Education, either formal or informal continues to shape the three domains of human development. These are the cognitive, affective and the psychomotor domains. Much then is said that formal education remains the vehicle for social-economic development and social mobilization in any society. Therefore, education at the basic level must be of a quality that will help the young ones to acquire skills, knowledge, values and attitudes that will enable them to contribute positively to the social, economic, political and moral development of the society.

Poor academic  performance according to Aremu (2003) is a performance that is adjudged by the examine/testee and some other significant as falling below an expected standard. Poor academic performance has been observed in school subjects especially Mathematics and English language among primary school pupils (Adesemowo, 2005). Aremu (2000) stresses that academic failure is not only frustrating to the pupils and the parents, its effects are equally grave on the society in terms of dearth of manpower in all spheres of the economy and politics.

Education at primary school level is supposed to be the bedrock and the foundation towards higher knowledge in tertiary institutions. It is an investment as well as an instrument that can be used to achieve a more rapid economic, social, political, technological, scientific and cultural development in the country. The National Policy on Education (2004) stipulated that primary education is an instrument for national development that fosters the worth and development of the individual for further education and development, general development of the society and equality of educational opportunities to all Nigerian children irrespective of any real or marginal disabilities.

The role of primary education is to lay the foundation for further education and if a good foundation is laid at this level, there are likely to be no problem at subsequent levels. However, different people at different times have passed the blame of poor performance in primary school to pupils because of their low retention, parental factors, association with wrong peers, low achievement, low retention, and the likes (Aremu & Sokan, 2003; Aremu & Oluwole 2001; Aremu, 2000).

Morakinyo (2003) believe that the falling level of academic achievement is attributable to teacher’s non-use of verbal reinforcement strategy. Others found out that the attitude of some teachers to their job is reflected in their poor attendance to lessons, lateness to school, unsavory comments about pupil’s performance that could damage their ego, poor method of teaching and the likes affect pupils’ academic performance.

The content of Nigeria education must reflect the past present and future of the dynamic Nigeria society in terms of the roles the individual is expected to play in the resent modernalization process.  The Nigeria formal education system is the organized and structured aspect of the education which takes place within the four walls of the school.  It however has to be noted that, all emphasis in terms of government budgetary allocation and general planning, is usually placed on formal education.  Hence, a discussion of Nigeria’s educational system is almost synonymous with a discussion of the formal educational system.  As has been pointed earlier, the formal education system comprises interrelated sub-system or levels.  The major levels of the Nigerian educational system are primary, secondary, (post primary), and tertiary (Post Secondary) (Mkpa:2012).

Since the introduction of formal education in Nigeria, various conferences and seminars have been held and Commissions set up to deliberate on crucial issues in the Nigeria educational system.  Of remarkable significance are the National Curriculum Conference in 1969 which reviewed old, and identified new national goals for Nigeria’s educational system and the 1973 seminar of distinguished educational experts and representatives of all segments of the society under the chairmanship of chief S.O. Adebo which renewed the 1969 paper and made more recommendations.

Besides the numerous other recommendations in this respect, recommendations number 8 dealt with the goals of primary education.  It reads thus:

“Specifically, the primary school Curriculum must aim at functional permanent literacy to ensure better producers and consumers of goods. It should provide a sound basis for scientific and reflective thinking; inculcate citizenship education and a sound moral character and attitude development, help individuals to adapt and a adjust to the changing society, give physical, emotional and intellectual growth, enhance an individual sense of will power, creative and innovativeness, develop their mechanical vocational and manipulative skills and competencies enable them to communicate freely and effectively through any media, imbibe in them a spirit of self – discipline (Fafunwa, 1974:233)

This statement however, is the beginning of redirecting primary education in Nigeria toward a reasonable end, and a way from production of only church teachers and interpreters.


Academic performance of pupils in primary schools has received much attention of late in the  Nigerian educational system.     It is pertiment to understand that the so – called academic performance of primary school pupil is a Cankar worm that has eaten deep into the fabrics of our primary schools today.  However, in environment where such an ugly situation is found, tention, conflict and anarchy dictate the tone of relationship between pupils, the teachers for a smooth and effective school management. Since the end of the Nigeria Biafra Civil War in 1970, academic excellence has been on the decline.  This appears to be more pronounced in the primary schools.  Poor academic performance has constituted a big problem not only for schools but the dynamic Nigeria society.  The primary schools in Ikere Ekiti have been faced with the problem, which is mostly reflected in common Entrance Examination Results.  Millions of Naira being pumped into education in Nigeria in general and in Ekiti State in particular not withstanding this issue of poor performance in education has continued to persist.

The question therefore is what is the factor that is responsible for  fallen standard and poor academic performance of pupils in primary school? Is the fault entirely that of teachers or pupils or both of them? Is it that pupils of today are non-achievers because they have low intelligent quotient and a good neutral mechanism to be able to act purposefully, think rationally and deal effectively with academic tasks? Or is it because teachers are no longer putting in much commitment as before? Or is it  in teachers’ method of teaching and interaction with pupils? Or is the poor performance of students caused by parents’ neglect, separation and poverty? The present study therefore sought to find out the factor that is responsible  of poor  performance of pupils in primary schools in Ikere Local government Area.

Purpose of the Study

The broad objective of this study is to investigate the factor responsible for poor academic performance of pupil in public primary schools in Ikere local Government area of Ekiti state

To be able to achieve this objective the following specific objective is considered:

  • To determine whether the teacher commitment to teaching and work habit can be responsible for pupil poor performance in public schools in Ikere Local Government Area
  • To find out the opinion of school counselors and their view of factors responsible for poor performance of Pupils in Public schools in Ikere Ekiti
  • To determine whether teacher qualification, availability and use of teaching materials and parental involvement can causes poor performance of pupil
  • To also determine whether motivation and job satisfaction can cause poor performance of pupils in public secondary schools in Ikere Local Government Area, and to offer suggestion on how the problem can be solved.

Researcher Question

This study thus attempts to find answers to the under mentioned research questions and find out where the problem lies:

  1. Is there any relationship between teacher commitment to teaching and work habit and the performance of pupils in public secondary schools in Ikere Ekiti
  2. Is there any relationship between teacher qualification and teaching environment and the performance of Pupils in Ikere Local Government Area?
  3. Is there any relationship between availability and uses of teaching and learning materials and the performance of pupils in Ikere Local Government Area?
  4. What are the major factor responsible to pupil poor performance in Public primary schools in Ikere Local Government Area.


This study would be of immense help to the present and prospective policy makers of the Nigeria educational system in the areas of planning and effective utilization of resources.  The study is knowledge and therefore would be of help to students and other researchers who might be interested in this and or other related areas of this study.

The findings of this study shall be beneficial and of immense help in identifying the possible factors responsible for this educational problem.  From the study appropriate recommendations, answers to the issue of poor academic performance will be provided.  Educational planners and Administrators,  parents, the school and the primary school child who is directly involved will realize the appropriate roles they have to play for this issue of poor academic performance to stop.

Scope of the Study

This study is design to assess factor responsible for poor academic performance of pupils in public primary school. five selected public primary schools and 25 student each from the selected schools will be used for the study.


The research were confronted with a number of obstacles during the course of this study.  Some of these limitations are discussed below:

  • Respondents: Some of the respondents exhibited negative

character.  Some bluntly refused to full our questionnaire or

answers basic questions posed on them.  Some of them reluctantly accepted to respond with some reservations and maintained that they were not in the best position to respond when actually they were.

  • Finance: There was a problem of inadequate finance to

transport the researchers from their houses to places and the schools were information could be obtained.  Inadequate finance restricted the researchers from obtaining certain necessary and useful resource materials.  Thus, for a successful research work, money is a motivator.

  • Programme of Getting Accurate Statistical Data: It was

difficult on the researchers to get accurate statistical data since there were different levels of teachers with diverse work experience from different fields and endeavours of life, and in different categories in positions from the selected primary schools.



  • Primary Education: is the first formal level of the 6 – 3 – 3 –

4 system of Nigeria Education meant for children aged normally 6 to 11 in a formal educational Setting

  • Education: is defined as the aggregate totality of all the

process by which a child or the young adult develop his ability, attitude, knowledge, skills, competencies and other forms of behavior which are of positive value to the society in which he lives.

  • Monitoring: is the act or a relationship where one person

(teacher) guides the other (student) in developing a philosophy of or a way of life.

  • Performance: is the act of achievement. It is a process

where the student carryout the activities they have been taught and have been guided on what to do normally by the teacher.

  • Examination: is a device adopted for measuring and

evaluation learners success in the teaching learning process etc.



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