EFFECT OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIAL IN TEACHING BASIC TECHNOLOGY IN SECONDARY SCHOOL
- BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Technology as people said is the bedrock of any nations, a nation without technology can never develop, the word „technology‟ has often been misconstrued to relate only to professionals, and the schools has found it difficult to give it an appropriate place in the curriculum God‟swill (2010) clearly shown that the development of technology begins from the society and end with the society and that is in every technology, the overall aim is to exploit the existing scientific and other knowledge for useful ends. In view of the central position of technology in academics and the social economic of the nation, poor performance in it can be catastrophic, not only to the students but also to the society at large. Deficiency in technology can be a great limitation to any nation and the people. Inspite of the importance of Basic technology in junior secondary schools, report from Education Research Centre (ERC) Kaduna Ministry of Education reveals that student‟s performance in basic technology has been generally poor. The result indicated that in the year 2010 only 42% passed the prescribed examination that is the education research centre examination at credit level, while 58% failed, also in the year 2011 only 39% passed at credit level while 61% failed. Ofili and Okore (2012) found that instructional video produced better learning outcome when used for teaching. The findings also revealed that male and female students performed equally better using instructional video package.
We are living in the era of science and technology where a child starts playing on a touch screen before he learns how to crawl. The power of technology has captured the minds of this generation, this can be seen in the field of education, the technology of teaching students in this competitive scenario is the use of instructional materials like instructional video. In developed countries, teacher use instructional material and new technologies to facilitate learning, while in developing countries like Nigeria, research has it that 80% of teachers still make use of the conventional or traditional method of teaching to facilitate knowledge, this may look boring to the students after a while and the job of a teacher becomes only effective when he is able to pass knowledge to the students and the students is convinced by what is been delivered to them. (Ofili and Okoye, 2012 Pp. 18), in the same vein, Ogunleye (2000) states that the mind remembers three things, image, music and colour. The use of instructional video in the classroom has the power to help students grasp, visualize and explain difficult concepts. The key is for the teacher to use this technology effectively because some of the topics taught in basic technology may be abstract to the students, the use of instructional video will make it real and concrete. Ayogu (2000) laments that frequent use of lecture method for teaching in Nigeria does not provide for sequence of learning experiences. Ogunley (2000) reported that technology had not been effectively utilized for teaching and learning in most of the schools, therefore it has minimum impact on educational system. Educational technologists are of the view that audio and video instruction has high potential in teaching and learning situation (Abubakar, 2001; Yusuf, 1997).
The potential benefits of instructional video can not be underestimated in the contemporary world. Adams (1990) is of the opinion that video instruction is one of the 3
most influential of all the media for teaching, Agusibo (2000) reported that instructional video has a strong influence on learning but most teachers seldomly use them because they are not aware of their effectiveness. This has led to the use of conventional methods of teaching which has not helped in anyway to improve student‟s performance. For teachers to be able to pass knowledge to the students effectively and meet up with their counterpart in developed countries, he needs to integrate the use of instructional video in his teaching (Kochnar 1995).
Many science teachers do not see improvisation as anything to talk about or labour for. This is simply because equipment are readily available in the market for teaching and learning. Improvisation is very important to teaching and learning of science. Roding top fatubarin (2001), improvisation in science teaching is described as an important issue in science education which has attracted a lot of contribution from science teachers. Science has been regarded as the bedrock of modern day technological breakthrough is built. Nowadays, countries all over the world, especially the developing ones like Nigeria, are striving hard to develop technologically and scientifically, science the world is turning scientific and proper functioning of lives depend greatly on science.
Some of the equipment we use in teaching Basic Technology can be improvised. There are discarded materials like milk tins, broken plastic, and some wood that can be used for improvisation. Many science teachers do not see improvisation as anything to talk about or labour for. This is simply because equipments are readily available in the market for teaching and learning. Improvisation in science subject is described as an important issue in science education which has attracted a lot of contributions from science teachers. According to Ogunleye (2002), science is a dynamic human activity concerned with understanding to working of our world. This understanding helps man to know more about the university. Without the applications of science, it would have been difficult for an to explore the other planets of the universe. Science comprises the basic disciplines such as physics, chemistry, mathematics and biology. Many investigations have shown that primary school Students are exhibiting dwindling interest in science.
Statement Of The Problem.
Inspite of the desire for technological development, couple with the fact that Basic Technology is a very vital subject for technological development and as such its teaching and learning as well as Students ’ poor academic performance have become a source of concerns to all stakeholders. The problem of the present study is to investigate the effect of using improvised instructional materials on the achievement of primary school Students in Basic Technology . The main problem that calls for research work is the fact that teacher particularly those in primary school often ignore the use of instructional materials even when such materials are available in the school, some consider their use and improvisation as waste of time.
1.2 Purpose Of The Study
The purpose of this study is to find the effect of use of instructional materials in teaching and learning of basic technology in secondary school
Specifically, this study sought to:
- Investigate the availability of instructional materials for the teaching and learning of Basic Technology in the secondary schools in Ilaje Local Government Area of Ondo State.
- Determine how often Basic Technology teachers use instructional materials to teach Basic Technology in Secondary Schools in Ilaje Local Government Area of Ondo State.
- Investigate the reason why instructional materials are not effectively used during Basic Technology teaching and learning in Ilaje Local Government Area of Ondo State.
- To determine the impact of instructional materials on the attitude of Basic Technology students towards the teaching and learning of Basic Technology in Secondary Schools in Ilaje Local Government Area of Ondo State.
1.4 Research Questions.
The following research questions. Were raised to guide the study:
- Are instructional materials available for the teaching and learning of Basic Technology in the Secondary Schools in Ilaje Local Government Area of Ondo State?
- How often do Basic Technology teachers use instructional materials to teach Basic Technology in Secondary Schools in Ilaje Local Government Area of Ondo State?
- What are the problems hindering effective use of instructional materials during Basic Technology teaching and learning in Ilaje Local Government Area of Ondo State?
- Do instructional materials have impact on the attitude of Basic Technology students towards the teaching and learning of Basic Technology in Secondary Schools in Ilaje Local Government Area of Ondo State?
1.5 Limitation Of The Study
The research was carried out within the vicinity of Ilaje local so as to be able to accomplish it on time, considering the time limit, which was given to researcher, limited finance, and some logistic constraints.
In addition, her final examination that was almost at hand was also another area of constraints.
1.6 Scope Of The Study
The research would be restricted to forty students from five Selected secondary school in Ilaje Local Government. It would have been ideal to include other Students from various classes, but due to limited time, human materials resources, she could not do so.
1.7 Significance Of The Study
This study would be of immense importance to secondary school teacher who have long ignored the use of instruction in the classroom teaching. Utilization of instructional material in the classroom teaching. Utilization of instruction material coupled with the effective teaching also brings about efficiency in teaching and leaning thereby revives the falling standard of education.
If the findings are made available to the appropriate authorities, government and other who are interested in the efficiency of learning will find this research very useful.
If the findings are made available to the appropriate in the efficiency of learning will find this research very useful.
Teaching aids are an integral component in any classroom. The many benefits of teaching aids include help learners improve reading comprehension skills, illustration of reinforcing a skill or concept, differentiating instruction and relieving anxiety or boredom by presenting information in a new and exciting way. Teaching aids also engage Students ’ other senders since there are no limits in what aids can be utilized when supplementing a lesson.
1.8 Definition Of The Terms
It is necessary to define the following terms because of their unique use in the study.
Academic performance: academic performance can be defined as excellence in all academic disciplines in doss as well as extra curricular activities.
Instructional materials: instructional materials are learning materials or teaching aids that facilitate teaching and learning.
Improvisation: improvising in this study refers to a way of producing or providing teaching aids that ate relevant to the teaching of Basic Technology .
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