth (1992), Mother tongue is a native language which a person acquires in early years and which normally becomes his/her natural instrument of thought and communication. It is first language a child acquired from his/her parent. Mother tongue used in this research is Yoruba.
c.      Second language (L2): Ashworth (1992) stated that “the second language is a language acquired by a person in addition to her mother tongue.
d.     Phonology : According to the Collins paper back English Dictionary is the study of sound system in a language






CHAPTER TWO
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
          In this chapter, literature related to the study will be reviewed. The review will show the phonological interference of student’s L1 which the language of their immediate environment (Mother Tongue) in their L2, which is the English.