STRATEGIES FOR ESTABLISHING LIVESTOCK FARMS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS - UNIPROJECTS

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STRATEGIES FOR ESTABLISHING LIVESTOCK FARMS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS



STRATEGIES FOR ESTABLISHING LIVESTOCK FARMS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS  
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
TITLE PAGE                                                                                    
APPROVAL PAGE                                                                          
CERTIFICATION                                                                                     
DEDICATION                                                                                 
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS                                                             
TABLE OF CONTENTS                                                                           
ABSTRACT                                                                                    
CHAPTER
  I      INTRODUCTION                                                                      
          Background of the Study                                                                                   Statement of the Problem                                                                
          Purpose of the study                                                              
          Significance of the Study                                                                
          Scope of the study                                                                           
          Research Question                                                                            
II       REVIEW OF LITERATURE                                                        
III     METHODOLOGY                                                               
          Introduction                                                                           
Research Design                                                                     
          Area of the Study                                                                 
               Population of the Study                                                             
  Sample of the Study                                                                              
  Instrument for Data Collection                                                   
 Validation of the Instrument                                                 
Method of Data collection                                                     
Method of data analysis                                                          29-30                                                                            
chnique ple     
IV        PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA                                  
V       SUMMARY, CONCLUSION ANDRECOMMENDATIONS 
          Summary                                                                                
Conclusion                                                                           
Recommendations                                                                            
          REFERENCES                                                               

   ABSTRACT
This project is to assess the strategies of establising livestock farm in secondary school in Ondo State. The study aim at determining things to be considered in establishing livestock farm, procedures for establishing a livestock farm, systems of livestock production and type of livestock to kept and reasons for keeping livestock. It also examined the problems encountered and the way by which livestock production in secondary schools can generally be improved. The major instrument used for data collection for the study was the questionnaire completed by the agricultural science teachers in the secondary schools sampled in Ondo State. Data collected were analysed by simple percentages and by means. Based on the data analysed, the following findings were made; only few principals encouraged livestock keeping in the schools. Inadequate capital, improper management, inadequate security, pest and diseases were the major problems facing livestock production in secondary schools. It is recommended that federal, state and local government agricultural support system like the A.D.P, finance houses, philantrophic organization and of course the school authorities through their budget should all contribute either in
cash or kind towards the enhancement of livestock production in secondary schools. Teachers of agricultural education should be made to attend seminar and workshops in livestock management so as to update and broaden their knowledge.

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Background of the study
Agriculture is the art and science of systematic production of plants and animals for man’s use through concerted human management. According to Adegbola and Komolafe (1985) agriculture occupies a strategic position in the social, economic and political development of a nation. A nation that cannot feed her citizens is not only weak but has no basis for continued existence. No wonder Sayarin (1826) said “Tell me what you eat and I will tell you what you are. The fate of nations depend upon how they are feed”.
Tower (1994) defined Animal Science as the scientific study of the structure, breeding and management of livestock.
The term is most often used for domestic mammals raised for meat, meat production or dairy products (e.g cattle, swine, horses, goats, sheep). Livestock animals are kept under human control. They depend on him solely for food, shelter and protection (Midinyawa 2004).
During the 19th century, a research was made into animal production and much particular attention was paid to the reproduction, breeding, feeling and the care of animals (Sivia, 2009). Examples of such animals are: cattle (beef and diary) sheep goat. Buffalo, reindeer, pigs, poultry, rabbit. These animals are reared in large numbers in the world today, since after independence, successive governments have been aware and have made some efforts to find lasting solutions to problems confronting agricultural production especially the livestock industry in the country. Most of the efforts have been directed at formulating a number of policy measures to enhance agricultural development. These policies manifested in the series of agricultural programmes developed for the promotion of agricultural production, research, extension services and other agricultural, services.
The presents day objectives of animal domestication or livestock raising include the following stated by (Mijinyawa 2004).
As a source of food supply: Livestock products such as meat, milk, egg, blood and cheese and very rich in various nutrients required by man. They can either be cooked and eaten directly or processed into dairy products.
Raw materials: Hides skins, wool, fur, bones, feathers and hoots are raw material. For the manufacture of various items used by man which are being processed to leather, bag, shoes, belts, gloves, sandals, foot ball case and many other product’s. They provide manure for crops and their droppings are also used to make some manural materials. Carcass, feathers and hoofs can  be used when decayed as manure to enrich agricultural land. The faeces can also be used in the production of biogas and construction of granaries such as the rhumbu.
Animal bones are also used in the production of ceramics and in food production as mineral supplement.
Livestock can also serve as experimental animals by researchers and students of agriculture, biology and medicine.
They provide a source power: Animals such as the camels, horses and donkeys are used for the transportation of goods and persons from place to place while others such as the oxen provide draught power which can be utilized in various agricultural operations.
Religion and culture: In some parts of Northern Nigeria most house holds have livestock in their compounds to provide meat for the women, most of who are in “purdah” and cannot freely go to the market for their needs. In some communities, the keeping of a particular type of livestock animal may be done because it is used for rituals. The Buddha religions regards the cow as a sacred animal and as a result many families who practice Buddhism rear cattle in their home because of its sacredness. People of the Islamic faith slaughter animals especially the rain during their “id-El-kabir festival and the ram is raised mainly to meet the annual demand.              
o        They are reserve of family wealth as if is with the nomadic Fulani’s who determine a man’s wealth by the size of his herd of cattle 
o        They are source of foreign exchange earring to a country
o        Sports and recreation: Animal such as Bell is reared for sporting activities such as “Polo” game while some people take pleasure in riding on the animals like horse as a form of relaxation especially in the evenings
o        As a source of employment. The raising of livestock on a large scales, requires move labour than what a family can conveniently provide
Both skilled and unskilled labour a usually required in the industry and hence different classes of people can be employed

Statement of the Problem
Even though the curriculum for secondary school agricultural education emphasized the management of at least one ruminant animal and one non-ruminant animal in each secondary school, this has not been practiced in some secondary school’s in Ondo State.
This project is therefore designed to find out the strategies for establishing livestock farms in secondary school in Ondo State.
Purpose of Study
The general purpose of this study is to determine strategies for establishing livestock farms in secondary schools in Ondo States.
Specifically the study seeks to find out:
1.                 Things to be considered in establishing livestock farms
2.                 Procedure for establishing livestock farms
3.                 Things to be considered in planning livestock programme
4.                   Determine the systems of keeping livestock farm
5.                 activities needed for selecting good livestock for the farm
6.                 Determine the appropriate feed stuffs for livestock
7.                 Types of livestock to be kept
Significant of the Study
The result of this study will enhance the promotion of livestock in secondary schools in Ondo State by the following reasons.
a.                 It will enhance interest of teachers and students of agriculture in secondary schools in livestock production. And this will lead to full participation of the student and teachers in animal rearing.
b.                 It will also create the awareness of the school management to the strategies and benefits that could be derived in livestock production
Scope of the Study
For the purpose of clarity and avoidance of doubt the study “strategies for establishing livestock in secondary schools in Ondo State only focuses attention in how establish livestock farm in secondary schools within this particular area.
Research Questions
The following research questions are formulated for this study
1.                 What are the things to be considered in establishing livestock farms?
2.                 What are the procedures needed for establishing livestock?
3.                 What are the system of livestock production?
4.                 What are the reasons for keeping livestock?
5.                 What are the activities needed in planning a livestock programme?
6.                 What are the facilities needed for livestock production?
7.                 What are the types of livestock that will be adaptable to the environment?
8.                 What are the personnel required for managing livestock factors?
9.                 What are the source of fund for secondary schools that wish to embark on livestock production?
10.            What are the possible problems that can affect livestock production?
11.            How do you control pests and diseases on the farm?