THE INFLUENCE OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIAL IN TEACHING AND LEARNING OF SOCIAL STUDIES IN JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL

 

THE INFLUENCE OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIAL IN TEACHING AND LEARNING OF SOCIAL STUDIES IN JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL

Abstract

The main aim of this study is to find out the Influence Of Instructional Material In Teaching And Learning Of Social Studies In Junior Secondary School Ikeja Local Government Area. Three specific purposes and three corresponding research questions were raised to guide the study. The literatures related to this study were reviewed under conceptual framework, theoretical and empirical studies. The research design adopted for this study was survey design. The population of the study comprised secondary school student in Ikeja Local Government Areawith the population of  5,366 students in 11 secondary schools in the area.   Simple random sampling technique was used to select 388  secondary school students were selected from the selected five schools for the sampling. The instrument used to obtain information was structured questionnaire. The instrument used was validated by three lecturers in the school of Education Godfrey Okoye University Enugu. The test-retest reliability procedure of 0.75 reliability index was adopted. The data collected were analyzed using mean. Therefore, the findings of the study showed that poor management and maintenance of the facilities. Based on the findings, the researcher recommended that  Teachers sees instructional materials  as tools that motivates students interest, Teachers use instructional materials to improve students’ learning ability, Teachers sees instructional materials as tools that  helps them to manage their classroom. Based on these, the study recommended that .  Government should make funds available and sponsor the teachers’ attendance at conferences, seminars and workshops on social studies material resource production utilization and management. Creative and resourceful teachers who improvise equipment’s and materials should be rewarded and motivated adequately.

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE PAGE                                                                        

APPROVAL PAGE                                                                    

CERTIFICATION                                                                 

DEDICATION                                                                     

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS                                                                 

TABLE OF CONTENTS                                                         

ABSTRACT                                                                       

 

CHAPTER ONE:INTRODUCTION

Background to the Study                                                 

Statement of the Problem                                                  

Purpose of the Study                                                         

Significance of the Study                                                    

Scope of the Study                                                           

Research Questions                                                           

 

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

Conceptual Framework                                                            

Theoretical Framework-                                                      

Empirical Studies                                                               

Summary of the Literature Reviewed                                   

 

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHOD

Research Design                                                        

Area of Study                                                                    

Population of the Study                                                     

Sample and Sampling Techniques                                               

Instrument for Data Collection                                            

Validation of the Instruments                                              

Reliability of the Instrument                                                

Method of Data Collection                                                       

Method of Data Analysis                                                     

CHAPTER FOUR:  PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF RESULTS  

 

CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 

Discussion of Findings                                                        

Conclusion                                                                                

Some Policy Implications of the Study                                  

Summary of the Study                                                               

Recommendations                                                             

Limitation of Study                                                             

Suggestion for Further Study                                                      

Summary                                                                          

References                                                                       

Appendix (questionnaire)                                                    

               

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study

Education enhances comfortable and dignified life. It is responsible for the holistic development of individual and society. Education is an activity which helps students in obtaining needed information, ability, attitude, perception (Mirunalini and Anandan, 2012). The quality of a nation depends upon the quality of its citizens. The quality of the citizens depends upon the quality of education planners. However, the most significant factor is the quality of the teachers. It means that excellent and efficient teachers can change the fate of the nation. It is in the schools, colleges and universities that the development of the attitudes and dispositions necessary for the progressive life in a society takes place. Education is imparted   by teachers. If the teacher is capable, energetic, mentally healthy and having positive attitude, it is well and good for the school.  Federal republic of Nigeria ministry of education 2002) report stated. “we are convinced that the most important factor in the contemplated educational reconstruction is the teacher, his personal qualities, his educational qualifications, his professional training and the place that he occupies in the community.

Social studies are a study connected with all aspects of human beings to enable them due a fulfilled, comfortable life. It study people in relation to the social, academic, economic cultural, physical and psychological lives. It has to do with all round development of human beings to enable them become useful citizens in the society. Wesley in Kochhaar (2012) said social studies as those presentations of social sciences selected for instructional purposes applied to include anything pertinent to the immediate purpose of learning and adapted to the level of comprehension of the student. Abdu- Raheen (2011) observed that the objectives of social studies is yet to be achieved as a result of peer teaching and lack of or inadequacy of instructional materials to motivate students. Ofuani (2014) also attested to inadequacy of instructional materials and resources in all the schools sampled in his study.

     Instructional materials are essential and significant tools needed for teaching and learning of school subjects to promote teachers efficiency and improve students’ performance. They make learning more interesting, practical, realistic and appealing. They also enable both teachers and students to participate actively and effectively in lesson sessions. They give room for acquisition for skills and knowledge and development of self confidence and self actualization.  Therema (2010) defined teaching aids as those materials used in practical and demonstration in the class situation by students and teachers. Ikerionwu (2012) defined instructional materials as neither objects nor devices that assist the teacher to preset a lesson to the learner in a logical manner.

 In his own perspective Fudege (2015) saw instructional materials as visual, audio- visual aids, concrete or non- concrete, used by teachers to improve the quality of teaching and learning activities in social studies. Agina-obue (2015) submitted that instructional materials of all kinds appeal to the sense organs during teaching and learning Isola (2010) also described instructional materials as objects or devices that assist the teacher to present their lessons logically and sequentially to the learners. Ohwagh Hunnu Abdu–Racherem (2014) acknowledged that instructional materials we such used by teachers to aid explanations and make learning of two subject matter understandable to the students during teaching and learning process.

Statement of the Problem

          One of the major problems facing education sector in Nigeria is the low performance of secondary school students in both internal and external examinations. It has become a great concern for researchers, educators and all educational stake holders over the years. It was observed that students usually fail in examinations owning to improper teaching methods and lack of essential teaching aids for instructional delivery (Afolubi, 2009). This study therefore deems it necessary to look specifically into the influence of instructional materials in the teaching of social studies in the junior secondary schools in Isi uzo Local Government Area Enugu. The problem of this study therefore, what are the influences of using instructional materials in teaching of social studies in junior secondary school in Isi uzo Local Government Area Enugu.

Purpose of the Study

          The main purpose of this study is to ascertain the influence  of using   instructional materials in the teaching and learning of social studies in junior secondary schools in Ikeja Local Government Area of Lagos State. Specifically, the study seeks to determine:

  1. the perception of secondary school teachers on the use of instructional materials in the teaching of social studies in Ikeja Local Government Area of Lagos State.
  2. the attitude of teachers towards utilization of instructional material in the teaching of social studies in Ikeja Local Government Area of Lagos State
  3. to ascertain the ways to improve positive attitude of teachers towards the use of instructional material in Ikeja Local Government Area of Lagos State.

 

Significance of the Study

The following will benefit from this work: teachers, Curriculum Planners,   Researchers and Educational Administrators. 

Teachers: It will motivate Social studies teachers to develop interest towards utilizing suitable teaching materials that will be a possible means towards reducing failure in the teaching and learning of social studies. Findings of this study will help clarify among the teachers the need for continuous and regular improvisation of suitable instructional materials for teaching and learning of social studies.

Curriculum Planners: Moreover, the results of this study will be of great significance to the Social studies curriculum planners. The curriculum developers will find the work useful in reviewing the Social studies curriculum by seriously laying emphasis on utilization of instructional materials so as to meet up with emerging needs of the society.

Researchers: This study will be of immense benefit to researchers in the field of Social studies by forming a basis for further studies on the usage of instructional materials and teachers’ quality in order learning aspects of Social studies as a subject. 

        Educational Administrators: The study will also equip our educational administrators in the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (MOEST), educational test and measurement experts on the need to provide instructional materials for teaching Social studies in our secondary schools setting particularly in selected secondary schools and the Ikeja Local Government Area of Lagos State as a whole. The study will also be useful in educational policy making. The research will arouse instructional educational funding agencies such as Federal Ministry of Education, Faculties or Schools of Education, National Teachers’ Institutes as well as professional bodies such as Science Teachers Association of Nigeria (STAN) to formulate educational polices which may be useful in implementation of Social studies curriculum.

 

 

Scope of the Study

The focus of this study is on influence of using   instructional materials in the teaching and learning of social studies in junior secondary schools in Ikeja Local Government Area of Lagos State.

 

Research Questions

In order to achieve the objectives of this study, the following research questions were formulated to guide this study.

  1. What are the perception of secondary school teachers on the use of instructional materials in the teaching of social studies in Ikeja Local Government Area of Lagos State?
  2. What are the attitude of teachers towards utilization of instructional material in the teaching of social studies in Ikeja Local Government Area of Lagos State?
  3. What are the ways to improve the attitude of social studies teachers towards the use of instructional material in Ikeja Local Government Area of Lagos State?

 

CHAPTER TWO

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

The review of relevant literature to the present study was carried out under the following sub-headings

 

Conceptual Framework

Meaning of instructional material

Social studies

Social studies objectives

Instructional materials and academic performance

The importance of instructional materials in educational sector 

Factors affecting the production and uses of instructional materials

 

Theoretical Framework

System theory

Empirical Studies

Summary

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study

Education enhances comfortable and dignified life. It is responsible for the holistic development of individual and society. Education is an activity which helps students in obtaining needed information, ability, attitude, perception (Mirunalini and Anandan, 2012). The quality of a nation depends upon the quality of its citizens. The quality of the citizens depends upon the quality of education planners. However, the most significant factor is the quality of the teachers. It means that excellent and efficient teachers can change the fate of the nation. It is in the schools, colleges and universities that the development of the attitudes and dispositions necessary for the progressive life in a society takes place. Education is imparted   by teachers. If the teacher is capable, energetic, mentally healthy and having positive attitude, it is well and good for the school.  Federal republic of Nigeria ministry of education 2002) report stated. “we are convinced that the most important factor in the contemplated educational reconstruction is the teacher, his personal qualities, his educational qualifications, his professional training and the place that he occupies in the community.

Social studies are a study connected with all aspects of human beings to enable them due a fulfilled, comfortable life. It study people in relation to the social, academic, economic cultural, physical and psychological lives. It has to do with all round development of human beings to enable them become useful citizens in the society. Wesley in Kochhaar (2012) said social studies as those presentations of social sciences selected for instructional purposes applied to include anything pertinent to the immediate purpose of learning and adapted to the level of comprehension of the student. Abdu- Raheen (2011) observed that the objectives of social studies is yet to be achieved as a result of peer teaching and lack of or inadequacy of instructional materials to motivate students. Ofuani (2014) also attested to inadequacy of instructional materials and resources in all the schools sampled in his study.

     Instructional materials are essential and significant tools needed for teaching and learning of school subjects to promote teachers efficiency and improve students’ performance. They make learning more interesting, practical, realistic and appealing. They also enable both teachers and students to participate actively and effectively in lesson sessions. They give room for acquisition for skills and knowledge and development of self confidence and self actualization.  Therema (2010) defined teaching aids as those materials used in practical and demonstration in the class situation by students and teachers. Ikerionwu (2012) defined instructional materials as neither objects nor devices that assist the teacher to preset a lesson to the learner in a logical manner.

 In his own perspective Fudege (2015) saw instructional materials as visual, audio- visual aids, concrete or non- concrete, used by teachers to improve the quality of teaching and learning activities in social studies. Agina-obue (2015) submitted that instructional materials of all kinds appeal to the sense organs during teaching and learning Isola (2010) also described instructional materials as objects or devices that assist the teacher to present their lessons logically and sequentially to the learners. Ohwagh Hunnu Abdu–Racherem (2014) acknowledged that instructional materials we such used by teachers to aid explanations and make learning of two subject matter understandable to the students during teaching and learning process.

Statement of the Problem

          One of the major problems facing education sector in Nigeria is the low performance of secondary school students in both internal and external examinations. It has become a great concern for researchers, educators and all educational stake holders over the years. It was observed that students usually fail in examinations owning to improper teaching methods and lack of essential teaching aids for instructional delivery (Afolubi, 2009). This study therefore deems it necessary to look specifically into the influence of instructional materials in the teaching of social studies in the junior secondary schools in Isi uzo Local Government Area Enugu. The problem of this study therefore, what are the influences of using instructional materials in teaching of social studies in junior secondary school in Isi uzo Local Government Area Enugu.

Purpose of the Study

          The main purpose of this study is to ascertain the influence  of using   instructional materials in the teaching and learning of social studies in junior secondary schools in Ikeja Local Government Area of Lagos State. Specifically, the study seeks to determine:

  1. the perception of secondary school teachers on the use of instructional materials in the teaching of social studies in Ikeja Local Government Area of Lagos State.
  2. the attitude of teachers towards utilization of instructional material in the teaching of social studies in Ikeja Local Government Area of Lagos State
  3. to ascertain the ways to improve positive attitude of teachers towards the use of instructional material in Ikeja Local Government Area of Lagos State.

 

Significance of the Study

The following will benefit from this work: teachers, Curriculum Planners,   Researchers and Educational Administrators. 

Teachers: It will motivate Social studies teachers to develop interest towards utilizing suitable teaching materials that will be a possible means towards reducing failure in the teaching and learning of social studies. Findings of this study will help clarify among the teachers the need for continuous and regular improvisation of suitable instructional materials for teaching and learning of social studies.

Curriculum Planners: Moreover, the results of this study will be of great significance to the Social studies curriculum planners. The curriculum developers will find the work useful in reviewing the Social studies curriculum by seriously laying emphasis on utilization of instructional materials so as to meet up with emerging needs of the society.

Researchers: This study will be of immense benefit to researchers in the field of Social studies by forming a basis for further studies on the usage of instructional materials and teachers’ quality in order learning aspects of Social studies as a subject. 

        Educational Administrators: The study will also equip our educational administrators in the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (MOEST), educational test and measurement experts on the need to provide instructional materials for teaching Social studies in our secondary schools setting particularly in selected secondary schools and the Ikeja Local Government Area of Lagos State as a whole. The study will also be useful in educational policy making. The research will arouse instructional educational funding agencies such as Federal Ministry of Education, Faculties or Schools of Education, National Teachers’ Institutes as well as professional bodies such as Science Teachers Association of Nigeria (STAN) to formulate educational polices which may be useful in implementation of Social studies curriculum.

 

 

Scope of the Study

The focus of this study is on influence of using   instructional materials in the teaching and learning of social studies in junior secondary schools in Ikeja Local Government Area of Lagos State.

 

Research Questions

In order to achieve the objectives of this study, the following research questions were formulated to guide this study.

  1. What are the perception of secondary school teachers on the use of instructional materials in the teaching of social studies in Ikeja Local Government Area of Lagos State?
  2. What are the attitude of teachers towards utilization of instructional material in the teaching of social studies in Ikeja Local Government Area of Lagos State?
  3. What are the ways to improve the attitude of social studies teachers towards the use of instructional material in Ikeja Local Government Area of Lagos State?

 

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