Background of the Study
Modern Technology in communication no doubt has turned the entire world into a “Global Village”. But as it is, technology like two sides of a coin, bring with it both the negative and positive sides. It helps people to be better informed, enlightened, and keeping abreast with world developments. Technology exposes mankind to a better way of doing things.
The world’s first commercial space communication company created by the United State Congress in 1962 was the communication satellite corporation (COMSAT). In 1964, the United State Government and eleven (11) foreign Nations signed a space communication pact. The partnership was known as “International Telecommunication Satellite Organization (INTELSAT). The internet known as the worlds “Information Super Highway” is a worldwide assemblage of Inter- Connected Computer Networks (Andrew, 2013).
In the view of Paul (2010), internet is a massive “network of networks”, a networking infrastructure which connects millions of computers together globally, forming a network in which any computer can communicate with each other as long as they are both connected to internet.
The network consist of local area network (LAN), connecting computers in the same building while wide area network (WANs) connecting several LANs in different locations. It connects both private, commercial, Government and Academic network including a grown number of home computer.
According to Andrew (2012), “Information travels over the internet through a variety of language known as “Protocols”. The term “internet” is actually a short form for “internet networks”, which implies that internet is a network of computer networks. Computer accepts data, process it, stores it and give it out when required. It became possible for people to chat from ‘terminals’ which led to networking. A line is the part along which resources flow, while a Node is the point where lines intersect transferring resources to new lines.
History of the Internet: There are conflicting versions about the origin of the internet but the common story is that the internet is a product of a cold war. (Hafner and Lyon, 2015,). Its origin is traced back to 1957, when the Soviet Union launched ‘Sputnik 1 into space, as a reaction to this, in 1958, the United State founded the Advanced Research Project Agency (ARPA), a special agency under the department of defense whose mission was to develop a long term highly innovative and hazard research projects (Cartoni and Tarding, 2006,).
In 1962, the air force wanting to maintain the military’s ability to transfer information around the country even if a given area was destroyed in an enemy’s attack, commissioned leading computer scientist to do so. ARPANET, the first prototype of the internet, was developed by the ARPA department and saw the light in 1969 when four (4) of United States Universities (University of California Los Angeles, University of California Santa Barbara, Stanford Research Institute Polo Atto, and University of Utah) were connected by network of computers (Lorenzo and Stefano,2010). Leonard Klein rock of UCLA successfully developed the first computer network through “packet switching” to the concept of “distributed network”, two fundamental concurrent inventions in the field of computer science, packet switching is a process that allows division of messages into packets and sending them to their destination following different routes, once they arrive at their destination, they are all recomposed into the original message. Paul in 1960 developed the concept of distributed network funded by United States Air force at the research and development corporation (RAND) which is aimed at developing a telecommunication network which can stand a nuclear war. (Paul, 1964, p.220-223).
The growth of ARPANET accelerated in the second half of the 1980s, through computer protocol (Tcp/lp) Transmission control protocol/Internet protocol which was adopted by ARPANET (Vinton, 1969 UCLA) in 1983 and is still the core of internet. ‘The transition of Tcp/lp was perhaps the most important event that will take place in the invention of the internet. After the installation of Tcp, the network could branch everyone’ (Hafner and Lyon, 1998, p.249).In the same year, after the end of ARPANETs experimental phase, the network was split into two; A civilian network for the computer research community (ARPA internet) and military network (MILNET). In 1980, ARPANET was replaced by NSFANET created by National Science Foundation and in 1990, ARPANET was officially decommissioned and the commercial use of the internet was allowed in 1991, (Berners-Lee, 2000).
In 1995, the internet was just one networking system among many others such as Usenet, Fido net, Mintel, AT$T, but with advent of the web, the internet became by far the most important networking system. That led to what is now known as internet, a global network of interconnected computers that communicate freely, share and exchange information (Paul, 2010). The younger a person, the greater the likelihood he or she has access to the internet (Kim, 2004).
Social Network: Early 1990s, chat rooms and bulletin boards were forms of Social Networking in a way, they help people to connect with others and share interest. A little cater; dating sites hooked those looking for partners and class mates. Communication allows people to connect with people they had known in high school and colleges and enable them to meet others.
In the early 20s, a site called Friendster was set up where people invited their friends and their friends also invited others. The site was popular for a while, but suffered from technical difficulties and fake profiles and began to lose members. In 1999, MySpace took over but became popular in 2003. Its roots are a bit muddy because it received financial and logistical support from another company called the E-Universe and most of the early users were employers of e-universe but Tom Anderson and Chris DE Wolfe are given credit for much of the innovation and success of the site, which built up to one hundred and fifteen million users worldwide. Members post BIOS, photos, blogs, video and other things that strike their fancy.
Some Television Programmers’ had started producing programmers’ to air on MySpace in 2005; Rupert Murdoclis News Corporation (parent of fox broadcasting) bought MySpace for five hundred and eighty million dollars ($580). A competitor to MySpace is face book which started in about 2004 by Mark Zuckerberg while he was a student at Harvard and grew rapidly in 2007. At first, face book was solely for college and high school students but Mark opened it to everyone and like MySpace, it encourages all types of member postings. There are also smaller social networks like 2go, YouTube, and blackberry chat for people to have access to. (Retrieved November 7th2012) www.google.com
2 2go: 2go is a Social Networking Site, chat, and instant messaging (IM) application. It enables users to chat on their mobile phones free. You can meet users and 2go users as friends. Chat rooms on different topics are opened where you can join in the discussion and socialize with others and also, 2go have gateways that enable users chat with friends on Gtalk, Mxit, and face book.
One of the greatest points of 2go chat is its simplicity and light weight, making it available to lots of low-end phones. 2go runs on any java enabled phone, Nokia, LG, Samsung, and Sony Ericson. Blackberry users can use 2go on their Pc as part of an experimental service by the company and with it, they can chat anywhere and anytime of the day as they so please.
Blackberry Messenger: Blackberry is propriety internet-based instant messenger application included on blackberry devices that allows messaging between blackberry users. It was developed by the manufacturer of the blackberry research in motion (RIM); messages sent via blackberry messenger are sent over the internet and use the blackberry pin system, so communication is only possible between blackberry devices. Pinging allows you to connect to friends using a ping ID, something akin to blackberry pin but easier to remember because you can pick it yourself. Once you’ve shared your pin or found friends via email or twitter, you can send text, messages, photos, videos and voice memos. Pretty much anything you might want to send to a friend can be sent using pin. Messages are in real time over the data network and pushed to the recipient. Once a message is sent, a little S or D and a tick with an R indicating the message has been sent and read. Ping chat also packs group messaging and social profiles, which allows you to display a photo, status and some information about yourself to confirm contacts and through these, one is connected to the whole world.
The issue of whether social media helps or hurts a student’s academic performance in often couched in larger issues identified with the overall use of social media (e.g., its psychological effects; privacy and safety concerns; individual self-discipline and self-regulation concerns; human adaptability concerns) (Zwart, Lindsay, Henderson, & Phillips, 2011; Anderson, & Rainie, 2012; Rosen 2011; Connolly, 2011). In general, benefits typically associated with the use of social interaction via electronic mediums; providing greater access to information and information sources; encouraging creativity among and between individuals and groups; creating a sense of belonging among users of common social media tools; providing more choices to engagement among different individuals and groups; reducing barriers to group interaction and communications such as distance and social/economic status; and increasing the technological competency levels of frequent users of social media (Conolly, 2011;, Henderson, & Phillips, 2011; Rosen, 2011).
Statement of the Problem
It is a common sight to see a youth chatting in sensitive and highly organised places like church, mosque and lecture venues. Some are so carried away that even as they are walking along the high way, they keep chatting. The manufacturing and distribution of equally sophisticated cellular phones has complicated the situation, as youths no longer need to visit a cybercafé before they send and receive messages. Attention has been shifted from visible to invisible friends, while important ventures like study and writing are affected in the process. This phenomenon has become a source of worry to many who believe in knowledge and skill acquisition.
Since the advent of social media sites in the 1990s, it is assumed in some quarters that the academic performance of students are facing a lot of neglect and challenges in tertiary institution. There is a deviation, distraction and divided attention between social networking activities and their academic work.
It is observed that students devote more attention to social media than they do to their studies. Therefore, the question this study will answer is what is the influence of social media on academic performance of Accounting Education students in Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti
Objectives of the Study
The broad objectives of this study is to examine the influence of social media on academic performance of accounting students.
The specific objectives of the study are to:
1) To identify the various social networking site the student had access to?
2) To examine how often the students of Ekiti State university, Ado –Ekiti go online
3) To determine how many hours the students spend in social networking activities daily.
4) To ascertain the impact of social media has affected the academic performance of the students.
- What social networking sites do the students of Ekiti State University. Ado-Ekiti had access to?
- How often do the students of Ekiti State University. Ado-Ekiti go online?
- How many hours do the students spend on social networking activities?
- How has the use of social media affected the academic performance of the students of Ekiti State University. Ado-Ekiti?
Scope of the Study
The essence of this research work is to primarily study social media and academic performance of students in Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti. The research focus on students of the university. But since in most cases the characteristics of students are generally similar, the researcher will draw his population from accounting education students in Ekiti State University.
Significance of the Study
The study will help researchers with more information on the effect of social media on academic performance. It will be relevant in assisting students in understanding the diversity of social media. It will provide relevant material for students and researchers undertaking similar research.
Definition of Terms
Social Media: Social media is the collective of online communications channels dedicated to community-based input, interaction, content-sharing and collaboration
Academic Performance: is the outcome of education — the extent to which a student, teacher or institution has achieved their educational goals.
Accounting: It is a systematic process of identifying, recording, measuring, classifying, verifying, summarizing, interpreting and communicating financial information. It reveals profit or loss for a given period, and the value and nature of a firm’s assets, liabilities and owners’ equity.
University Education: University education is more than the next level in the learning process; it is a critical component of human development worldwide. It provides not only the high-level skills necessary for every labor market but also the training essential for teachers, doctors, nurses, civil servants, engineers, humanists, entrepreneurs, scientists, social scientists, and a myriad of other personnel.