IMPACT OF COMMUNITY RESOURCE-BASED TEACHING METHOD ON DRUG USE AND AWARENESS AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS
This study examined the impact of community resource-based teaching method on drug use and awareness among junior secondary school students in Kano state, Nigeria. In order to facilitate the study, eight objectives were stated to reflect the areas of interest of the research. Eight research questions were drawn arising from the stated objectives and eight null hypotheses were equally formulated to guide the conduct of the research. This research, which is quasi experimental in nature, had six junior secondary schools with a total population of two hundred and ninety eight students as sample. Three of the schools were classified as experimental schools and the other three, control schools. The experimental schools had a population of one hundred and forty eight students and the control schools had a population of one hundred and fifty students. The selection of the schools took care of variables such as senatorial districts, male and female, urban and rural. A pilot test was conducted with the research instrument and the reliability of instrument was established using Pearson Product Moment Correlation formular at
r=0.56. At the pre-test level, the subjects exhibited an equivalence level of academic performance but at the post-test level tested at 0.05, five of the null hypotheses were rejected and three accepted. The implication is that students taught using community resource-based teaching method on the average performed better than those taught using exposition. Based on the findings, the study subsequently recommended that as much as possible community resources in the form of both human and non-human should be utilized from time to time in teaching different units of social studies curriculum.
1.1 Background to the Study
Prior to 1984, Nigerians did not know much about the adverse effect of drug use on the society. It took the promulgation of the miscellaneous offences Decree No.20 of 1984 by the Generals Buhari/Idiagbon administration in 1984 and the subsequent public execution of three Nigerians – Bernard Ogedengbe, Bartholomew Owoh and Akanni Lawal Ojulope for trafficking in hard drugs for reality to begin to dawn on many Nigerians (Uwaigbo, 1999). Though the trios were sentenced through a retroactive decree, it nonetheless imprinted in the minds of many youths that drug use challenge and its effect is a reality.
The problem of drug is as old as man in many societies and no society is insulated from its negative consequences. According to National Agency for Food, Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC, nd: 1)
Many analysts are of the opinion that apart from the genocide of Second World War, no other phenomenon has had more debilitating consequences on mankind like the pandemic drug scourge. This view is anchored on the fact that even the much dreaded HIV/AIDS which has yet defied any known cure has narcotic drugs as one of it principal causes. Besides drugs are known to induce social vices, civil upheavals and other forms of criminalities.
According to (NAFDAC, nd) the problem of drug usage in Nigeria began to assume very worrisome dimension following the return of Nigerian soldiers at the end of the Second World War from such places as Burma and India with some seeds of cannabis sativa (Indian Hemp). Through experimentation they discovered that the plant can do well in certain parts of the country and hence its cultivation began to grow with its attendant use, trafficking and abuse. This also led to the use of Nigeria as a transit point for trafficking in cocaine, heroine and other psychotropic substances.
Even though decree No.20 that prescribed prison terms was still in place, the harsh economic condition of Nigerians in the mid-1980s contributed largely in perpetrating the drug use menace. In the words of Uwiagbo (1999:1)
Socio-economic reality in Nigeria, after the demise of the second republic opened the country to several illegalities. There was an obvious absence of credibility in government, both in terms of policy formulation and actual implementation. Thus the indices for a good and responsible leadership became bad and even scandalous. For instance the economy became uncontrollable as inflation rose steadily. When the Babangida administration embarked upon Structural Adjustment Programme (SAP) in 1986, it was clear that the average Nigerian was in hard for times. This social environment actually encouraged the exposure of Nigerians to hard drug business.
The task of combating illicit drug cultivation, trafficking, consumption and transacting in fake drugs rest with two government agencies in Nigeria. These are National Drug Law Enforcement Agency (NDLEA) and National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC).
The essence of drug use awareness campaign among secondary school students cannot be over emphasized more so in Kano State with a cosmopolitan nature of diverse settlements. Due to the nature of the state, in terms of commercial activities, many people tend to easily acquire the habit of careless drug purchase and consumption and as Muazu (2007) suggests, drug use and awareness are essential in combating drug abuse.
This awareness is a challenge to Nigeria educational system because all over the world, education is conceived as the pivot upon which every aspect of development depends (Abolade, 2009). This is the basic reason why countries are often assessed on the quality and quantity of their social, economic, scientific and technological advancement through the sophistry of the educational system. The demarcation point between the industrial and military powers like United States of America, United Kingdom, France, Germany, Japan, North Korea, India and the underdeveloped countries mostly within the African continent is largely as a result of the level of educational development (Abolade, 2009). It is through education that such societal problems as drug scourge can be tackled among youths especially those in secondary schools.
Therefore, the place of education as a vehicle for the actualization of national development goals cannot be over emphasized. Nigeria is not an exception to this rule because the basic essence of education is the realization of the national goals to wit: a free and democratic society, a just and egalitarian society, a great and dynamic economy; and a land full of bright opportunities for all citizens (FGN 2004). The philosophical basis for the above goals is to effectively integrate the individual into a good and effective citizen and also providing equal educational opportunities for all citizens of the nation from the
primary through the secondary to the tertiary level of education in the overriding interest of social change and national development (Maduewesi, 2005). These goals cannot be realized when many youths in secondary schools are resorting to illegal drug use habit that has necessitated the execution of promising young men.
Indeed the fight against drug menace in Nigeria dates back to the colonial era. NDLEA, (nd: 1) states that:
It is on record that Nigeria flagged off its narcotic control efforts in 1935 when the dangerous drug ordinance was enacted to control drug trafficking and abuse. Subsequently governments made concerted efforts to stay on top of the drug problem ….. until the advent of NDLEA, the board of customs and exercise (now Nigeria customs service) and the Nigerian police were the major drug interdiction organs of the government, while the Federal Welfare Department was charged with counseling, treatment and rehabilitation of drug dependant persons.
Social studies is one of the secondary school subjects through which drug use awareness can be approached due to its origination. It was designed to tackle certain pressing issues and vices associated with man and his interaction with his environment.
The emergence and subsequent diffusion of social studies as a school subject had its root in the social situations of the world in the middle 20th Century. The immense devastation of the two world wars, the threat of another world war, rising unemployment, illicit drug consumption and economic recession especially in Europe led to questions about the nature and aims of schooling. In Great Britain, there was a need for schools to change as a result of
the country‟s changing role in the world and the increasing complexity of an industrial society (Urevbu, 1990). There were criticisms on the teaching of history and geography for laying two much emphasis on recording and exploring the feat of British Empire to the detriment of other social threats like drug abuse and violent crime of the period (Iyela, 2005). These desires for change created a fertile ground for the germination of the idea that nurtured the emergence of social studies as a school subject. Primarily at inception, the emphasis was on democracy, citizenship and contemporary social issues as drug trafficking/consumption and it negative implications to society.
The trend in social studies movement was not lost to the colonial educational operators in Africa at that era, but became more pronounced in the 1960‟s when many African countries became independent and therefore needed to re-order the challenge posed by the quest for national identities as independent sovereign states. In Nigeria, the first attempt in the teaching of social studies was in 1958 when a collaborative arrangement was made between the defunct western regional government and the University of Ohio in the United States for social studies to be taught in teacher training colleges in the region (Iyela, 2005). This effort was not sustained.
However, more serious and sustained effort was pioneered in 1963 by the teaching staff of Comprehensive High School, Aiyetoro in the present Ogun State where social studies was initially taught at classes one and two. This experiment spread to other schools in the region and by 1965, at a conference organized by
the Western Region Ministry of Education, the social studies department of Comprehensive High School, Aiyetoro was assigned the responsibility of producing a social studies book for form one and two (Nda, 2000). This effort resulted in “social studies for Nigeria secondary school (Book I and II). As a reward for this effort, seven members of social studies department at Aiyetoro were sponsored by the Ford Foundation programme for curriculum development in Nigeria to a five-week social studies workshop in Washington University, Seattle in 1967 (Nda, 2000).
More to the above, a conference was held at the University of Lagos in 1968 under the auspices of Ford Foundation and the Comparative Education Study and Adaptation Centre (CESAC) at which the result of the proceedings was refined and produced as a book for social studies by CESAC (Iyela, 2005). It can thus be deduced from the above that most of the pioneering effort at social studies teaching in Nigeria emerged mostly from the western part of the country.
At the African level, a conference of eleven countries including Nigeria was held in Mombasa-Kenya at which it was recommended that social studies be taught in secondary and teacher training colleges in Africa. This conference led to the emergence of the African Social Studies Programme. A follow-up action to the Mombasa conference was a fourteen-day seminar on social studies at the co-operative college, Eleyele-Ibadan with teachers from various parts of the country in attendance. This seminar gave birth to the Social Studies Association of Nigeria (SOSAN) (Nda, 2000).
Various other conferences were held that robbed off positively on social studies. Among these were the National Curriculum Conference of 1969, the Curriculum Conference for teacher training colleges in 1972, the National Curriculum Conference for Primary Schools, that for teacher training colleges and secondary all in 1973. The federal government in 1974 in anticipation of the launching of the Universal Primary Education (UPE) programme took over primary and teacher training colleges in the country and produced a syllabus for them that included social studies. This gave the teaching of social studies a national prominence.
At the secondary level, by 1979/80 according to Obebe and Olatunde (2005:135),
“CESAC published the Nigerian Secondary School Social Studies Project-Social Studies 1, 2 and 3. The content of the curriculum covered includes social, physical and cultural concepts of man in his ever changing environment. It also incorporated the basic and central concepts in the traditional disciplines in order to facilitate an understanding of the problems for study in the social studies curriculum”.
With the introduction of the 6-3-3-4 system of education in 1982, social studies was made one of the core subjects in the Nigeria Junior Secondary Schools. This prompted the production of a syllabus for that level in the same year and revised in 1984 (Nda, 2000).
The value of social studies teaching and learning cannot be appreciated less especially in Nigeria that survived a civil war between 1967-70 and has been plagued by various sectarian and ethno-religious crises (Ezugwu, 2004).
Therefore, if social studies goals are to be realized especially at the junior secondary school level in Nigeria, obviously, the instructional process has to be examined. This is because it is at the junior secondary level class two that the nine year basic education curriculum provided for drug abuse and drug trafficking to be taught to secondary school students (Federal Ministry of Education, 2007).
Since social studies is largely about man, his environment and society, among the resources that can be employed in its teaching and learning are community-based resources. In the neighbourhood where schools are located, there are resources that can be harnessed and put into effective use to improve the quality of teaching and learning. These resources both human and non-human are known as community resources in education. In the community, there are resource persons in the form of students, teachers or other professionals and artisans that can be featured to promote the learning process. This can be done either by visiting them or inviting them to the school so that they can handle certain aspects of a lesson to enrich learners (Salau, 2011).
In the non-human resources, there are material resources that include printed and non-printed materials, visual, audio and audiovisual materials and environmental resources consisting of resource places and visitation sites (Ogbeide, 2008). The utilization of these community based resources so as to improve the quality of teaching and learning is regarded as community resource based approach.
These community based resources can be used to teach various subjects in secondary schools. Social studies is one of such subjects. It has various topics and units that concern different areas of life. In social studies, the units on drug abuse and trafficking among others can be taught through community resource based approach where the regular teacher feels he does not have the competence. The essence is to have a collaborative and sustained awareness and control on drug use in the society.
Kano was created in 1967 by the administration of Rtd. Gen. Yakubu Gowon. It has forty-four local government areas making it the highest in the country. Kano has fifteen (15) educational zones under the management of Kano State Post-Primary School Management Board (PPSMB).
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Social studies is one of the subjects offered in the secondary school system of Nigeria where social issues are meant for treatment. The state of social studies teaching in Nigeria according to a survey carried out by the National Teachers Institute (2006) and cited in Adekeye (2008) revealed a very poor outing as teachers were blamed for using inappropriate pedagogical approaches of lecturing, dictation and memorization as against inquiry, field trip, role playing and resource persons. In the same vein, Kurah (2006) as cited in Ogundare (2007) in a study on social studies teaching found that most teachers of social studies emphasize memorization in their approach to teaching. These
conventional classroom approaches might not have yielded the desired result of creating adequate awareness and control of drug abuse among students.
The need to explore other approaches to teaching social issues and problem such as drugs becomes imperative because it is common in Kano to see teenagers in secondary schools openly indulging in drug abuse in public places as Beer Parlour, viewing centres, football venues and other joints. After abusing various forms of drugs, they engage in antisocial behaviours like violent crime, political thuggery and armed conflict that often lead to killing and maiming. This study was therefore designed to explore how the use of community resource base approach can impact on drug use awareness and control among secondary schools.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The objectives of this study are as follows:
i. Find out the impact of a health educator in enhancing drug use and awareness among secondary school students in Kano Central Senatorial District, Kano state.
ii. Find out the impact of a science educator in enhancing drug use and awareness among secondary school students in Kano South Senatorial District, Kano state.
iii. Find out the impact of a nurse in enhancing drug use and awareness among secondary school students in Kano North Senatorial District, Kano state.
iv. Find out the impact of both science educator and nurse in enhancing drug use and awareness among male secondary school students in Kano state.
v. Find out the impact of a health educator in enhancing drug use and awareness among female secondary school students in Kano state.
vi. Determine the impact of both science educator and nurse in enhancing drug use and awareness among students in rural secondary school students in Kano state.
vii. Determine the impact of a health educator in enhancing drug use and awareness among students in urban secondary school students in Kano state.
viii. Determine the impact of non-human resources (like posters, real drugs and graphic materials) in enhancing drug use and awareness among secondary school students in Kano state.
1.4 Research Questions
This research work is set to find answers to the following question:
(i) Can a health educator be effective in enhancing drug use and awareness among secondary school students in Kano Central Senatorial District, Kano state?
(ii) Can a science educator be effective in enhancing drug use and awareness among secondary school students in Kano South Senatorial District, Kano state?
(iii) Can a nurse be effective in enhancing drug use and awareness among secondary school students in Kano North Senatorial District, Kano state?
(iv) Can both science educator and nurse be effective in enhancing drug use and awareness among male secondary school students in Kano state?
(v) Can a health educator be effective in enhancing drug use and awareness among female secondary school students in Kano state?
(vi) Can both science educator and nurse be effective in enhancing drug use and awareness among rural secondary school students in Kano state?
(vii) Can a health educator be effective in enhancing drug use and awareness among urban secondary school students in Kano state?
(viii) Can non-human resources (like graphic materials) be effective in enhancing drug use and awareness among secondary school students in Kano state?
Based on the formulated research questions above, the following null hypotheses were tested in the course of this research:
(i) There is no significant difference between the mean scores of students taught by a health educator and those taught by social studies teacher on drug use and awareness in Kano Central Senatorial District, Kano state.
(ii) There is no significant difference between the mean scores of students taught by a science educator and those taught by social studies teacher on drug use and awareness in Kano South Senatorial District, Kano state.
(iii) There is no significant difference between the mean scores of students taught by a nurse and those taught by social studies teacher on drug use and awareness in Kano North Senatorial District, Kano state.
(iv) There is no significant difference between the performance of male students taught by both science educator and nurse and those taught by social studies teacher on drug use and awareness in Kano State
(v) There is no significant difference between the performance of female students taught by a health educator and those taught by a social studies teacher on drug use and awareness in Kano State.
(vi) There is no significant difference between the performance of rural students taught by both science educator and a nurse and those
taught by a social studies teacher on drug use and awareness in Kano State.
(vii) There is no significant difference between the performance of urban students taught by a health educator and those taught by a social studies teacher on drug use and awareness in Kano State.
(viii) There is no significant difference in the performance of students taught using non-human community resources and those taught without non-human community resources on drug use and awareness in Kano State.
1.6 Basic Assumptions
1) It is the assumption of this study that there is availability of community resources to teach various units in different subjects in secondary schools in Kano state, Nigeria.
2) It is also the assumption that teachers in secondary schools in Kano state, Nigeria can manipulate these resources for teaching and learning.
3) It is equally assumed that the use of community resources will make teaching and learning more effective on drug use and awareness in secondary schools in Kano state, Nigeria.
1.7 Significance of the Study
This study is significant because:
Secondary school students will benefit from this study because it will expose them to the dangers of drug abuse and trafficking and will thus discourage them from picking such obnoxious habits.
The social studies teachers will benefit from this study because it will proffer alternative means of teaching social issues and problems like drug abuse and trafficking other than through regular teachers. It will stimulate the harnessing of available human and non-human community resources in the teaching and learning process. This will take care of their complains about the unavailability of resource materials for social studies instruction.
The society will equally benefit because most of the violent crimes in Nigeria like armed robbery, kidnapping, assassination and thuggery are usually directly or indirectly attributed to the influence of drug by crime perpetrators.
Parents will benefit from this study because drug exposed children constitute a nuisance and a cause for concern at home.
Researchers interested in drug education will benefit from this study. This is because it will add to existing literature on the subject matter.
The nation will benefit because drug abuse and trafficking has led to the imprisonment, death and even medically and physically ruined a lot of Nigerian people.
1.8 Scope the Study
According to Osuala (2007), delimitation builds a fence around the topic under study. This study therefore is:
(i) Delimited to Kano
(ii) Junior Secondary Schools where social studies is taught.
(iii) The social studies units on drug abuse and drug trafficking.
(iv) Drug use and awareness.
(v) Human and non-human community resources.