THE GENETIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS INFLUENCING STUDENTS PERFORMANCE IN BIOLOGY IN SECONDARY SCHOOL
TABLE OF CONTENT
Table of contents
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the study
1.2 Statement of problem
1.3 Purpose of the study
1.4 Research Question
1.5 Significance of the study
1.6 Scope of the study
1.7 Limitation of the study
1.8 Definition of terms
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1 Concept of biology
2.2 Theoretical frame work
2.3 Mental retardation and parental age
2.4 Intelligent quotient of parents
2.5 The Genetic Basic and academic of students
2.6 Beliefs about genetics influences of biology achievement
CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY
3.1 Research Design
3.2 Population of the study
3.3 Sample and Sampling Technique
3.4 Research Instrument
3.5 Validity of the Instrument
3.6 Reliability of the Instrument
3.7 Instrument for Data Collection
3.8 Method of Data Analysis
CHAPTER FOUR: ANALYSIS OF DATA AND RESULTS
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
This study sought to find out the genetic and environmental factors affecting the performance of student in biology in some selected secondary school in Ikere-Ekiti Local Government Area, Ekiti state. One hundred secondary school Biology students were drawn by simple random sampling from ten (10) secondary schools within Ikere-Ekiti, Ekiti State, six research hypothesis guided the study.
Data were collected using a researcher constructed questionnaire. The result revealed that family structure and educational level of parents did not have significant influence on students' achievement in Biology. Based on the findings, the study concluded that parents occupation have much influence in students' achievement in science (Biology) as against what most previous studies portrayed. Researches should therefore focus on other possible factors that contribute to students 'poor performance in Biology and science generally in order to find out lasting solution to the problem. Some recommendations were also made.
Background of the Study
The overall importance of education in general and science education in particular to mankind cannot be over-emphasized . No nation can afford to neglect science education at any level of education ad hope to thrive in any field of human endeavour. Science education is imperative for useful living in any society, it is at the centre for producing resources necessary for socio-economic, scientific and technological development needed for advancement of any nation.
The above notwithstanding, much has been said about secondary school students poor performance in science generally and Biology in particular. Over the years, performance in Biology has been dwindling. For instance Okoye and Okeke (2007) in their study found that in 2002, 2003 and 2004 the percentages of candidates who passed West African School Certificate Examination (WASCE) at credit level and above (grade 1 - 6) in Biology were 30.3%, 42.1% and 30.2% respectively. Similarly, Egbunonu and Ugbaja reported that only 30.2% of the Biology students who sat for the WASCE between 2000 and 2005 passed at credit level above (Al-C6) in 2008,
WAEC Chief Examiners reported a decline in performance in Biology especially the theoretical aspect (WAEC, 2008). Again, the Nigerian Television Authority (NTA) on March 17th, 2010 reported that National Examination Council (NECO) recorded 74% failure in their Nov/Dec. 2009 SSCE Examination result. Statistics from May/June 2007 — 2032 Senior Secondary Certificate Examination by WAEC shown in Table 1 tell the same story.
The implication of this persistent poor performance of students in Biology is that a great percentage of them fail to get grades that will take them to higher institution for higher studies. This has been a source of concern to well-meaning Nigerians, parents, researchers and science educators. Thus, researchers in science education in Nigeria have continued to seek for ways of improving the situation and maximize meaningful learning of Biology by the students.
Biology is described as a science of life and plays a very vital role in the life of every human being. It is very vast with many divisions including Zoology, Botany, Ecology, Genetics, Morphology, Anatomy, Physiology, Histology, Microbiology, Biochemistry, evolution and the more advanced cell Biology, Molecular Biology, among others. Apart from the inter-related ness that exists among these branches, Biology is closely related with other science subjects like agricultural science Chemistry, Geography, Mathematics and Physics. Little wonder then that Biology finds application in may specialized areas like medicine, pharmacy, food production and processing industries, biotechnology, genetic engineering, agricultural and horticulture, environmental protection, tourism industry (Biology gardens) and so on.
Considering Biology's many branches and vast applications in every field of human endeavour as enunciated above, its importance in a nation's economic development cannot be over-emphasized. It therefore becomes very necessary that efforts are geared towards finding a lasting solution to student's poor performance in the subject. To this end, several factors have been identified by researchers as being responsible for the persistent poor performance recorded in Biology especially at Senior Secondary Certificate Examination. Some of the factors include lack of teachers, lack of educational facilities like laboratories, overloaded syllabuses, laziness, poor attitude and lack of interest on the part of the students, poor teaching methods by teachers, large class size/high teacher student ratio and family/home background of the students. Despite the fact that many educationists believe that family background has influence on children's performance in school considering the fact that education starts from the home, not much empirical studies have been carried out in recent times to support this ascertain especially in Anarnbra State (most of the available studies are old). Besides, much of the data available on this topic are theories and opinions of individuals. It is also not certain that such study has been carried out in Biology as these researchers could not lay their hands on any. Hence, these is need to carry out this study to obtain an authentic and current information on how family background influence student's performance in Biology.
The family has the potential to influence a child's academic achievement. This is because it is the first environment of the child. The initial experience that would mould the child's values, aspirations, emotions, interest and attitudes are offered by the parents/family (Okeke, 2009) What the child learns at home and how his family motivates him towards education contributes to the child's success in school (Essien, 2002) Similarly. Obas, (1999) observed that were making sure that the children are prepared for school in the morning is important for the children's successful achievement at school.
Family background is a collective terminology comprising of social class/status, economic status, family size, family structure, parents' educational level, occupation and other factors pertaining to family life- family background in the context of this study refers to family structure, parents' occupation and parents' level of education. By family structure is meant whether the family is monogamous or polygamous. Monogamy refers to a system of custom whereby a man or woman is allowed to have only one spouse at a time while polygamy is a system which allows one to have more than one wile, as in Nigeria and many other African countries. Parents' occupation is considered in two levels in this study - civil service and trading which are the dominance occupations of people living in the area of study. With regards to level of education, parents are classified into high level (those with M.sc, Ph.D), middle level (those with OND/NCE) and low level (those with FSLC, SSCE). The problem of this study, therefore is to determine the influence of family background on Senior secondary Two (SS2) students' achievement in Biology.
The significance of this study lies on the fact that it will awaken the consciousness of Biology teachers to the fact that students came from different family background and therefore have different upbringing. So they will definitely exhibit different characters and behaviours. The outcome of the study will therefore enable the teachers to pay more attention to students' individual differences as they carry out their pedagogical activities in the classroom. This will go a long way to encourage the weak ones to begin to improve.
Statement of Problem
Biology plays significant roles in our society. Therefore Biology cannot just fold their arms and keep on looking and allow the standard of the subject to fall down completely without have anything done. The new National Policy on Education (1984) gave Biology a very strong position in the curriculum thereby making it a key subject at the secondary level of education and equally made it a compulsory subject at the institution level (school of sciences).
In the light of this concern, the research would be examining the following areas of interest
1. Genetics and
Many have debated on the relative significance of hereditary arid environmental factor in development. The theory of tabular Rassa by John Locke explains how the environment influences people. He emphasized that the children are influence by their immediate environment.
These factors are divided and would be examine at two different levels via:
1. Genetics factors
2. Environmental factors
2. Age of woman/parental age
4. Excessive use of X-ray therapy in some pregnant women
5. Mental retardation
6. Intelligent Quotation of the parent
7. Dominant and recessive gene of parent.
1. Parental care
2. Availability of competent Biology teachers
3. Good environment setting
4. Readiness of the students
5. Type of the people in the environment of the child
6. Availability of necessary teaching aids
7. The types of environment in which the child lives (urban or rural)
Purpose of Study
Some of the important aims carrying out this study are:
1. To find out some of the general factors that influence student's performance in secondary school in Biology as a subject in Ikere Local Government Area.
2. To find out some environmental factors influencing students performance in Biology in Ikere Local Government Area.
3. To provide possible solution to the problem.
1. Malnutrition has no effect on the performance of students in Biology.
2. Parental assistance has no significant effect on the performance of students in Biology.
3. Hereditary has no effect on the performance of students in Biology.
4. The I.Q of parent has no effect on the performance of students in Biology.
5. Readiness of students has no effect on the performance of students in Biology
6. Teaching aids contribute to the poor performance of students in Biology.
Significance of the Study
The specific objective of the study is to identify some genetic and environmental factors that affect students’ performance in secondary school in Ikere Local Government Area in Ekiti State.
The study will help people or make people realize that having genetic test is a crucial thing before marriage.
It will also enable the parent to consider types of environment in which they will develop their children.
It will enable the parents to take good care of one another in terms of food they should take during pregnancy.
Scope of the Study
This is the reason why the work is centred on one town in Ikere Local Government Area of Ekiti State.
The scope of data collection will be restricted to the period of study. This particular investigation covers only 10 secondary school teacher within Ikere Local Government Area.
Limitation of the Study
The study is limited to ten secondary schools in Ikere Local Government Area namely;
1. Demonstration Secondary School, Ikere-Ekiti
2. Amoye High School, Ikere-Ekiti
3. St. Louis Grammar School, Ikere-Ekiti
4. Bobas International High School, Ikere-Ekiti
5. Eleyo High School, Ikere-Ekiti.
6. Government College, Ikere-Ekiti
7. A.U.D. Grammar school, Ikere-Ekiti.
8. Comprehensive High School, Ikere-Ekiti
9. Annunciation Secondary School, Ikere-Ekiti.
10. Ajolagun Secondary School, Ikere-Ekiti
This study would have been designed to cover mere extensive area, but the researchers is constrained by lack of money; time constraint and transport problem to the remote areas.
Definition of Terms
1. Indisputable: That cannot be disputed.
2. Exceptional student: Student with a very high intelligent quotient.
3. Dishearten: Cause to lose confidence
4. Genetics: This is the science of the hereditary and related organism as produced by the interaction of the genes, the inherited feature and characteristics of an organism or group and types of organisms.
5. Environment: This is the place where people live, it contains the structures, topography, people living together the interaction between people and other factors.
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
This chapter presents review of related literature under the following sub-headings:
1. Concept of Biology.
2. Theoretical framework.
3. Mental retardation and parental age.
4. Intelligent quotient of parents
5. The genetic basis and academic of students
6. Beliefs about genetic influences of Biology achievement.