1.1     Background of the Study

Education is a means through which young and old members of the society are taught about the expected behaviour of the society and the rules of polity, the values, skills attitudes and knowledge that equip the individual to achieve personal and society development and progress. Danladi (2016), education is a process of teaching and learning in which students acquire practical knowledge, value and skills for effective participation in the society. He further said asserted that, the process of acquiring the relevant knowledge, attitude, values and skills must be made as concrete as possible for easy learning.

Instructional materials serve as a channel between the teacher and the students in delivering instructions. They may also serve as the motivation on the teaching-learning process. It is use to get the attention of the students and eliminate boredom. Instructional materials are highly important for teaching; especially for inexperienced teachers. Teachers rely on instructional materials in every aspect of teaching. They need material for background information on the subject they are teaching. Young teachers usually have not built upon their expertise whenever they enter into the field. Teachers often use instructional materials for lesson planning. These materials are also needed by the teachers to assess the knowledge of their students. Teachers often assess students by assigning tasks, creating projects, and administering exams. Instructional materials are essential for all of these activities (Nwachukwu, 2016).

The importance of Instructional Materials in any teaching/learning Process cannot be over emphasized. This is for the fact that such materials enhance, facilitate and make teaching/learning easy, lively and concrete. Instructional materials are the devices developed or acquired to assist or facilitate teachers in transmitting an organized knowledge, skills and attitudes to the learners within an instructional situation (Nwachukwu, 2016). To be precise, instructional materials are educational resources used for illustrating the content of instruction, thereby making learning more concrete and less abstract. The sequence in which learners encounter materials has direct effect on the achievement of the task. In providing closer experience to real situation, instructional material enhances acquisition and retention of factual information. Instructional material not only provide the necessary concrete experience but also help students integrate prior experience.

Statistic of entries and performance of students by grades In the May/June 2018 West African School Certification Result (WASSCE) in Nigeria shows that out of 202151 students that registered for Government, 46778 representing a percentage of 23.14 passed at credit and above while 93394 representing a percentage of 46.20 failed. In the year 2005, out of 199274 that enrolled for Government, only 49440 representing a percentage of 24.81 passed at credit level and above while 83655 representing a percentage of 41.98 failed. In the year 2006, out of 211552 that sat for the examination, only 102539 representing a percentage of 48.47 passed on credit level and above while 103449 representing a percentage of 48.90 failed. The performance of students in Government in 2006 fell below the 2005 level and fluctuated over the 3-year period. The drop in the performance level of Government calls for a review of current strategies in the teaching and learning of the subject. 

The traditional methods of teaching Government such as the discussion method, demonstration method, Socratic Method and project methods have been used but failed to impact the necessary knowledge and skills comprehensively. Okon (2015) equally believes that these traditional methods are not challenging enough to the needs of the students. Considering the fact that Government processes are more of practical which involved the active participation of every members of an instructional process to ensure that the whole processes is maximized. It will be fascinating to ascertain the impact of instructional material on the academic performances of students in Government.



1.2     Statement of the Problem

Most Government teachers are not well grounded in the use of and selection of a viable instructional material and as such the teaching and learning of Government has not been optimal. The poor performance of students in Government is evident in the overall results of students in such examinations as the General Certificate in Education (G.C.E); Senior Secondary School Certificate Examinations S.S.C.E and National Business and Technical Examination Board (NABTEB). Despite the efforts being made by Government teachers to revamp the performance of students, it appears much is still left to be done.

This high failure rate has been attributed to many factors including non-availability and non-utilization of instructional materials in teaching and learning of Government subjects in secondary schools in Nigeria. Shortage of qualified science teachers and lack of equipment amongst others have been identified as constraints against the advancement of science education in Nigeria. For Nigeria to meet up with the challenges of human capacity development for sustainable development there must be both material and human resources. The problem of the study put in question form: To what extent are the instructional materials available and utilized by Government teachers in teaching and learning Government? Thus, the researcher is poised to investigate the impact of instructional materials on the academic performance of Government students in senior secondary schools in Ekiti State.

1.3     Research Questions

                   i.            To what extents are availability of instructional materials are available for teaching of Government in senior secondary schools in Ikere Local Government Area of Ekiti State?

                 ii.            Do Government teachers utilize the available instructional materials in teaching Government in senior secondary schools?

1.4     Objective of the Study

The main objective of this research work is to investigate the effects of instructional materials on effective teaching and learning of government in senior secondary schools in Ikere Local Government Area of Ekiti State. The specific objectives of this study are to;

                   i.            examine the extent to which instructional materials are available for teaching of Government in the senior secondary schools in Ikere Local Government Area of Ekiti State.

                 ii.            find out the extent to which teachers utilize the available instructional materials in teaching Government in senior secondary schools in the study area.


1.5     Significance of the Study

          The study is significant in a number of ways to students, teacher, community and government. The students will benefit from this study in the sense that they will be able to put what they learn theoretically into practice through the resources available in the schools. The students’ interest and attitude will increase towards learning of Government as a result of adequate resources in the schools.

Teachers will benefit from this study by improving their teaching methods, educate them more on adopting other methods of teaching through the proper use of instructional material and it will also help to improvise using locally available material as teaching aids, thus reducing cost and increasing efficiency in the community. Government will also understand some of their responsibility that can promote the teaching of Government in secondary schools for profitability and cultural heritage.

The study will also assess and recommend to government, teachers and students possible ways of improving teaching and learning of Government subject in secondary schools.

1.6     Research Hypotheses

                               i.            There is no significant difference between the perception of male and female students on availability of instructional materials in teaching Biology in senior secondary schools in Ikere local government area of Ekiti State.

                             ii.            There is no significant difference between the perception of male and female students on utilization of instructional materials in teaching Biology in senior secondary schools in the study area.

1.7     Scope of the Study

This research work focuses on effects of instructional materials on effective teaching and learning of government in senior secondary schools in Ikere Local Government Area of Ekiti State. This research work covers all public senior secondary schools in Ikere local government area of Ekiti State. However, five public secondary schools will be used as case study.

1.8     Limitation to the Study

 The major limitation to this research is the inability of the researcher to get adequate materials on the topic. Also, the study is unable to cover the whole Local Government Areas in the states. The researcher surf and re-surf the searching to get recent write up for the research study 

1.9     Definition of Terms

It is important that one describes and defines the term specially used in this research work in order to ensure total clarity of all terms.

Visual Aids: Visual aids are any specifically prepared drawings illustration, model, motion, pictures, filmstrips or other devices that will expedite learning develop other meanings cultivate appreciate and stimulates interest in learning through the use of sense of sight or vision

Academic Performance: It is the display or evidence of knowledge scholastic achievement of skills develop as shown by the scores in an examination

Computer: This is an electronic machine that can store, organize and find information, and workout arithmetic. Also, it controls other machine with high speed and accuracy.

IT: This is a short form of information technology that deals with the use of computer and telecommunication to retrieve, store and transmit information.

Internet: This is a specific collaboration of independently management network to communication with each other across organization and geographical boundaries.

Projector: It is an apparatus for projecting photographs or films unto a screen.

Secondary school (also “high school”) is a term used to describe an educational institution where the final stage of schooling, known as secondary education and usually compulsory up to a specified age, takes place. It follows elementary or primary education, and may be followed by university (tertiary) education.

1.10   Organization of Chapter

Chapter one introduces the subject matter of the research work. It includes the background to the study, statement to problem, objective of the study, research question, scope of the study, significance of the study, definition of term, and organisation of the study

Chapter two focuses on the literature review by giving conceptual framework to various concepts. This chapter three presents a research methodology of the study, this includes: research design, population, sample and sampling techniques, research instruments, validation of the research instrument, reliability of the instruments, administration of the instrument and data analysis. Chapter four focuses on the results, testing of hypotheses and discussion of findings and Chapter five was based on summary, conclusion and recommendations.




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