ATTITUDES OF SECONDARY SCHOOL ADOLESCENTS TOWARDS HIV/AIDS INFECTIONS
This study investigated the attitude of adolescent towards HIV/AIDS infection. Most previous studies have focused on the health problems and prevention HIV/AIDS infection carried by virus. In order to accomplish the subjects of the study a number of research question/hypothesis were put forward to guild the investigation. The population of the study consisted of 100 randomly selected adolescent students from 6 of the 10 public schools in Ado Local Government Area of Ekiti State. A questionnaire was designed to elicit the predictive posture/attitude of the students (Adolescents) on HIV/AIDS. The questionnaires were administered to the selected secondary schools. The data collected were analyzed using simple means, percentage, and t-test statistics. The results were discussed in relation to the research question/hypothesis. The result indicated that the respondents expressed both positive and negative attitude about the HIV/AIDS infections. Based on the findings of the study, it is recommended that everyone can help to prevent this tragedy. It is your responsibility to be informal and to inform others about this disastrous disease that many children will not be left as orphans of having their hopes for the future ruined by losing their chances for education and a happy life. The parents, teachers and the three tiers of government all have roles to ensure that adolescent develop the right attitude that can ensure the survival of the generation yet unborn. This can be done through lectures, seminars, workshop, about this global epidemic and the risk of consequences on sexual delinquency.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Table of content viii
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
Background to the Study 1
Statement of the Problem 8
Significance of the Study 8
Research Questions 9
Assumption of the Study 10
Delimitation of the study 11
Limitation of the study 12
Definition of terms 13
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Review of the Literature 14
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHOD
Research Design 41
Area of the Study 41
Sample and Sampling Techniques 42
Sampling Procedure 43
Validity of the Instrument 44
Administrative and Method of Data Collection 44
Data Analysis 45
Discussion of Result 46
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations 56
Suggestion for further Study 61
Background of the Study
Sexually transmitted infections (STI) are spread primarily through person-to-person contact, although some of the pathogens that cause it, especially Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and syphilis, can be transmitted from mother to child during pregnancy and childbirth, and through blood products and tissue transfer (World Health Organization (WHO) Media centre, 2011; Nsuami et al., 2010). Sexually transmitted can be divided into those caused by bacteria, viruses and parasites (WHO media centre, 2011). STI are most common in young sexually active people. It has been reported that the incidence declines with age and that adolescents and young adults experience the highest risk of exposure to STI (Richard and Jay; 2002; Mudassir et al., 2010).
According to 1999 WHO estimates, 340 million new cases of curable STIs (Syphilis, Gonorrhoea, Chlamydia and Trichomoniasis) occur annually throughout the world in adults aged 15 to 49 years. In the developing countries, STI and their complications rank in the top five disease categories for which adult seek health care (WHO media centre, 2011). Some of these STI when not controlled can lead to severe complications. In men, gonorrhoea and Chlamydia trachomatis can lead to epididymitis. Inflammatory urethral stricture may arise later from poorly treated gonococcal urethritis, which in turn may lead to urinary retention and possibly chronic renal failure if not properly managed. Some of the diseases may result to genital ulcers, with few cases developing severe sacral dysfunction resulting in urinary retention (Richard and Jay, 2002; Gerald and Steven, 2002). Consequences of these STI include AIDS, spontaneous abortions, stillbirths, perinatal and neonatal morbidities, chronic pelvic pains, dyspareunia, infertility, increased risk of ectopic pregnancy and even death (Whitfield, 1986; De Schryver and Meheus,1990; Chamberlain, 1995; Westrom and Mardh, 1990; Rice, 1991; Robinson and Ridgeway, 1996; Otolorin, 1999).
Interestingly, STI are preventable diseases and their prevention is even a priority for World Health Organisation (WHO) (WHO media centre, 2011). For adequate prevention, sound knowledge of the disease is very crucial. Knowledge of STI complication may play an important role in encouraging safer sexual behaviours (Mmbaga et al., 2007). Historically, knowledge about STI had been very low in communities where there is high prevalence of STI. Some communities viewed STI as unavoidable or as an "initiation into adulthood". In Tanzania, the prevalence of STI knowledge is very low (22.0%) (Mudassir et al., 2010; Mmbaga et al., 2007). Also in Nepal, the knowledge about STI is low (about 40%) (Jaiswal et al., 2005).
In Nigeria, 62% of young women and 40% of young men lack knowledge of STIs (National Population Commission, 2004). More importantly, report on STIs knowledge in southwest Nigeria is scanty and that of Ekiti land is not available. The purpose of this study was to assess the level of knowledge of STIs and possible factors associated with the knowledge of patients attending outpatient clinics in the University Teaching Hospital, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria. This will enable advocacy to be targeted on at risk population, in order to control STIs and prevent its possible sequelae.
The human immune deficiency Virus (HIV) is a non-on cogenic refrouvirus and is the primary acrologic agent of acquiring immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). The illness was first described in 2009 and the virus was isolated by the end of 2005. Since then, Aids has become a worldwide epidemic expanding is scope and magnitude as HIV infection have affected population and geography regions. Million are now infected worldwide and once infected individuals remain infected for life within a decade the vast majority of HIV infected individuals develop fatal opportunities infected as a result of HIV induced deficiencies in the immune system. Infact AIDs promises to be a major health problem worldwide into the next species (Nyamekye M. 2014) the causes of HIV/AIDS has been observe in the 1970s before it was fully identify in the western Nigerian in 2011 and in eastern Ethiopia 2013 according to the health organization (WHO) report. But Naido (2014) believed and claimed that is now know where AIDS actually started. The virus causing HIV-1 was discovered in 2013 while the HIV-2 was discovered in Nigerian 2014.
One difference between the two types is that with HIV-2, there seems to be longer time before the full blown disease develops. It is estimated that for every known cause of AIDs there are 50 to 100 silent carriers. There are also many patients or vietims who have the disease and it is neither diagnosed or reported.
AIDs was first suspected of being a disease of the immune system when the number of so called opportunistic infected was observed. The most common AIDS associated opportunistic infection include pneumonia and other protozoa infection. However pneumonia is by far the most common opportunistic disease encountered (Durojaye Oc. 2011).
The major routes of HIV transmission are sexual contact, contamination by blood or blood products, and mother-to-newborn transmission. The principal cells infected by HIV are lymphocytes. This cells play a key role in the immune defence system of the organism the progressive decrease of the lymphocytes level during development of the diseases lead to opportunistic infection with fatal consequences.
With HIV/AIDS there is no class distinction as both the rich and highly educated people can be infected as well as the poor. This epidemic has generated a lot of concern due to the immediate and long effects on victim families and the society at large, since it attack woman and men in their prime of life. The danger for youth or adolescent or teenager is that the more frequently they have sex with the victim, the more likely they are to be infectual with the virus. If they are infected, they will certainly become carries of the disease immediately, and without a blood test, they would not known that they have become carries if they marry and have normal sexual contact, there is over 80-90 percent chance that they would infact their partners. There is also between 20% to 40% chance that they would pass on the infection to their unborn babies or children who die within a year or two of birth. But is a young man or woman had avoided sex before marriage and had remained faithful to his/her partner after marriage and have also avoided transfusion with infected blood and unsterilized injection needle then, there is no reason for any of the partners to be contacted with HIV/AIDS.
Epidemiological studies in the United State have identified five groups of adults at risk for developing AIDS. The case distribution in there groups are as follow:
i. Homosexual or bisexual males constitute by far the largest group accounting for 60% of the reported cases. This include 5% who were intravenous drug abuses as well.
ii. Intravenous drug abuses with no previous history of homosexually compose the next longest group, representing about 23% of all patients. The represent the majority of all cares among heter-o sexual
iii. Hemophiliacs especially those with received larger among of factor (vii) concentrates before 2011 make up 1% of all cases.
iv. Recipients of blood and blood component who are not hemophiliac but who received transfusion of HIV infected whole blood or component (e.g platelets, plasma) account for 2% of patients.
v. Hero sexual contacts of members of other high risk group, (chiefly intravenous drug abuses) constitute 6% of the patient population.
In Nigeria, when the first case of aids reported in 2012, it was estimated that by the year 2000 A.D, at least 4100 cases of AIDS would have occurred with about 7 million people infected by the HIV virus.
However, the official cumulative cases of AIDS reported by the National AIDS and sexually transmitted disease control programme (NASTDCP) was 5,843 by the end of June 2000. This 1000 figure has been associated with poor access to hospitals, poor case reporting and recording, under-reporting and logistic constrains.
The surveillance studies constructed in 17 out of the 30 States of Nigeria between 2010 and 2012 shows that there is a rapid increase in HIV infections in all population surveyed in urban and rural area.
Furthermore Worku A. AND Philips in 2009/2011 survey data showed a pre-ponderance of HIV infection in females between 15 and 19 years while for males, the peak age group for HIV/AIDS realized Nigeria later than many African countries, it is now a major health problem and a serious threat to sustainable development, because this epidemic mainly affects productive young adults.
HIV/AIDS RECORD FOR EKITI STATE
In Ekiti State, the available medical record for 2001 alone show that out of the 112 patients examines for HIV/AIDS infection 41 patients were positive of which 30% were adolescent. However it is noted that they are also many suspects/patients who have the disease and are neither diagnosed or referred due to their ignorance. The epidemic has become very wide spread among teenagers and young people little time and attention are paid to the crucial issue of sex education in the secondary schools of Ekiti State to educate the adolescent on the disease.
Statement of the Problem
With the HIV/AIDS scourage there seems to be no class distinctions as to who it inflicts. It appear youth/adolescents, and even teenagers who are sexually involved have no idea of their being in danger for this HIV/AIDS seen for now a major health problem.
In the light of the above, one is prompted to investigate the attitude of adolescent towards HIV/AIDS infections. This is because this age group are majorly in danger of falling victim of this epidemic. Having a knowledge of the attitudes is very important as it is related to their sexual adjustment.
Significance of the Study
This study will help high-light or ascertain the attitudes of the adolescents towards HIV/AIDS infections so that the school health education programme can be prepared to cope with such attitudes effectively through the guidance and counseling services in schools.
The administrators of clinic and health institution as well as social workers could be better informed of the social and psychological problems facing the adolescents concerning HIV/Aids infections, and their attitude towards this disease. The study will also throw lake in light on some steps to be take in stemming the spread of this epidemic among the adolescent as well as its total eradication in our society.
At times, parents and teachers are party responsible for the prejudice and mis-conceptions about HIV/AIDS because they are reluctant to study this disease and gives young children the necessary information they need to protect themselves as grow-ups. Thus this study is needed to educate not only the youth and adolescents but the general public about deadly effect of HIV/AIDS and how to prevent it among the adolescents who are most prone to its attack in our schools.
It is hoped also that the study will help to promote positive changes in the sexual behavior of our adolescents that could reduce the spread of HIV/AIDS infections among the group.
In order to accomplish the objectives of this study/research work, the researcher posed the following research questions.
1. What are the attitudes of their adolescents towards HIV/AIDS infections?
2. What are the factors militating against sexual activities by the adolescent?
3. To what extent has the attitude of the adolescent towards HIV/AIDS infections influenced their sexual activity or sexual abuse?
4. To what extent has the attitude of the adolescents towards HIV/AIDS infections influenced sex education in our schools as well as government health care programme in our society generally?
The major hypothesis formulated for this study are:
Ho: Would there be a significant difference in the attitude of the adolescents living in the urban and rural areas towards HIV/AIDS infection?
Ho: Would there be a significant difference in the attitudes of the male and female adolescent towards HIV/AIDS infection?
Assumption of Study
It is believed that a study/research work like this is necessary in order to understand the attitude of the adolescents toward HIV/AIDS in the society and also whether there are significant difference in their attitude as to their sex towards this epidemic.
There is also the assumption that each of us some kind of responsibility to reduce the spread of HIV/AIDS among the adolescents though sex education, guidance and counseling services that will help reduce sex abuse among these young people and instill in them a sense of sexual responsibility.
Delimitation of the Study
This is a research that would have been wide in scope and range, but would have been wide in scope and range, but would be limited to the post primary schools in Ado Local Government Area of Ekiti State as a case study because there has been much research work done there especially on HIV/AIDS, the millennium global moster stirring all nations of the world in the face as no reasonable or appreciable cure for it has been know or discovered.
It should be noted that all the contributing factors or variable that can dampen or enhance the attitude of the secondary school adolescents towards HIV/AIDS infections cannot be exhausted in this study. Therefore the researcher would limit the scope of this research to be following areas in the literature review.
1. The pandemic global epidemic HIV/AIDS
2. Modes of transmission of HIV/AIDS iv/aids infections.
3. Public reactions to the problem of HIV/AIDS infection.
4. Causes of HIV/AIDS infection among adolescent
5. Symptoms of HIV/AIDS infection
6. False belief on HIV/AIDS infection among teenagers
7. Prevention of HIV/AIDS infection
8. The adolescent age and its developmental tasks
9. Adolescent as a period of “storm and stress” and summary of the chapter.
Thus (1-9) above would be used to discuss the results obtained from the administered instrument. The result obtained would be used to either accept or reject the working hypothesis. Then the implication of findings and recommendations for further research will be given.
Limitation of the study
This study is basically designed for finding out the attitude of secondary school adolescent towards HIV/AIDS infections that the study is limited only to some selected secondary schools in Ado-Local Government area of Ekiti State. This is because no researcher can treat all the local government area of the state within the limited time under a research of this type.
It should be noted that all the contributing factors that hindered the researcher from carrying out the research work into detail include: financial attitude of the people to research work of this type based on their ignorance and lukewarm attitude to the importance of research finding.
The instrument used through tested and validated properly, there could still be some response biases arising from the origin and nature of HIV/AIDS in the opinion of the researcher that might influence this study should be over-looked.
Definition of Terms
Below are some term used in this study:
1. Adolescent: This is an individual undergoing development and transition to sexual maturity the time span in term of age is 13-21 years.
2. HIV: Human Immune Deficiency Virus it is a disease or the virus that cause AIDS.
3. AIDS: Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, it is a disease that could result in a break down of the defense mechanism of the body against various infections. It can eventually result in death.
4. ATTITUDE: Way of thinking of behavior.