EFFECT OF CLASS SIZE IN EFFECTIVE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF BIOLOGY IN SELECTED SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS - UNIPROJECTS

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EFFECT OF CLASS SIZE IN EFFECTIVE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF BIOLOGY IN SELECTED SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS

 EFFECT OF CLASS SIZE IN EFFECTIVE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF BIOLOGY IN SELECTED SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS

ABSTRACT

This study focused on the effect of class – size in effective teaching and learning of Biology in senior secondary schools in Ikere Local Government Area of Ekiti State. Three research questions were raised for the purpose of carrying out the study, questionnaires were used to elicit information from students. Two hundred and fifty students were randomly selected from ten different schools in the focus area and frequency table and chi-square techniques were used to analyse the data collected. It was discovered from the study that large class –size is a great challenge in achieving effective learning and teaching of Biology as teachers could hardly prove their efficacy in classes thereby resulting to poor output from students. It was thus further recommended by the researcher that it is necessary to involve student in meaningful and purposeful learning activities base on investigation, examination and observation of their own immediate environment in the teaching of Biology and all effort should be made by everybody in the society to ensure the effective teaching of Biology regardless of class size. 

TABLE OF CONTENT

     Page No

Title page…………………………………..

Certification         ……………………………….

Dedication…………………………………

Acknowledgement         …………………………

Table of content……………………………

Abstract ……………………………………

CHAPTER ONE: Introduction

Background to the study …………………..

Statement of the problem ………………….

Purpose of the study ………………………

Significance of the study…….……………

Research questions ……………………….

Research hypothesis ………………………

Delimitation of the Study …………………

Definition of terms         ……………………….

CHAPTER TWO: Review of related literature

Introduction ………………………………

Concept of Class Size ……………………

The Relationship between Class Size and

Teachers’ Productivity…………………..

 

CHAPTER THREE: Methodology

Research Design ………………………

Area of study ………………………….

Population of the Study ……………….

Sample and Sampling Techniques…….

Instruments and Procedure …………….

Validity of the Research Instrument…….

Procedure for Data Collection …………

Data analysis…………………………..

CHAPTER FOUR: Results and Discussion

Results…………………………………

Discussion of Findings ………………..

CHAPTER FIVE: Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

Summary ……………………………..

Conclusion……………………………

Recommendation ……………………

REFERENCES …………………….                                      

APPENDIX I ……………………….

APPENDIX II ………………………

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background to the Study

Academic achievement of students especially at the secondary level is not only a pointer to the effectiveness or otherwise of schools but a major determinant of the future of youths in particular and the nation in general. The medium through which the attainment of individuals and the nation’s educational goals can be achieved is through learning. Learning outcomes have become a phenomenon of interest to all and this account for the reason why scholars have been working hard to unravel factors that militate against good academic performance (Aremu and Sokan, 2002).

The Nigeria education system has continuously experience and upward trend in school environment at all levels since after the civil war in 1970. This has in turn impacted on the class size in terms of the population of individual classroom (Osin, Asiyai, and Woessmann, 2002).

Adeyemo, (2001) opined that the major goal of the school is to work towards attainment of academic excellence by students. According to him, the school may have other peripheral objectives; emphasis is always placed on the achievement of sound scholarship. Besides, virtually everybody concerned with education places premium on academic achievement, excellent academic achievement of children is often the expectation of parents. At the outset of an activity, students differ in learning as a function of their prior experiences, personal qualities and social supports. The latter includes the extent that parents and teachers encourage them to learn, facilitate their access to resources necessary for learning, and teach them strategies that enhance skill acquisition and refinement. Parent’s academic aspirations for their children influence their children’s academic achievements both directly and indirectly (Bandura and Pastorelli, 2001).

Inflated class size is very critical to teaching and learning process as teachers sometimes have real difficulty in dealing with students on individual bases. We find a scenario in our schools where a teacher stands right in front of the classroom throughout the lesson period without moving around from time to time to supervise what the students are doing because there is hardly a space between one row of lockers and another. Class size refers to an educational tool that can be used to describe the average number of student per class in a school (Adeyemi, 2008). As school population increases the performances of students become an issue.

Adeyemi, (2008) reported that average class size influences the cost of education while capital cost could be reduced by increasing the average class size in Nigeria schools. Nwadiani, (2000) argued that the higher the class size, the lower the cost of education. He contend however, that most classrooms are overcrowded spreading resources thinly and thereby affecting the quality of education. Ajayi, (2010) supported the view points and argued that in order to control rising capital cost of education, the average class size could be increased.

Class size refers to educational tools that can be used to describe the average number of students per class in a school. In emphasizing the importance of class-size to the learning teaching process, ALL Nigerian Conference of Principals of Secondary Schools (ANCOPSS) recommended a maximum of forty students per class for efficient and effective teaching. Adeyela, (2000) found in her study that large class size is not conducive for serious academic work. Similarly, Egede, (2005) pointed out that an alarming class- size of 100 or more students in the secondary schools leave the teacher overworked and therefore unable to exercise patience and positive attitude. They are also reluctant to offer extra time to build and help the intellectually ill students.

Statement of the Problem

Observation reveals that in recent times, there has been astronomical rise in class size due to increase enrolment of students in public secondary school in Ekiti State and classrooms seem to be over-congested. Some schools have as many as eighty (80), hundred (100) or above one hundred students per class as against the teacher – student ratio of 1:40 recommended by the National Policy on Education (FGN, 2004). In view of the divergent opinion, the problem of this study was to determine what influence class size had on the quality of output from secondary schools in Ekiti State.

Purpose of the Study

The main purpose of this research study is to examine the effect of class size in effective teaching and learning of biology in selected senior secondary schools in Ikere local Government area of Ekiti State.

The specific objectives are;

  1. To examine the effect of class size on the teaching and learning of Biology in senior secondary schools in Ekiti.
  2. To examine how quality class size helps in improving the efficiency and effectiveness of teaching and learning of Biology in secondary schools in Ekiti.
  3. To examine negative effect of class size on academic performance of Biology students in secondary schools in Ekiti could be brought minimal.

Significance of the Study

The Nigerian education system is progressively becoming more and more complex.  But the catalogue of sources shows that Nigerian secondary school class is over congested and thereby leads to a decline in teaching and learning of Biology.

The study is hoped to therefore:

  1. Assist teachers of Biology in adopting suitable teaching methods in teaching over-populated classes.
  2. Provide education planners and curriculum planners with ways of combating problems of teaching Biology in over-populated classes.
  3. Assist teachers of Biology in adopting suitable method in achieving proper class management.
  4. Serve as a measure for government to know their weaknesses and thus make provisions for infrastructural and human resources.

Research Questions

The research seeks to answer the following questions that affect the effect of class size in effective teaching and learning of Biology in Ikere local government area of Ekiti State to guide the study.

  • Is there any difference in the achievement in Biology for senior secondary school students in small and large sized classes?
  • Is there any significant difference between the quality of output of students in schools having an average small class-sizes and the quality of output of students in schools having an average large class-sizes in the SSCE examinations in the State?
  • What is the effect of class size on Biology teachers’ productivity in secondary schools in Ikere local government area of Ekiti state?

Research Hypotheses

The following null hypothetical statements are made with respect to the objectives of the study.

  1. There is no significant difference between the achievement of students in Biology in small and large sized classes of senior secondary schools.
  2. There is no significant difference between the quality of output of students in schools having an average class-size of 35 students and below and the quality of output of students in schools having an average class-size of above 35 students in SSCE examinations in Ikere local government are of Ekiti State.
  • There is no significant relationship between class size and teachers’ productivity.

Delimitation of the Study

The study is specifically talking about the Correlation between the effect of class size and the effective teaching and learning of Biology in senior secondary schools in Ikere local government area of Ekiti State. The study will concentrate on the effects of class size on the teaching and learning of Biology in ten (10) Senior Secondary Schools in Ikere Local Government area of Ekiti State.

Definition of Terms

The definitions used in the historical class size debate vary according to the researcher. The following definitions are ones that will be used in this research.

Class size: Class size is typically defined as the number of students for whom a teacher is primarily responsible during a school year. The teacher may teach in a self-contained classroom or provide instruction in one subject. Achilles, (2003) gives the following example of class size: “Average class-size is the sum of all students regularly in each teacher’s class divided by the actual number of regular teachers in those specific classes.

Pupil-teacher ratio (also known as teacher-student ratio): Achilles, (2003) defined pupil-teacher ratio as the number of student in a school or district compared to the number of teaching professionals. All educators may be part of the computation, including counselors and administrators. According to Hanushek, (1999), the only data that are consistently available over time reflect pupil-teacher ratios.

Teaching: The act or profession who teaches, something that is taught. Teaching includes all the activities of providing education to other; it is also a form of inter-personal influence on students.

Learning: The activity or process of gaining knowledge or skill by studying, practicing, being taught or experiencing something.

Students: A person formally engaged in learning especially one enrolled in a school or college, pupil.

Class size reduction: Class size reduction is the processes to achieve class sizes smaller than the ones currently in place (Achilles, 2003).

 

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