THE EFFECTIVENESS OF CONCEPTUAL INSTRUCTIONAL METHOD OF TEACHING PRACTICAL CHEMISTRY IN SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS - UNIPROJECTS

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THE EFFECTIVENESS OF CONCEPTUAL INSTRUCTIONAL METHOD OF TEACHING PRACTICAL CHEMISTRY IN SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS

THE EFFECTIVENESS OF CONCEPTUAL INSTRUCTIONAL METHOD OF TEACHING PRACTICAL CHEMISTRY IN SENIOR SECONDARY

SCHOOLS

ABSTRACT

This project focused on the efficacy of conceptual instructional method of teaching practical Chemistry in senior secondary schools in Ikere Local Government Area of Ekiti state. A sample of eighty (80) respondents is reached. It comprises students offering Chemistry in Senior Secondary School Class One (SSI). The research instruments used for this study are a self-structured Chemistry Achievement Test (CAT). A quasi-experimental design was used for the study. The study has three research questions and three research hypotheses were analysed using t-test. The findings of study indicated that there was significant difference in academic achievement of students taught practical chemistry concepts using conceptual instructional methods and those taught the same concepts using the lecture method; there was significant difference in academic achievement between male and female students taught practical chemistry concepts using the conceptual instructional method. The study recommended that teachers should consciously structure their classes so as to induce in learners the inquiry skills necessary for a meaningful classroom interaction pattern necessary for promoting Chemistry learning; Chemistry teachers should be encouraged to use conceptual instructional method in their classes, as it has been found to favour effective teaching of Chemistry. Finally, suggestion was also made for further and research work on the project.

                                      TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page……………………………………………………..………

Certification…………………………………………………………

Dedication……………………………………………………………

Acknowledgment ……………………………………………………

Abstract………………………………………………………………

Table of Content……………………………………………………..

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

Background of the study……………………………………………

Statement of the study ………..……………………………………

Purpose of the study………………………………………………….

Significance of the study……………………………………………..

Scope of the Study……………………………………………………

Research Question………………………………………………………

Hypothesis……………………………………….……………………

Definition of  terms…………………………………………….….….

CHAPTER TWO:- REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

Students’ Conceptions in Science …………………………………

Concept of Chemistry………………………………………………

Concept of Practical Chemistry……….…………………………

Theoretical framework……………………………………………….

Effective Chemistry Laboratory………………………………….

Factors Influencing Effective Teaching of Chemistry……………

Concept of Conceptual Instructional Method………..…………

Concept of Lecture Strategy……………………………….…

Summary of Literature Review…………………………………

CHAPTER THREE:- METHODOLOGY

Research Design …………………………………………………….

Population of the study…………………………………………..

Sample and Sampling Techniques ………………………………..

Research Instruments………………..………………………………

Validity of the Instrument……………………………………………

Reliability of the Instrument …………………….………….………

Administration of the Instrument……………………………………

Data analysis techniques…………………………………………….

CHAPTER FOUR:-RESULTS

Descriptive Analysis………………………………………………

Hypothesis Testing …………………………………………………..

Discussion of  Findings………………………………………………

CHAPTER FIVE:- SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

Summary…………………………………………………………

Conclusion……………………………………………………….….

Implication of the study……………………………………………..

Recommendation…………………………………………………….

Limitation of the study……………………………………………..

Suggestion for further studies………………………………………

References……………………………………….…………………

Appendix I……………………………………………………………

Appendix II…………………………………………………………

Appendix III………………………………………………………

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background to the Study.

Chemistry has become one of the most important disciplines in the school curriculum; its importance in the general education has gained world-wide recognition. Chemistry as a branch of science that is rational and mathematical, discipline where certain measured and controlled inputs lead to certain  predictable outputs (Learning Things 2014), was developed greatly throughout the 20th century and intro- duce in the curriculum of both the elementary and secondary education, as part of science courses or as separate discipline (Kasalta and Tzougraki 2004).

Chemistry is one of the Science subjects taught at the senior secondary school level. It is one of the core science subjects that students are required to pass in order to qualify for admission into tertiary institutions to pursue science-based programmes e.g Medicines, Engineering, Pharmacy among others (Njoku, 2007).  Chemistry is an experimental science which relies primarily on the harmony between theory and practical. It should therefore be taught as such. It follows therefore, that, understanding of concept in practical chemistry will assist in enhancing student’s understanding of chemistry (Ikeobi, 2010). Students have difficulty in making connections between the sub- disciplines of chemistry (which tend to be taught separately); the link between practical work and theory is often less than obvious; not enough emphasis is given to understanding of concepts in practical chemistry (Cole; Janes; Mclean and Nicholas, 1998).

In chemistry teaching, the importance of harmonizing practical work with theory cannot be over-emphasized. Omolade (2008) states that; if the academic achievement of students is to be enhanced, learners must have a deep understanding of the basic concepts behind practical task they engage in. This is because the observations and experiments, students carry out are meant to confirm some theories and the application of concepts.  In spite of this important position of chemistry among other science and science related disciplines, students’ academic achievement has consistently been below expectation and unimpressive (Jegede, 2010; Oloyede, 2010).

Activities by professional bodies like Science Teachers Association of Nigeria (STAN) and Nigerian Educational Research and Development Council (NERDC) for the past two decades are aimed at stimulating interest in science at all levels of education. Aspects that have been looked into include curriculum modification, innovation, teaching methods, teaching facilities, students’ factors. Perhaps one of the factors that have not received much attention is the role of conceptual instruction in popularizing science (Jegede, 2010).

In spite of the emphasis and attempts at the modification of curriculum, the desired level of improvement remains an illusion.  Conceptual knowledge is the knowledge, rich in relationships and understanding. It is a connected web of knowledge, a network in which the linking relationships are as prominent as the discrete bits of information. Conceptual knowledge cannot be gained by rote learning. It must be learnt by thoughtful, reflective learning (Rittle, 2009). Ibrahim, Erdal and Mustapha (2009) states that; Conceptual instructional method is a process of acquiring a better understanding of concepts.

The influence of gender on students’ academic achievement has for a long time been of concern to many researchers but no consistent result has been established. For instance, Inyang and Jegede (1991) Okeke (2001) and Aluko (2005) reported that gender has no effect on student achievement in science.

Shaibu and Mari (1997) and Lawal (2009) explained that female performances of students were significantly better than their male counterparts and that there was a significant difference between the male and female students in their ability to solve quantitative problems. Some instructional strategies are gender bias while some are gender friendly; however, the degree of gender related differences in learning vary from one method of instruction to the other. Therefore the study intends to examine the efficacy of conceptual instructional method of teaching practical Chemistry in senior secondary schools in Ikere Local Government Area of Ekiti state.

Statement of the Problem

In   spite of  the desire  for  technological  development,  coupled   with   the   fact   that  Chemistry is a very vital  subject for  technological and medical  development and as such,  its  teaching and learning   as  well as  students’ poor  academic performance  have  become  a source of   concerns   to all  stakeholders. Many students fail Chemistry in senior secondary school due to one reason or the other. The importance of strategy cannot be overemphasized in effective teaching and learning of Chemistry. Could strategy of teaching contribute to poor performance of students in Chemistry? Hence, this study investigates the efficacy of conceptual instructional method of teaching practical Chemistry in senior secondary schools in Ikere Local Government Area of Ekiti state.

Purpose of the Study

The general purpose of the study is to find out the efficacy of conceptual instructional method of teaching practical Chemistry in senior secondary schools in Ikere Local Government Area of Ekiti state. Also the study intends to:

  1. determine the difference in academic achievement of students taught practical chemistry concepts using conceptual instructional methods and those taught the same concepts using the lecture method.
  2. Examine the difference in academic achievement between male and female students taught practical chemistry concepts using the conceptual instructional method.
  3. Examine the difference in academic achievement between private and public students taught practical chemistry concepts using the conceptual instructional method.

 Significance of the Study

          The significant of the classroom interaction in any subject cannot be over emphasized. In secondary schools, there has been no particular teaching strategy established in the conventional classroom situation.

Therefore, the result of this study is expected to assist the Chemistry teachers to consciously structure their class so as to induce in the learners the knowledge necessary for meaningful Chemistry learning.

Also, the result is expected to help the curriculum innovators to prescribe the structuring meaningful classroom teaching strategy necessary for promoting higher performance of students in Chemistry. Equally, this study will serve as an eye-opener to parents or guardians to understand the influence of lecture and conceptual instructional method on their children or wards’ performance in Chemistry.

Scope of the Study

The study is limited to senior secondary schools in Ikere Local Government Area of Ekiti state. It comprised of senior secondary school two (SSS 2) Chemistry students in public and private secondary schools. It covers four (4) secondary schools in each senatorial district. The study covers some selected S.S.S II Chemistry curriculum contents.

Research Questions

The following research questions were raised to guide the study.

  1. What is the difference in academic achievement of students taught practical chemistry concepts using conceptual instructional methods and those taught the same concepts using the lecture method?
  2. What is the difference in academic achievement between male and female students taught practical chemistry concepts using the conceptual instructional method?
  3. What is the difference in academic achievement between private and public students taught practical chemistry concepts using the conceptual instructional method?

 Hypotheses

From the above research questions, the following hypotheses were generated.

  1. There is no significant difference in academic achievement of students taught practical chemistry concepts using conceptual instructional methods and those taught the same concepts using the lecture method.
  2. There is no significant difference in academic achievement between male and female students taught practical chemistry concepts using the conceptual instructional method.
  3. There is no significant difference in academic achievement between private and public school students taught practical chemistry concepts using the conceptual instructional method.

Definition of Terms

The following terms are operationally defined in this study

Achievement: According to Black and William (1998) achievement is past oriented. It is based on a specific body of knowledge and it reveals areas of weakness, which can result in remedial action. Achievement can also reveal competence and such results can be used to predict future performance.

Academic Achievement – Knowledge attained or skills developed in school subjects by test scores.

          Secondary school (also “high school”) is a term used to describe an educational institution where the final stage of schooling, known as secondary education and usually compulsory up to a specified age, takes place. It follows elementary or primary education, and may be followed by university (tertiary) education.

 

 

 

 

 

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