ASSESSMENT OF RURAL ENLIGHTENMENT AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMMES OF GOVERNMENT RADIO BROADCASTING STATIONS
This study was designed to assess rural enlightenment and socio-economic development programmes of government radio broadcasting stations in Kaduna state, aimed at identifying the rural enlightenment and socio-economic development programmes, sectors involved, their aims, as well as the level of benefit and satisfaction derived from the programmes by the rural populace in Kaduna state. A survey method was adopted in undertaking the study and stratified random sampling technique was used in the selection of the sample size for the study. Five research questions were formulated for the study involving the staff of four government radio stations and the listeners (audience) from six selected local government areas of Kaduna state. Answers were sought on available types of information on rural enlightenment and socio-economic development programmes of government radio broadcasting stations which include: Our Health, Let Them Live, Agric Panorama, Animal Husbandry, Inside Politics, Politics Today, Entrepreneurship, Gar Wuriga Waina, Sports Arena, Mid-week Sports, Pace Setters, Al‟adum Mu, among others. From a sample population of three hundred and twenty three (323) questionnaires distributed, two hundred and ninety three (293) were returned. Data was analysed, using frequency tables, percentage count, pie charts, bar charts, and histograms. The researcher assessed the message content, language used in presenting the development programmes on health, agriculture, politics, sports, cultural activities and economic empowerment programmes. Efforts were made to ascertain whether listeners benefit from the programmes or not, the level of benefits and level of satisfaction derived from these development programmes by the rural dwellers that constitute the bulk of the state population. The study discovered that the rural enlightenment and government socio-economic development programmes aired by the radio stations including; Supreme FM 96.1 of Federal Radio Corporation of Nigeria (FRCN), Kaduna; Kaduna State Media Corporation (KSMC), Kaduna; Queen FM 94.1, Zaria; and Rockside FM, Kafanchan, played appreciable roles in effectively disseminating information to the rural dwellers of Kaduna state. The study found out that the management of government radio houses and audience were positive about the potential of enlightenment on government socio-economic development programmes, while some respondents took for granted the information they got from the programme. The study also discovered the challenges faced by government radio broadcasting stations such as inadequate modern equipment, inadequate funds, lack of ICT facilities, and clashes in time schedule for the programmes by different stations, security of their equipment and government interference. It was recommended that, taking into consideration people‟s socio-cultural and religious way of life, the use of simple language, good timing and developing audiences‟ research mechanism will go a long way in influencing listeners of the programme towards attitudinal change. It is also recommended that government and well-meaningful Nigerians should ensure the provision of new and up-to-date facilities, provision of ICT facilities, smooth broadcasting of programmes, improved human capacity building for radio personnel; provision of adequate funds by government, provision of security to safeguard the equipment, as well as the enactment of relevant laws that would prevent unnecessary government interference.
1.1 Background of the Study
The influence of radio on rural enlightenment and socio-economic development programmes cannot be undermined in national development. It is on this basis that radio is used as a medium of communication to the rural dwellers through information dissemination on socio-economic development programmes, aired by various radio broadcasting stations in Kaduna state. Over the years, government has been battling with the issues of socio-economic problems, faced by rural areas through various programmes in the areas of health, agriculture, politics, sports, culture, economic empowerment, among others, which are key to economic development (Meyer, 2005).
From time immemorial, radio has been acknowledged as one of the most important landmarks of information vanguard in human communication. It is on this fact that government uses it to enlighten its citizenry on its policies and socio-economic development programmes that are vital to human development. Radio also plays a tremendous role in serving as the basic element of interaction and information-sharing among the listeners, who pay attention to government development programmes that have immense benefits to them, including those in the rural areas. These socio-economic developmental programmes have brought improvement in various areas of human endeavour, such as health, agricultural practice and products, partisan politics, sport activities, cultural activities and economic empowerment programmes across the state (Dauda, 2011).
In Kaduna state, government developmental programmes are aired by four government radio broadcasting stations, in English and Hausa languages, to the listeners on socio-economic
development. These government radio broadcasting stations include: Supreme FM 96.1 of Federal Radio Corporation of Nigeria (FRCN) Kaduna, Kaduna State Media Corporation (KSMC) Kaduna, Queen FM 94.1, Tudun wada, Zaria, and the Rockside FM Radio Station, Kafanchan. The Federal Radio Corporation of Nigeria (FRCN) Kaduna is the pioneer broadcasting organisation in northern Nigeria, with a rich culture of excellence. The station was adjudged to have more audience than any radio station in the black Africa. According to a survey conducted by United Nations by Mullen (1994), “the station was adjudged to have an average listenership of about 40 million audience at any given time”.
Supreme FM 96.1 of FRCN, Kaduna has rural enlightenment and development programmes in English and Hausa languages on health. It is known in English as “Our Health” and in Hausa as “Kiwo Lafiya”. This is the programme where health issues, such as Poliomyelitis immunization, Roll-back Malaria, HIV/AIDS, Diarrhoea, Cholera, Measles, and Tuberculosis, among others, are aired to listeners. On agriculture, Supreme FM 96.1 of FRCN, in collaboration with National Agricultural Extension Research and Liaison Services (NAERLS) Zaria, has “Animal husbandry” known as „Kiwace- Kiwace” in Hausa and “Agric Panorama” known as “Mu Koma Gona” in Hausa. On politics, there is “Inside Politics” in English and “Demokaradiyya adon kasa” and “Siyasa Rigar Yanci” in Hausa. In the area of Sports, Supreme FM 96.1 of FRCN broadcast sport activities in an English programme known as “Sport Arena”, and in Hausa it has “Wasannin mu a yau”, “Wasannin Tsaki yar mako”, and “Labarin wasanni”. On culture, the programme in English, known as “Pace Setter”, is to enlighten the rural populace on cultural activities. The programme has Hausa version, known as “Arewar Mu”, and “Kallabi Tsakanin Rawuna” (featuring prominent women). The economic empowerment programme, being broadcast by Supreme FM 96.1 of FRCN Kaduna, is
“Entrepreneurship”, which focuses on empowering the youths and women on vocational acquisition skills to engage in business activities to be self-reliant. The programme also has its Hausa version, known as “Hikimar Ka Jarin Ka”, and “Hadahadar Kasu Wanci”.
Kaduna State Media Corporation (KSMC), Kaduna has the following programmes that are aired to the rural dwellers: “Let Them Live”, known in Hausa as “A Cheche Su” on health; “Noma Arzikin Kasa” on agriculture; “Politics Today” on politics; “Wasannin Mako”, “Wasannin Tsakiya mako”, “Wasanni a yau”, and “Dandali Wasanni” on sports; “Al’adum Mu” ; on culture and youth empowerment programme, known in Hausa as “Ga Wuriga Waina”.
Queen FM 94.1 Tudun-Wada, Zaria broadcasts rural enlightenment and socio-economic and development programmes to the target listeners. Such programmes include, “Health Bits” in English and “Kiwo Lafiya” in Hausa. It also has programmes on agriculture in English, known as “Traditional Farming” and in Hausa as “Noma ar Abinchin Kasa”. On sports, it has “Zazzau Express” and “Mid-Week sports”, known in Hausa version as “Dandali Wasanni”. On culture, it has “Al’adum Mu”, and the youth empowerment programmes known as Entrepreneurship in English while in Hausa version as “Gawuri ga waina”.
The Rockside FM Radio Station, Kafanchan, is a sub-station under Kaduna State Media Corporation (KSMC) and it has similar rural enlightenment and socio-economic and development programmes as Queen FM 94.1. From these programmes therefore, communication creates a pool of ideas, strengthens the feeling of togetherness, through the exchange of messages, and translates into thoughts and actions. It is on this basis that Moemeka (1985) asserts that “radio communication educates citizens on new issues inherent in the society and helps to achieve development in the rural areas, as issues of development are aired to the
audience through various programmes. Individuals are exposed to happenings in and around their society through listening to these programmes.” For example, issues on health, agriculture, politics, economy, sports, culture, empowerment (business), among others, are aired to create awareness to the populace. Consequently, a society that has poor communication and information infrastructure, perpetually lags behind others that have efficient information infrastructure (Madu, Umar and Khalique, 2012).
Radio stands to serve as an agent of social mobilization to enable people deliver certain goals, based on the awareness they receive to demonstrate their rights, as radio signals travel very fast and are considered the most popular, viable and cost effective means of communication. Radio breaks the barrier of distance, literacy, language diversities, which can accelerate social transformation, geared towards socio-economic development. “Prior to the early or late 20th century, radio has grown to a global phenomenon in affecting mass mobilization by conveying information and ideas to distant isolated locations” (Dominic, 1999). What is obvious about radio is its ability, as a medium, to change attitudes and behaviour of its audience, which include the rural dwellers. In order to tackle the problems, facing the rural populace, through the provision of their basic needs, government usually embarks on developmental programmes and projects, which cover a wide range of human endeavours. According to Asemah (2010), “development is a process of change in attitude, social, structural and general acceleration of economic growth, through reduction of poverty and inequality”. Asemah (2011) also notes that development in human society is a many-sided process. At the level of the individual, it implies increased skills and capacity, greater freedom, creativity, self-discipline, responsibility and material well-being. The achievement of any of these aspects is very much tied with the state of the society as a whole. Development involves the creation of opportunities for the realization of
human potentials. Human beings have certain basic needs, which must be satisfied so that they can properly function in the society. Among these are enough food, employment and the elimination of the kinds of inequality, which leads to poverty.
According to Bittner (2005), “radio is an effective medium for mass mobilization, especially in rural enlightenment and development programmes”. It is on this basis that government uses radio in communicating to its citizens on planned developmental programmes, which can impact on the lives of the people, in Kaduna State, in the areas of health, agriculture, education, shelter, portable water, roads and transportation, electricity, security, tourism, among others. It is based on these needs that “Communication experts opine that for any development effort to succeed, the people must be provided with adequate information that will enable them understand the significance of the projects to their lives and then, take informed decision either to take part or not,” (Ochonogor, 2004). It, thus, suggests that the ability of the media to broadcast relevant messages to specific audiences would enable such to take decisions, which would ordinarily impact on their lives and the environment they are located in.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Government uses radio to communicate with rural dwellers through providing them with information about the existing services and projects that are vital to human development. It also helps the rural populace to benefit from these developmental programmes of government. If government can provide the necessary machineries to monitor development projects in rural areas, radio must be involved. It is a known fact that government may have been making tremendous efforts over the years towards this direction, however, as serious as these programmes may be, they yield little positive results on the lives of the rural people. It is on this basis that dissemination of information through the radio to rural areas, is very vital for
development. According to Anthony (2007) 80% of the Nigeria population are rural based and need developmental programmes to help them live a meaningful life. Through government information disseminated to them, they are being enlightened on its plans, concerning rural development.
Based on preliminary observation, this study centres on the assessment of rural enlightenment and socio-economic development programmes broadcast by government radio stations in Kaduna state. The aim of this research is to assess the development programmes, aired by government radio stations to the rural dwellers, as regards the benefits and challenges in this programmes aired to the audience. Hence, Kaduna state is known to be the twelfth largest state in the country and is popularly known as the Centre of Learning. It is endowed with mineral resources while a total land mass occupied by the state is estimated at 46,020 sqkm, which is about 5% of the total land area of Nigeria. While these natural and mineral resources yield some developments in the urban centre of the state, the rural populace, who are predominantly farmers that produce food for the nation are being neglected. They are faced with socio-economic and infrastructural development problems in the areas of health, agriculture, politics, economic empowerment programmes, sports and culture, shelter, portable water, roads, electricity, security and transportation. The most serious problems, facing the rural areas, are in the areas of health, agriculture, politics, among others, where there are cases of high maternal mortality rates and disease burden profile in the health sector. There are inadequate primary health care centres in the rural areas, inadequate medical facilities, shortage of drugs, even health personnel employed are not enough to adequately man the available primary health care centres in the rural areas. Due to lack of social amenities found in the rural communities, even the health workers reside in towns and work in rural areas.
In the area of agriculture, government has made efforts at reducing farmers‟ problem by the provision of fertilizer. With the new innovation in technology, farmers can use their hand-held device to access easy-wallet to obtain fertilizer in any of the government stations, however, many farmers are not aware of this development especially in rural areas.
There are also certain factors, such as economic problem, illiteracy, religious belief, traditional belief and cultural practices that are hindrances to achieve these objectives. It is observed that information disseminated by government, through radio broadcasting stations, does not adequately reach the rural areas in the country. Some of the rural populace may not know about these development programmes, and their impact on their lives because as at the time this information is aired, they are in the markets or their farms or engaged in other activities. Hence, the need for an assessment of the rural enlightenment and socio-economic development programmes of government radio broadcasting stations in Kaduna State.
1.3 Research Questions
This research is geared towards eliciting answers to the following questions:
1. What are the rural enlightenment and socio-economic development programmes, aired on government radio broadcasting stations in Kaduna state?
2. What are the areas in which the rural enlightenment and socio-economic development programmes are aired on government radio broadcasting stations?
3. What are the aims of these rural enlightenment and socio-economic development programmes broadcast on the radio houses in Kaduna state?
4. What are the benefits of these rural enlightenment and socio-economic development programmes aired on radio houses to the listeners in Kaduna state?
5. What is the level of satisfaction derived from the rural enlightenment and socio-economic development programmes, aired by Kaduna state radio houses?
1.4 Objectives of the Study
The objectives of the study include the following:
1. To identify the various rural enlightenment and socio-economic development programmes, run by the government radio broadcasting stations in Kaduna State.
2. To identify the various sectors in which the rural enlightenment and socio-economic development programmes are aired.
3. To determine the aims of these rural enlightenment and socio-economic developmental programmes.
4. To assess the benefits and challenges associated with the dissemination of information on these rural enlightenment and socio-economic developmental programmes to the rural dwellers.
5. To examine the level of satisfaction by male and female audience from the rural enlightenment and socio-economic development programmes, broadcast by radio stations in Kaduna state.
1.5 Significance of the Study
The essence of carrying out this research is to identify the areas of value of public enlightenment and development programmes, with a view to determining how these enlightenment programmes are used to enhance efficiency among the rural populace in Kaduna state. This research adds value to knowledge and proffers solution to the existing problems, which shall help in both the radio broadcasting and the societal development.
Government planned developmental programmes hinge on impacting positive well-being on its people across borders. This can go a long way to promote the image of the nation and also indicate that government shows more concern on developmental programmes, especially to the rural dwellers that are far from its decision- making centre. Therefore, findings from this study can be used by radio broadcasting stations to improve on their rural enlightenment and development programmes.
1.6 Scope of the Study
This study is delimited to the assessment of rural enlightenment and development programmes in government radio broadcasting stations in six (6) selected local government areas across the three (3) Senatorial Zones of Kaduna State. Looking at the broadcast nature of electronic media, this work is delimited to Supreme FM 96.1 of Federal Radio Corporation of Nigeria (FRCN), Kaduna State Media Corporation (KSMC), Queen FM 94.1, Tundun Wada Zaria, and Rockside FM Radio Station, Kafanchan.
Basically, the limitation of this study is its inability to cover the entire twenty three (23) local government areas of Kaduna State, because of large population size, time constraint and the enormousity of the cost of carrying out such a research. Secondly, the risk involved in travelling through all the local government areas to administer the questionnaire was very challenging. It is on this basis that the researcher had to select wards from the six local government areas across the three senatorial zones of the state. Lastly, this was to enable the researcher effectively retrieve the questionnaires from the various radio houses, including the audience, spread across the six (6) selected local government areas of the state.
1.8 Operational Definition of Terms
For better understanding, it is necessary to define the following terms and concepts as used in the context of this study:
Assessment: This is the act of making judgment, evaluation, estimation or investigation.
Rural: Refers to hamlets or villages located outside or away from towns and cities where they still have high traditional lifestyles that may not be found in urban areas or centres.
Enlightenment: The act of giving information in order to broaden or enhance knowledge, understanding and awareness to people.
Development Programmes: These are the processes of making more advanced progress in the lives of rural persons with the creation of opportunities for realization of human potentials.
Broadcasting Stations: These are media houses where information is processed and transmitted through signals and is being received by the public.
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REVIEW OF LITERATURE
This chapter reviews relevant literature, using the following sub-headings:
2.1 Mcquail Development Media Theory
2.2 The Relationship of Mcquail Development Media Theory to the Study
2.3 Concept of Rural Enlightenment and Government Development
2.4 Enlightenment and Government Development Programmes to Rural Populace
2.5 The Need for Rural Enlightenment and Development to Rural Populace
2.6 Development Media Theory and Health Programmes on Government Enlightenment to Rural Dwellers.
2.7 The Role of Radio in Agricultural Development Programmes
2.8 Government Political Enlightenment through Radio Communication to Rural Populace
2.9 The Role of Radio in Enlightening the Rural Populace on Cultural Activities
2.10 The Role of Radio in Educating the Rural Populace on the Benefits of Sport Activities
2.11 The Need for Radio Information and Communication on Rural Empowerment and Government Development Programmes on Poverty Reduction in Rural Areas.
2.12 Mass Media and their Roles in Enlightenment and Socio-economic Development Programmes on Sports
2.13 The Use of Radio as a Medium in Enlightening Rural Dwellers on Education
2.14 The Prospects and Challenges Faced by Radio Broadcasting Stations
2.15 Summary of the Review
2.1 Mcquail Development Media Theory