• Monday, 8 October 2018

    EFFECT OF PHYTOCHEMICALS IN COMMONLY CONSUMED MEDICINAL PLANT (DOGOYARO LEAF AND OTHERS) IN THE CONGNITIVE FUNCTIONING OF STUDENTS IN SELECTED TERTIARY INSTITUTIONS

    EFFECT OF PHYTOCHEMICALS IN COMMONLY CONSUMED MEDICINAL PLANT (DOGOYARO LEAF AND OTHERS) IN THE COGNITIVE FUNCTIONING OF STUDENTS IN SELECTED TERTIARY INSTITUTIONS

    ABSTRACT

    A random collection and compilation of medicinal plant (Dogoyaro and others) which are commonly consumed on the cognitive functioning of student. In selected tertiary institution in Ekiti State, Nigeria. In the current study, the experiment was carried out for a period of three months. The medicinal plant (Dogoyaro and others) which are subjected to digestion in chemistry laboratory Futa Central Research Laboratory and Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) was used to determine the level of phytochemical on medicinal plant (Dogoyaro and others). The analysis shows that alkaloids are present in the medicinal plant (Dogoyaro and others) were within the recommended permissible limit.       

     

     

    TABLE OF CONTENT

    Title page

    Certificate

    Dedicated

    Acknowledgement

    Table of Content

    Abstract

    CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION     

    Phytochemicals

    Medicinal Plant

    Aims and Objectives of the Study

    CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW

    Elemental Concentration in Medicinal Plant

    Health Effects of Phytochemicals in Medicinal Plants

    Sources of Phytochemical in Medicinal Plant

    Phytochemical Constituent

    General Symptons of Phytochemical in Medicinal

    Plant and Toxicin

    Phytochemical in Medicinal Plants

    List of Phytochemical in Medicinal Plant

    CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY

    Sampling Sites

    Sampling and Sampling Record

    Sample Preservation and Pre-treatment for Leaf and

    Medical Plant.

    Qualitative Analysis of Phytochemicals for Medicinal Plants

    Test for Alkaloids

    Statistical Analysis

    Quality Assurances and Quality Control

    CHAPTER FOUR: RESULT AND DISCUSSION

    Analysis of Results

    CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

    Conclusion

    Recommendation

    References

     

    CHAPTER ONE

    INTRODUCTION

    Background of the Study

    Phytochemicals

    Phytochemicals (from Greek word phyto, meaning plant) are biologically active naturally occurring chemical compounds found in plants, which provide health benefits for humans further than those attributed to macronutrients and micronutrients (Hasler and Blumberg 1999).

    They protect plant from disease and damage and contribute to the plant color, aroma and flavor. In general, the plants chemical that protect plant cells from environmental hazards such as pollution, stress, drought, VV exposure and pathogenic attack are called as phytochemicals (Gibson et al, 1998).

    Recently, it is clearly known that they have roles in the protection of human health, when their dietary intake is significant. Most of the food eaten by human contains phytochemical except for some refined foods such as sugar or alcohol some foods, such as grains, vegetable, beans fruits and herbs, contain many phytochemicals.

    Phytochemicals have been considered possible drugs for millennia. For example “Hippocrates” may have prescribed “willow” tree leaves to abate fever- salicin, having “anti-inflammatory” and pain-relieving properties was originally extracted from the bark of the white willow tree and later synthetically produced to become the staple over the counter drug “aspirin” (Sneader 2000).

    There are more than thousand known phytochemical some of the well known phytochemicals are lycopene in tomatoes, isoflauones in soy and flavanoids in fruits and each phytochemicals works difference.

    These are some possible actions

    1. Antioxidant:- Most phytochemicals have antioxidant activity and protect our cells against oxidatile damage and reduce the risk of developing certain types of cancer, phytochemicals with antioxidant activity; sulfides (onions, leeks, garlic), carotenoids (fruits, carrots),flavonoids (fruits, vegetables), polyphenols (tea, grapes).
    2. Hormonal action:- It helps to reduces menopausal symptoms and osteoporosis
    3. Stimulation of enzymes:- Indoles, which are found in cabbages stimulates enzymes that makes the oestrogen less effective and could reduce the risk of breast cancer.
    4. Interference with DNA replication:- Saponins found in beans interfere with the replication of cell DNA, thereby preventing the multiplicat on of cancer cells
    5. Physical action:- Some phytochemicals bind physically to cell walls thereby preventing the adhesion of pathogens to human cell walls.

    Medicinal Plant

    Medicinal plants have been identified and used throughout human history; plants make many chemical compounds that are for biological functions including defense against insects, fungi and herbivorous mammals. Chemical compounds in plant mediate their effect on the human body through processes identical to those already well understood for the chemical compounds in conventional drugs.

    Thus, medical plants do not differ from conventional drugs in terms of how they work. This enables herbal medicines to have beneficial pharmacology, but also gives them the same potential as conventional pharmaceutical drugs to cause harmful side effects (Tapsell et all 2006)

    The use of plants as medicines pre-dates written human history. “Ethnobotany” the study of traditional human uses of plants is recognized as an effective way to discover future medicines.

    Aims and Objectives of the Study

    The study is aimed to determined phytochemical present in medicinal plants (moringa leaf, sunflower, betterleaf, Akintola leaf, gallic, pawpaw leaf, Dongoyaro leaf).

    1. To know the importance of phytochemicals in medicinal plants
    2. To assess the public impact of the exposure of medicinal plant
    3. To know the level of phytochemicals present in medicinal plant

     

     

    CHAPTER TWO

    LITERATURE REVIEW

    Elemental Concentration in Medicinal Plant

    Medicinal plants have been identified and used throughout human history plant, make many chemical compounds that for biological functions, including defense against insects. Chemical compounds in plants mediate their effect on the human body through processes identical to those already well understood for the chemical compounds in conventional drugs, thus herbal medicines do not differ greatly from conventional drugs in terms of how they work.

     

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