The study examined the impact of classroom learning environment on the performance of students in civic education in upper Basic education in Niger state, Nigeria. The objectives of the study were: to determine the impact of teachers qualification on the performance of students in Civic Education in Niger state, determine the impact of classroom building on the performance of students in civic education in upper Basic Education in Niger state, examine the impact of class size on the performance of students in Civic Education in upper basic education in Niger state ascertained the impact of the use of instructional materials on the performance of students in civic education upper Basic education in Niger state, Nigeria. Research questions as well as hypothesis were all in line with the objectives of the study. The study adopted ex-post facto research was adopted,the target population of the study was 21,998 which comprised of principals,Civic teachers and civic students, 377 was sampled from the target population, a simple random techniques was used.In similar manner, Civic Education teachers were selected using the simple random sampling techniques, while principals were purposively selected. A self structured questionnaire with 40 items and modified likert scale and end of termExaminations score of JSS II Civic Education students were used as instrument for Data collection. The instrument was subjected to reliability analysis and were found to be reliable at 0.74, Direct system of Administration and collection of questionnaire was used, with collaboration with one research assistant.Mean and standard deviation were used to respond to research questions while non parametric statistics of Krustal walliswas used to test the hypotheses at 0.05 significance, value in addition SPSS was used. The findings of the study revealed that;teachers‟ qualification significantly influence the performance of students in civic education (p-value of 0.003 <a0.05). The result shows that, classroom buildinghave significantimpact on the performance of students in civic education because learning cannot be effective in an unconducive classroom (p-value of0.    285 >a0.05). The result indicates that, Classes with more than 45 students do not foster greater interaction among students and teacher (p-value of 0. 000 <a0.05). Result shows that, the use of instructional material for class-room instruction boost the cognitive abilities of students in Civic Education (p-value of 0. 009 >a0.05).Based on the findings of the study, it was concluded that building have significant impact on the teaching and learning of Civic Education which ultimately influences students‟ performance. In views of this, academic performance is generally referred to how well a student is accomplishing his/her tasks and studies, but there are quite a number of factors that determine the level and quality of students‟ academic performance. The study recommended that teachers qualification should be put into consideration as it influences performance of students in Civic Education. Study also recommend that school management, both private and government school teachers should note that classroom building should be put in place because it hasimpact on the performance of student in civic education and learning cannot be effective in an unconducive classroom. It also recommended that classes with more than 45 students do not foster greater interaction among students and teacher and should be discouraged in order to make learning more effect




 1.1         Background to the Study

 Generally education is the corner stone for development. It forms the basis for literacy, skill acquisition, technological advancement and ability to harness human and material resources towards the achievement of societal goal, Federal Republic of Nigeria (FRN, 2013), National Policy on Education. It is commonly understood that democratic self-governance requires informed and educated citizens to support the development of nation.

 This explains why government of nations spend huge sum of money on educating her citizens,that is why the Nigeria Government had since developed educational policies over the years and is still developing. In Nigeria since 1977 a national policy on education was inaugurated. This has been reviewed over the years to reflect the changing needs of the nation and global trends in education. To attain its educational objectives, Nigeria education system is in three levels, the basic, secondary and tertiary levels. The basic education levelfurther broken into the lower (primary 1-3) middle (primary 4-6) and the upper basic (JSS 1-3). The objectives of basic education outlined in the Federal Republic of Nigeria (FRN, 2014) are: Ensure unfettered access to nine (9) year of formal basic education, the provision of free, Universal Basic Education for every Nigerian child of school going age, reducing drastically the incidence of drop-out from the formal school system, through improved relevance, quality and efficiency. Ensuring the acquisition of appropriate levels of literacy, numeracy, manipulative communicative and life skills as well as the ethical, moral and civic values needed for laying a solid foundation for life-long learning. To attain these objectives a number of subjects were outlined in the curriculum these include: Basic Science, Social Studies, Christian religious studies (CRS), Islamic religious studies (IRS) and Civic Education. Civic Education is one of the core subjects for the entire basic

education level.

 According to Collins (2014) Civic education is the study of the theoretical, political and practical aspects of citizenship, as well as its rights and duties; the duties of citizens to each other as members of a political body and to the government. It includes the study of civil law and civil code, and the study of government with emphasis on the role of citizens as opposed to external factors in the operation and oversight of government. The aim and objectives of civic education include: to teach right attitudes, encourage good citizenship, inculcate good leadership and fellowship, to encourage the spirit of friendship and cooperation and to discourage unholy and bad behaviours. Federal Government of Nigeria (FGN 2013). To attain these objectives, civic education requires an enabling learning environment for teaching.

Learning environment includes classroom spaces, planning administrative places, planning circulation spaces, spaces for conveniences andgeneral infrastructure planning. The teachers as well as the students themselves are essential in teaching-learning process. The extent to which students‟ learning could be enhanced depends on their location within the school compound, the structure of their classroom availability of instructional facilities and accessories (Ibrahim 2016).


According to (Osborne, 2013), learning environments vary from classroom to classroom and context to context. There are four types of learning environments, each with unique elements. Learning environments can be student- or learner-centered; knowledge-centered; assessment-centered; and community-centered.


Learner-Centered Environments: pay close attention to the needs of the studentswho bring culture, beliefs, attitudes, skills, and knowledge to the learning environment. A learner-centered teacher builds on the conceptual and cultural knowledge of each student. The classroom is often involved in discussion, where the students do much of the talking and construct their own meaning 

based on prior knowledge and experiences. The teacher acts as a bridge between new learning and what students already know (Osborne, 2013).


Knowledge-Centered Environments: focuses on helping students learn information with deep understanding so that students can use it in new situations and contexts. Teachers who believe in knowledge-centered classrooms believe that rote memorization does not lead to true understanding and only helps students learn at the surface. Deep learning involves learning through problem-solving. An example of this type of learning environment is one where a teacher directly teaches a concept, such as how to find area and perimeter. The teacher would then take this concept one step further, connecting this new knowledge to a real-life scenario (Osborne, 2013).


For Assessment-Centered Environments, to be effective, learning environments must also be assessment-centered, which stress the importance of feedback to learning. Students need opportunities to get feedback so they can revise their work. Assessments must match learning goals. Formative, or classroom assessment, used to improve teaching and learning, is a constant source of feedback throughout the context of a course. Examples include teacher comments on work and quick checks for understanding in the classroom. Summative, or end-of-unit or course assessment, measures what students have learned by the end of a period of learning activities. Examples include state-wide assessment tests and teacher-made end-of-unit exams(Osborne, 2013).


Learning is the process of acquiring new or modifying existing knowledge, behaviours, skills, values, or preference. Learning may occur as a result of habituation or classical conditioning or as a result of more complex activities such as play. Learning may occur consciously or without awareness. Essentially, learning is a process, which involves changes in the behavior of learners


(Guga and Bawa, 2015). One of the factors to consider is a conducive learning classroom environment that enhances effective teaching and learning. According to (Sang, 2013), learners learn and perform better when their classrooms are well organized to give enough space to the learners and provide arrangement of starting points for their ideas. Students perform well in an optimistic classroom atmosphere and environment in which they feel secure, safe, cared for and involved (Saminu, 2014).


A good learning environment presents learning as a life-long business and enables students to discover appropriate value system that can be their guide for self-discovery in the classroom.Classroom learning environment is one of the most important factors affecting students‟ learning. Such an environment provides relevant content, clear learning goals and feedback, opportunities to build social skills and strategies to help students succeed (Weimer, 2009). It is a general knowledge that this condition of classroom learning environment includes physical set-up such as infrastructural development which to a great extent has vital impact on both the teachers‟ effectiveness and students‟ academic performance in teaching and learning process.


Academic performance refers to the degree of a student‟s accomplishment of his or her tasks and studies. The most well known indicator of measuring academic performance is grades which reflect the students‟ “score” for their subjects and overall tenure. Success is measured the by academic performance in most educational system. Students‟ academic performance largely depends on the impact and influence the environment has on them. Low performance on student academically is inevitable especially where there is environmental setting or un-conducive academic environment (Duruji, Azuh and Oviasogie, 2014).

 According to Niger State Ministry of Education (2017) less than 43% of students that sat

for junior secondary school examination could not pass with a credit level in Civic Education. Situation analysis observed by the study shows that most of the teachers are still using traditional method of teaching, poor evaluation method, poor study environment as most of the class room are in deplorable condition, over population of students in the class, unqualified teachers among other problems. This study, therefore, investigates the Impact of classroom learning Environment on the performance of students in Civic Education in Upper Basis Education in Niger State Nigeria. The researcher is of the view that the findings of the study could help enhance the performance of students in the subject thereby improving the society generally.

 1.2         Statement of the Problem

 In Niger state like other states in Nigeria, the classroom learning environment in the Basic schools has not been uniform as observed by the study. While some, especially in the urban areas and local government headquarters are provided with adequate classrooms, the appropriate caliber of teachers and stationary. On a visit to some of these schools by the researcher, some schools‟do not really lack quality teacher, but even their roof have been blown by storms, some schools without windows. Some school students are made to sit and learn under the shade of trees,during lesson delivery. The awful surrounding of most of the schools both inside and outside is very poor, no ceiling, buildings are cracked, the classroom size is too small, that could hardly accommodate students ill functional libraries, unequipped laboratory, obsolete instructional materials, unqualified teachers among others. The question therefore is how have the students been able to learn under such a hash environment?

 Perhaps if adequate instructional materials, quality classroom building, good study environment, qualify teachers are provided in the civic education teaching and learning, this may improve the performance of civic education students in Niger State. Against this background this

study is out to investigate how classroom environment has impacted on the academic performance of Upper Basic Education students in Niger State Nigeria.


1.3         Objectives of the Study

 The following are the objectives of the study; To

 1.                  determine the impact of teachers qualification on the performance of students in Civic education in upper basic education in Niger State Nigeria,

 2.                  determine the impact of classroom buildings on the performance of students in Civic Education in Upper Basic Education Niger State Nigeria,

 3.                  examine the impact of class size on the performance of students in Civic Education in Upper Basic Education Niger State, and;

 4.                  ascertain the impact of the use of instructional materials on the performance of students in Civic Education in Upper Basic Education Niger State Nigeria.

 1.4         Research Questions

 The research questions are as follows;

 1.                  What is the impact of teachers‟ qualification on the performance of students in civic education in Upper Basic Education in Niger State Nigeria?

 2.                  What is the impact of classroom buildings on the performance of students in civic Education in Upper Basic Education in Niger state Nigeria?

 3.                  What is the impact of class size on the performance of students in Civic Education in

 Upper Basic Education in Niger State

 4.            What impact does the use of instructional materials have on the performance of students in Civic Education in Upper Basic Education in Niger State Nigeria?

 1.5         Hypotheses

The following hypotheses were formulated to guide the study:

H01.     Teachers‟ qualifications have no significant impact on students‟ performance in civic Education in Niger State Nigeria

H02.    Classroom buildings have no significant impact the performances of students in Civic Education in upper basic education in Niger State Nigeria

 H03.    Classroom size has no significant impact on the performance of Civic Education students in Upper Basic Education in Niger State

 H04.    The use of instructional materials for teaching Civic Education at upper basic in Niger State has no significant impact on the performance of students.

 1.6         Significance of the Study

 The findings of this study will be of significance to Education Stakeholders such as; Students, Teachers, Parents Teacher Association (P.T.A), Universal Basic Education Commission (UBEC), Niger State (SUBEB) Universal Basic Education Board, Textbooks Publishers Psychologists, Non-governmental organization such as United Nation Children and Education Fund (UNICEF) and United Nation Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as well as the Curriculum Developers and School Plant Planners and other researchers.

 The study is of relevance to students in such a way that it provides insights into the problems whose solution are helped in taking specific actions which efficiently and effectively address the poor performance of students as a result of the poor nature of secondary schools in Nigeria. Civic education student benefit from the study, as the use of instructional materials in teaching make them appreciate the local and international relevance of what they learn in school, while affording them the opportunity to apply Civic Education experience in the context.

 Furthermore, the study is relevant to teachers who are the principal agents of curriculum

  implementation because it helps in choosing an appropriate instructional material capable of releasing students‟ tension towards the subject. It motivates teachers to develop interest towards utilizing instructional materials, and selecting suitable teaching methods that will be a possible means towards reducing failure in the teaching and learning of civic education. It, equally, helps teachers to develop suitable methods for assessing students‟ academic performance in civic education. The findings of the study also sensitize Civic Education teachers on the benefits of the use of local resources as a strategy for teaching and it has greater effect on the academic performance of the students. The research findings as well form another dimension of innovations in the teaching and learning of civic education.

 The Parent Teachers Association (P.T.A) are indeed partners in managing the school which benefits from the study, the findings from the study inform the parent teachers association, the opportunity to have adequate knowledge of quality instructional material, good learning environment in these schools and the roles they can play in supporting the school with more instructional materials. It enables them to work harmoniously with the school and on how to use these resources so as to enhance the performance of students in civic education.

 The Ministry of Education officials in Niger State benefit from this study on issues relating to provision of instructional facilities in the Basic schools. The ministry of education officials are equipped with reliable and factual information concerning different resources used as facilities in these schools and the modalities to manage them and for planning purpose. The findings from this study informed them in playing a sensitive role aimed at the provision of a conducive learning environment and at same improving the standard of education. The Ministry of Education officials benefit from the study by having knowledge of different instructional facilities that can be used in these schools, which willserve as an input for effective law making and the legal framework


guiding its activities.


Findings from this research is significant to the textbook publishers of Civic Education textbooks as it exposed them to the importance of community-based resources in the teaching and learning of Civic Education in senior secondary schools in Niger State and Nigeria in general. It will also make them realize that the immediate community is a wonderful curriculum laboratory which provide extremely dynamic, interesting and real life opportunities for learning because every community has in its historical records the stories of people and resources woven into the pattern of its national development, researchers and scholarswill benefit from the findings of this study as it will provide them with academic literature on the impact of community-based resources on performance of secondary school students in civic education.


Non-Governmental Organization such as United Nation Children and Education Fund (UNICEF), United Nation Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), the findings gave the aforementioned international organization who are also key funders in the development of Education in centres like Nigeria the nature and learning environment of schools in the country, it enabled these organization to play the roles, aimed at providing funds in form of grant to enable the schools have adequate and comfortable learning environment. The study is relevant to the Universal Basic Education Commission (UBEC) and State Universal Basic Education Board (SUBEB) it helped to co-ordinate and implement their programmes and provided relevant resource for schools and other related agencies. The research work enable the UBEC and SUBEB to look into the pathetic situation so that they will render their assistance in building conducive classes, provision of relevant instruction materials as well as organizing workshops and seminars for staff capacity building and training.


Curriculum developers and school plant planners would hopefully benefit from this study.


This is so because both the school plant planners and the curriculum developers need information about the current state of learning environment especially the physical aspects either for the purpose of developing new school building or for reviewing or developing a new curriculum.

 1.7         Scope of the Study

 This study assessed the Impact of Classroom Learning Environment on the Performance of Students in Civic Education in Upper Basic Education in Niger State, Nigeria.In Niger State, there are seven (7) Educational zones which comprised of Bida zone, Minna, Kutigi, Rijau, Suleja, Lapai and Kontagora zones. The subject for this included theUpper Basic Education II, Civic Education Students, Civic Education Teachers and Principals of three zones out of the seven zones. The study covered all the Public Upper Basic Education Secondary Schools in the three (3) selected Educational Zones, which are Bida, Minna and Kutigi zones. The study is delimited to Upper Basic II students of all the selected public schools in the three (3) zones in Niger State. The study looked into the following variables; Teachers qualification, classroom building, class size and the impact of the use of instructional materials.




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