COMPARATIVE EFFECTS OF THINK-PAIR-SHARE AND RECIPROCAL METHODS ON READING PERFORMANCE OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
Background to the Study
Statement of Problem
Purpose of the Study
Significance of the Study
Delimitation of the Study
Definition of Terms
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
The use of reciprocal method on teaching and learning
The Common Core State
The Concept of Pair and Share
Levels of Reading Comprehension
Methods of Reading Comprehension Instruction.
Summary of the literature review
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHOD
Area of Study
Population of the Study
Sample and Sampling Techniques
Instrument for Data Collection
Validity of the Instrument
Reliability of the instrument
Administration of the Instrument
Data Analysis Techniques
CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Discussion of Results
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Limitations of the study
Suggestion for further studies
The study sought to determine the comparative effects of Think-Pair-Share and Reciprocal methods on reading performance of secondary school students in Ido-Osi Local Government Area of Ekiti State. To guide the study, five research questions were posed and five null hypotheses were formulated from it and tested at 0.05 level of significance. Quasi-experimental research design specifically pre-test post-test non-equivalent control group design was adopted for the study. A sample of thirty English students in secondary schools in the Local Government Area was used for the study. Reading Comprehension Test in form of multiple objective questions was used as instrument for data collection. Data collected were analyzed using mean, standard deviation and t-test. The findings of the study were; there is no significant effect of the TPSM and RTM on students’ reading comprehension; there was significant effect of Think-Pair-Share Method (TPSM) on the performance of students in reading comprehension, there was significant effect of Reciprocal Teaching Method (RTM) on the students’ performance in reading comprehension, there was no significant difference between male and female students’ performance in reading comprehension taught with TPSM. Thus, Gender is not a significant factor in the students’ achievement reading comprehension. It was recommended that; English Language teachers could employ the RTM to facilitate reading instruction as well as students reading comprehension levels; the universities and colleges of education might need to modify their teacher training programmes to re-orientate teachers toward student centred methods like Reciprocal Teaching method and the Think-Pair-Share method
Background to the Study
The importance of the English Language in Nigeria cannot be over emphasized. It is one language spoken more than every other language all over the world either as a native, second or foreign language. The native speakers unconsciously acquire the language by virtue of the fact that it is their mother tongue and those who speak English as a second language learn it formally, thereby using it as an official language for international communication. English, as the official language of Nigeria, was chosen to facilitate the cultural and linguistic unity of the country.
As succinctly put by Adekunle (2012), The English Language, apart from being Nigeria’s language of science and technology, is both in theory and practice the language which those who have the basic educational background use in discussing official matters and in exchanging views on strictly formal private or public occasions in situations where there is no common local language among the interlocutors. To give strength to the above view, a careful survey of certain trends in Nigerian history would show that the English language has acquired a status that makes it almost indispensable.
The choice of English as the official language was partially related to the fact that a part of Nigerian population spoke English as a result of the British colonization that ended in 1960. The history of the English language in Nigeria could be traced to the early British colonizers. Observing this, Spencer (2001) says, “English is the language of institution implanted by colonialism”.Havard (2009) explained that colonial rule was a dictatorship of governing people and it has negative impact on the social interaction and the use of language among the subjects
Olaleye and Ajileye (2004) in trying to provide reasons for this, assert that boys generally performed better than girls because girls are brought up in traditional family group to be passive, obedient and always submissive to men while boys are encouraged to be aggressive, competitive and independent thus, favouring male supremacy. They further added that teachers do not often like investing time on female pupils believing that most of them will end up in their husbands’ homes. On the other hand, Jones and Wheatly (2010) declare that the only clearly documented psychological difference between male and female is that males are more aggressive than females and that girls have greater verbal ability than boys while the boys excel in visual – spatial ability.
Cooperation is working together to accomplish shared goals. Within cooperative activities, individuals seek outcomes that are beneficial to themselves and beneficial to all other group members. Cooperative instruction involves the use of small groups so that students work together to maximize their own and each other’s learning. Class members are organized into small groups after receiving instruction from the teacher. They then work through the assignment until all group members successfully understand and complete it. Cooperative efforts result in participants striving for mutual benefit so that all group members gain from each other’s effort. In cooperative learning situations there is a positive interdependence among students’ goal attainments because students perceive that they can reach their learning goals if and only if the other students in the learning group also reach their goals (Deutsch, 1962; Johnson, 1989).
Commenting on this, Afe (2014) describes it as the most popular approach of teaching among educational practitioners because it encourages active participation, active interactions between learners and promotes skills development and the use of learners initiatives. Hence this study investigates comparative effects of Think-Pair-Share and Reciprocal methods on reading performance of secondary school students in Ido-Osi Local Government Area of Ekiti State.
Statement of the Problem
There have been so much cry and agitation from the educational stake holders about the poor performance of students in reading comprehension. Several factors have been identified as responsible for the poor performance of the students in reading comprehension. One of such factor has to do with idiosyncrasies of classroom interaction which are in parts traceable to the insufficient interaction between the teachers and students.
Teaching reading in the secondary school classroom has become a concern among educators around the world because it is a well-known fact that success in reading is essential to success in school and self-sustenance especially in this age of global information dissemination. In spite of this fact, it has been observed from the personal experience of the researcher that English Language teachers often test students’ reading comprehension instead of teaching them how to read and comprehend. Another problem is that teacher of English Language equally employ the traditional approach where reading is seen as a solo affair in which the learner is hooked to its text and is not encouraged to read and dialogue with peers or in groups.
Teaching and learning of English language depends to a large extent on teacher’s teaching methods. The teachers’ own knowledge could only be effectively expressed when the teacher can utilize the various teaching methods. Such as; think-paire share, reciprocal methods of teaching. It becomes a lingering problem these methods are not effectively used. Inability of the students to cooperate while making use of these methods could also pose a challenge. Similarly, problems could arise from inability to adequately deliver the instruction to the students. However a lot of variables may inhibit or hinder effective dissemination of knowledge to the understanding of the content by the students, such variables may be lack of qualified teachers, teachers’ qualification, experience, inadequate use of instructional materials among others.
There is thus the need to fill part of this gap and find out the effects of these methods on students’ reading performance in Ido-Osi Local Government Area of Ekiti state.
To this end, the study planned to answer the following general questions:
(i) What is the general performance of students in reading Comprehension before and after the treatment?
- Which of the two methods (TPSM and RTM) is more effective in teaching reading comprehension at literal, inferential and critical levels.
Purpose of the Study
The main purpose of this study is to examine comparative effects of Think-Pair-Share and Reciprocal methods on reading performance of secondary school students in Ido-Osi Local Government Area of Ekiti State. Specifically, therefore the study sort to; determine the comparative effects of the TPSM and RTM on students’ reading comprehension, examine the effect of Think-Pair-Share Method (TPSM) on the performance of students in reading comprehension, find out the effect of Reciprocal Teaching Method (RTM) on the students’ performance in reading comprehension, ascertain the difference existing between male and female students’ performance in reading comprehension in the TPSM and look into the difference existing between male and female students’ performance in reading comprehension in the RTM.
The following research questions were raised to guide the study:
- Is there any significant difference in the comparative effects of the Think-Pair-Share Method (TPSM) and Reciprocal Teaching Method (RTM) on students’ reading comprehension?
- Is there any significant effect in the comparative effects of the Think-Pair-Share Method TPSM and Conventional Method on students’ reading comprehension?
- Is there any significant effect in the comparative effects of the Reciprocal Teaching Method (RTM) and Conventional Method on students’ reading comprehension?
- Would any difference exist between male and female students’ performance in reading comprehension in the TPSM?
- Would any difference exist between male and female students’ performance in reading comprehension in the RTM?
The following research hypotheses were generated from the research questions:
- There is no significant effect of the TPSM and RTM on students’ reading comprehension.
- There is no significant effect of Think-Pair-Share Method (TPSM) on the performance of students in reading comprehension.
- There is no significant effect of Reciprocal Teaching Method (RTM) on the students’ performance in reading comprehension.
- There is no significant difference between male and female students’ performance in reading comprehension taught with TPSM.
- There is no significant difference between male and female students’ performance in reading comprehension taught with RTM.
Significance of the Study
It is hoped that the findings of this study would help to improve the teaching and learning of reading comprehension in several ways. It is hoped that the study would help students to effectively articulate and recall information, sharpen their listening faculty and speech skills. Findings of this study could also enhance the critical problem solving skills of learners.
Teachers, for instance could benefit from the findings in that they will make their classroom activities more learner-centred as against teacher-dominated activities popularly used in reading comprehension lessons. This can be achieved if textbook writers incorporate these methods into reading texts. Also, teacher trainers like universities and colleges of education would see the need to re-orientate teachers in training on the skills for successful implementation of cooperative instruction.
Moreover, the findings of this study will serve as guide to researchers and other language educators on how to use other models of cooperative instruction. Finally, the findings will help curriculum planners and curriculum developers to design a curriculum that will effect positive changes in learning experiences of learners in reading comprehension.
Delimitation of the Study
The study was delimited to examine comparative effects of Think-Pair-Share and Reciprocal methods on reading performance of secondary school students in Ido-Osi Local Government Area of Ekiti State. This study involved all the public secondary schools in Ido-Osi Local Government Area of Ekiti State. The research also involved dependent variables of students’ academic performance and independent variable of teaching methods.
Definition of Terms
The following terms were operationally defined in the study
Approach: Planning, teaching and post-teaching activities for the orderly presentation of a particular language material in a lesson or a group of related lessons.
Cooperative Instruction: A mode of instruction where learners are taught to have a common goal and attain their goals through mutual discussion with one another either in pairs or in groups..
Technique: This is a step, activity or strategy adopted or adapted by the teacher in guiding and directing the experiences of students from one stage of the lesson to another.
Method: An overall plan for the orderly presentation of a particular language material
Cooperative Instructional Methods: Methods where students are divided into pairs or groups depending on their abilities by the teacher in order to aid reading comprehension using TPSM and RTM
Think-Pair-Share Method (TPSM): A method where students are divided into pairs (groups) using three techniques in order to aid reading comprehension.
Reciprocal Teaching Method (RTM): A method where students are divided into groups using four techniques in order to aid reading comprehension: