AN ASSESSMENT OF CHLORIDE IONS IN WELL WATER SITUATED AROUND DUMPSITES IN IKERE-EKITI, EKITI STATE. - UNIPROJECTS

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AN ASSESSMENT OF CHLORIDE IONS IN WELL WATER SITUATED AROUND DUMPSITES IN IKERE-EKITI, EKITI STATE.



AN ASSESSMENT OF CHLORIDE IONS IN WELL WATER SITUATED AROUND DUMPSITES IN  IKERE-EKITI, EKITI STATE.
 
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TITLE PAGE                             ...                                     i
APPROVAL PAGE                   ...                                     ii
CERTIFICATION                               ...                                     iii
DEDICATION                           ...                                     iv
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS…       ...                                     v
TABLE OF CONTENTS…          ...                                     vi
ABSTRACT                    ...                                           viii

CHAPTER ONE
Background of the Study                    ...                                     1
Introduction                     ...                                                 1

CHAPTER TWO
Review of Related Literature…               ...                                     7
Leachate Effect                 ...                                     ..        10
Cancer Effect                    ...                                           12
Health and Nuisance Problem…             ...                               12

CHAPTER THREE
Sampling                ...                                                 17
Population of the Study…            ...                                     17
Samples Collection…          ...                                           18
Samples Preservation…       ...                                           18
Experimental…          ...                                                 18
Laboratory Procedure…                ...                                           19
Precautions…             ...                                                 20

CHAPTER FOUR
Presentation of Result and Analysis of Data …         ...                   21

CHAPTER FIVE
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation…         ...                   27
Summary                ...                                                 27
Conclusion             ...                                                 28
Recommendation…             ...                                           29
References…              ...                                                 30
 
ABSTRACT
An assessment of the concentration of chloride ion in selected well water located around dumpsites in Ikere town of  Ekiti State was carried out.   Sixteen  (16) well water samples were collected from selected wells situated around dumpsites in different cardinal areas of  Ikere town vis a vis: Ado Road, Oke-Osun road, Moshood road and College Road. Morh’s method which is an accurate reliable and widely used analytical method was used to determine the concentration of chloride ion in the selected well water samples. The result of the analysis revealed that all the levels of chloride ion obtained in the four cardinal areas of Ikere town are still within the normal permissible level of 250mg/L recommended by USEPA for normal level of chloride ion in water. The result also revealed that the well water  in these areas are good for drinking.
 CHAPTER ONE
BACKGROUND OF STUDY
INTRODUCTION
          Drinking water quality is a relative term that relates the composition with effects of natural processes and human activities George Wattson (2002). Deterioration of drinking water quality arises from introduction of chemical compounds into the water supply system through leaks and across collection.
          Pollution is a major problem in Nigeria which had caused severe effect on human health improper management of wastes especially treatment and disposal of solid and liquid wastes are the major contributors to urban area pollution. The combined results of these problems lead to drinking water contamination which is detrimental to human health.
          Over two billion people of the world’s polluted population have suffered diseases like cholera, rivers blindness etc related to drinking polluted waters diseases cases occur in tropical areas.  MC Peters (2001). The relationship between water quality and health problems are complicated and include both negative and positive effects Tebbute (2004). More than 250 million new cases of water borne diseases cases occur in tropical areas. The Bonn international conference on freshwater in (2001) revealed that half of the people in Africa continent suffered water related diseases.
          Rainfall is one of the factors affecting water quality as it can wash dissolved nutrients into the water shed and increase the organic carbon level and can also depress alkalinity levels and stimulate corrosion White (2000). However, during raining season, the watching of substances into the rivers  suggest contamination. High concentrations can be damaging to metal pipes and structures as well as to agricultural crops Adam (2001).
          Drinking water sources are often contaminated with a variety of pathogenic organism, that include viruses, bacteria and protozoa that could be responsible for outbreaks of water borne diseases. The primary purpose of chlorinating drinking water is disinfection. The introduction of drinking water treatment early in 20th century including disinfection with chlorine reduced the rates of illness and death from waterborne pathogens curter and miller (2005).
          Almost all natural waters contain chloride ions. This concentration may vary according to what mineral it presents. In small amounts they are not significant. In large concentration they present problems. Usually chloride concentrations are low. Low to moderate concentration adds palatability to water. Excessive concentrations can make water unpleasant to drink USEPA (2002).
          The USEPA (2002) recommends a maximum concentration 250mg/L for chloride ion in water. This upper limit has been set for the chloride ions, though at this limit few people will notice the taste. Higher concentration may indicate possible health effects and pollution.
          An increase of chloride ion in water would suggest contamination. High concentration can be damaging to metal pipes and structures as well as to agriculture. Hughes (2000). Water may carry moderate amount of dirty organic debris and suspended materials as rivers move close to inhabited areas, water quality can deteriorate further, although rivers have the tendency of natural self-purification. The quality, of surface water (Rivers and Streams) is dynamic and can change within the catchments area. Small streams may carry clear water for most part of the year (America water works association 2003) during the rainy season.
          Chemical parameters of drinking water quality give an indication of water acceptability of human consumption which can be domestic use, agricultural use and industrial use Chatwell et al (2006). The chemical parameters must be taken into consideration in the assessment of water quality such as source protection, treatment efficiency and reliability and protection of the distribution networks WHO (2002). In most natural waters, the PH is controlled by the carbon dioxide carbonate bicarbonate equilibrium system. An increase in carbon dioxide concentration will lower the PH whereas a decrease will cause it to rise. The PH values of water may also be affected by domestic sewage (Generally neutral or slightly alkaline).
          Industrial wastes may be strongly acidic or alkaline depending on the type of industry. This industrial waste contribute to the increase in chloride ion of the water. Rain can result in the proportionally high levels of dissolved minerals or nutrients in a particular water source. A quality standard sets the acceptability levels of concentration for pollutants in water to be used for various purpose e.g. drinking, irrigation, aqua culture etc.
          In Nigeria, the leakage in the transmission or distribution system contributes to the infiltration of sediments and contamination into piped water. This problem becomes severe when sewage and piped water systems treatment can also be a source of contamination of drinking water (Lohani 2001).
          Distance travelled, age of pipes and extent of internal deposition in main and conduct are the key factors contributing towards drinking water contamination. The ground water quality on the other hand is relatively uniform throughout an aquifer changes in quality occur slowly due to the fact that it is not exposed to the air and is not as subject to direct pollution and contamination results either from improper well construction or poor waste disposal facilities America water works Association (2003).
          Chloride ion is one of the major ions in water and Sewage. The salty taste it produces is variable and depends on what other components the water has when water contains 250mg/L of chloride and sodium ions are present in water it may have a detectable salty taste. On the other hand water may not taste salty if calcium and magnesium ions are present in it and chlorine ions may reach as much as 1000mmg/L Adam (2001). Any increase of Chloride ion in water would cause severe diseases to human health which is dangerous (Carwight and Sherma 2005).
          Municipal and industrial waste water discharges was increase, the chloride ions values of rivers as well Bhattacharya (2004).
          Chloride ion is the traditional measure of the capacity of water to react with soap. Chloride ion makes up about 1.9% of the mass of sea water. Most chloride salts are highly soluble in water that is why they are rich in dry climate or deep underground. Chloride ion is abundant in nature and necessary to most forms of  life including human. Chloride (Cl2) does not exist naturally but can be produce through electrolysis of Nacl dissolved in water or by the hydrogen chloride oxidation process White (2000).
          The uses of chloride in the treatment of drinking water play a major role in reducing or even eliminating water borne diseases Bull (2000). Chloride can be also added to water algal, fungal and bacterial growth  to control the slime growth, restore well capacity, control taste and odours and disinfect water white (2001).