TRADITIONAL MEDIA OF COMMUNICATION AS TOOLS FOR EFFECTIVE RURAL DEVELOPMENT - UNIPROJECTS

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TRADITIONAL MEDIA OF COMMUNICATION AS TOOLS FOR EFFECTIVE RURAL DEVELOPMENT

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  • BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

 

Communication is a variety of  behaviours, processes and

Technologies by which meaning is transmitted or derived from information. The team is used to describe diverse activities.

Communication is at the core of our humanness.  How we communicate with each other shapes our lives and our world. Human beings rely on their communicative skills as they confront events that challenge their flexibility, integrity, expressiveness, and critical thinking skills.

Communication involves different forms which includes the intrapersonal, interpersonal, group, public, mass communication etc all these are different ways/means through which we interact, associate, communicate, relate, share ideas, views, opinion, information, norms and values with ourselves and others. Communication is regarded as the life blood of human existence which rapidly enhances unity that leads to the development of our society at large.

Communication both modern and Traditional means has promoted peaceful co-existence, understanding and self-awareness among human beings. Both modern and traditional means of communication have certain common elements that together help define the communication process. These elements includes the following people. In communication there must be individuals who are involved in the dissemination of the message and at the same time receiving the message inorder to make it lively and effective. In communication things are done simultaneously (sending and receiving] if we were just receivers, we would be no more than receptacles for signals from others, never having an opportunity to let anyone know how we were being affected, if we were just senders, we would simply emit signals without ever stopping to consider whom, if anyone is being affected. But, if we were able to achieve our goals of communicating it simply signifies that there is an effective communication between the sender and the receiver at the same level.

Messages- in communication, the message is the communication itself. A message is the content of a communicative act. Everything one does with his/her body, or with other medium such as what we talk about, the words we use to express the thoughts and feelings, the sounds you make, your gestures, our facial expressions and perhaps even our touch or smell all communicate information, this is to tell you how effective communication can be, it involves our every second activity/actions. There is no communication without a message being passed across.

Channels- In communication, these channels means the medium/means through which the communication is being passed/disseminated. We are regarded to be multi channels communicators. We have different channels through which we communicate both in the urban and rural areas (settings) which helps to proffer a better result of what is being sent.

Noise – in the context of communication, noise is anything that interferes with or distorts our ability to send or receive messages. Noise could be semantic factors such as uncertainty about what another person’s words are supposed to mean.

Context – Communication always takes place IN some context or setting. Every communication starts from somewhere, there must be a setting that helps to make it real and natural and even acceptable.

Feedback –      In communication, whenever we interact, communicate with one or more persons, we receive information in return. In communication we have positive feed back and negative feedback.

Positive feed back which could come from the heterogeneous audience or rural dwellers as the case may be enhances whatever behaviour is in progress. It encourages us to continue with our information/attitude. In contrast, negative feedback extinguishes a behaviour; it serves as corrective rather than a reinforcing behaviours.

Effect – In communication, as people communicate, they are changed in some way by the interaction, which in turn influences what follows. These effects could be as a result of exchange of influence. Communication always has some effect on you and on the person or people with whom you are interacting with. An effect can be emotional, physical, cognitive or any combination of the three. Without all of these elements communication can never be complete and its effectiveness is withdrawn.

Communication has variety functions in our lives based on our daily activities, communication helps us to create an understanding and insight. It allows us to understand ourselves and others at the same time. Creating an insight into ourselves and others. This is because when you get to know another person you get to know yourself , you learn how others affect you. Communication also helps us to create a meaningful relationships between ourselves and others, the level of communication between us and others determines the level of our relationship with them. Just as we need water, food and shelter, when we do not communicate we become disoriented and maladjusted, and our life itself may be placed in Jeopardy.

Communication also helps to influence and to persuade others, making the people around us to be able to do things the way we do, believe in what we do, Exchange the same culture with us. And whenever people are being influenced by our  idea and belief it means that our goals has been achieve.

According to Gamble and Gamble (2002) communication works, seventh edition, Remarks that………

“Communication gives us the chance to share our personal reality with persons from our culture, as well as people from different cultures”.

Communication takes the same shape whether we live in an East Coast Urban area, a southern city, a desert community, in rural area, a home in sunny California, a village in Asia, a plain in African or a town in the middle East, we all engage in Similar activities when we communicate. We may use different symbols rely on different strategies, and desire different  outcomes but the processes we use and the motivations we have are strikingly alike.

However in a bid to promote communication, various government of the world have among other things been constructing roads, purchasing equipment and training personnel for any meaningful development to occur in Nigeria and Africa in general. There should be equal participation of both urban and rural settings of the society.

One way of achieving this is through the utilization of traditional communication media in conjunction with the modern mass media.

Therefore, revival of our communication media is one of the steps in bringing about economic and social development in the rural setting of our country Nigeria.

The desires of information about people and events, the satisfaction of news hunger stimulated by war or rumour of war, the necessity to spread information about political and religions decisions as well as threats to security, the need to stimulate and strengthen the sense of identification with values and objectives of the society, need of awareness of the authority structure and to generate and identify loyalty to those in power, all these were answered by the indigenous media form of communication.

Anthropologists, looking at human communication and development tend to focus on it’s central roles in continuation of a society through the communication and development of significant symbols. The concept of honour, bravery, Love, co-operation and honesty, for example are embodied in language and other symbolic behaviors that create and sustain belief in ways of acting because they function as names signifying proper, obvious ways of expressing relationships.

During the late 1900’s and early 2000’s the concept of culture became a focus of study in many academic disciplines including that of communication and development. To social scientists, culture means people’s beliefs, customs, inventions and technology. Cultural studies of communication began attracting interest in Europe in the 1960’s and 1990s soon gained supports worldwide. Cultural critics like Raymond Williams and Stuart Hall and other scholars in the united Kingdom developed this approach that focuses on how the contemporary communication media shape people’s understanding and action.

Revival of our culture as a whole is necessarily because it will enhance overall national development of our Traditional Artifacts as channels of communication. Communication is the exchange of ideas and each society has it’s own communication culture to reach it’s people. Every culture should not be by passed, hence the interest in studying Iwollo oghe community to see their communication development systems became imperative.

 

When co-ordinated with modern ways of communication, news becomes more effective those various assertions are challenging and inspiring and the social sciences researchers in this area stood up for the challenges and inspirations. They have at least come up with various studies in African traditional media of communication which were unfortunately treated at the periphery in the past. The negligence was caused by lack of foresight, lack of fund, man power and interest. Such studies are now necessary because of the need to diffuse current international and national development program in rural areas, which accommodate more than 70 percent of Africa’s population. Such programs include family planning, oral dehydration, war against indiscipline, and corruption, operation feed the Nation of Obasanjo’s previous government, Directorate for food, Roads and Rural infrastructure (DFRR), Better life for Rural Women, MAMSER, WOTCLEF and other innovative ideas. The need for traditional communication institution in most African countries including Nigeria by the United Nations Education Scientific and cultural organization (UNESCO) and the government of different countries.

The World Bank Festival of Arts and Culture (FESTAC) various festivals of Art are Epitomes of cultural reformation.

The Traditional media of communication should be elevated by every citizen of this country both the government, individuals and more especially the Journalists who only pay mush interest in the foreign means neglecting the fact that the traditional media of our communication in this country is the grass root of their profession.

They should endeavour to promote these various traditional media of communication without emphasizing so much in the modern means by visiting various villages, communities etc more especially their own community to know how the various traditional media of communication  are being co-ordinated for the promotion of our cultural belief which enhance unity in the rural area that leads to the development of our communities and country at large.

Notwithstanding the modern means of communication, since the dawn of civilization for millions of years ago, every society’s growth, survi    val and continuity depends on, among other things a system of communication, through which people could exchange ideas and feelings; an economic system for the production of goods and services; a health system to counteract disease and ensure human reproduction; a socio – political system to maintain control and order and a defense system to protect their territories against external aggression of all these essential requirements of society, the system of communication formed the mainstay of all the other systems, which came to depend on it for effectiveness.

These various traditional media of communication basically includes the following;

Oral Tradition- Oral Tradition is one of the most important media through which Nigerians interact/communicate with their people/to themselves.

Okam (1987) notes that long before the introduction of Roman, Arabic, Amharic letters and scripts in Africa, tradition in the form of history, cultural values and heritages were handled down  by word of mouth in the form of songs, proverbs legends, religious liturgy, ballads and invocations. They are passed on from people to people to people, from generation to generation, from area to area and become legendary and immortalized with the passing of time. Oral tradition dominated all other sources of information exchange in pre-colonial Nigeria. Oral tradition helps in sharing knowledge of environment, interpretation, explication of events occurring in society from a cultural looking glass, Transmission of social heritage from one generation to another, socializing new members and also entertaining the community/society at large.

The Town Crier- This is another traditional media of communication. The voice of the town crier or village Gong man is usually heard in the early hours of the morning preceded by the sound of a gong. He announces important meetings, ceremonies, messages and imminent troubles. Ugboajah (1985) sees the town criers as “a significant village “broadcaster’ who summons the elders for decision and policy making for the progress of the society. They relays their decisions to the village masses for implementation: The town crier is always loaded with news, serve as traditional communication link between the legal head and the villagers. He is being regarded as the society’s journalist. The effectiveness of the town crier usually lies in his oratory skills and thorough knowledge of the community norms, values and heritages.

Among the Igbos he is natively called “Onye Ogene”. Among the Hausa, he is the “Mai Shela”; he is usually selected by the Sarki or the village head, the “Mai Shela” is being revered as a holy man whose announcements are never doubted. One of his major duties is the announcement of the date and time for the new moon, which signifies the beginning of the Ramadan Festivities.

Among the Yorubas, he is also the “gbohun-gbohun” whose duty among others includes announcements of the celebration days for the Egungun and sango religious festivals and Among the other various ethnic groups in Nigeria, he occupies no less credible and authoritative position. This relevance exists in today’s Nigeria.

The Talking Drum- The talking drum is another traditional media of communication which helps in developing the rural communities the talking drum is an extension of oral tradition. This talking drum is also regarded as the “Ekwe Ikoro” in the Igbo communities, the Talking drum reproduce the tonal pattern of a sentence in the proper sequence and can be heard over a very long distance. The talking drum serves for two-pronged communicative functions: Official and social functions.

Officially-  they are used to call meetings, for making some official announcements, at sacrificial ceremonies and also for pumping the Adrenaline during wars. Socially –  They provide gaiety during festivities and ceremonies like new-Yam festivals, weddings, and chieftaincy title taking; they also provide the atmosphere of suspense and tension during war and wrestling matches.

Age Goups- Age Groups are old institutions that comprise mostly males within the same age-brackets-usually those born within one to five years age range. The Age Groups helps in getting things in order in the society in which why belong. The name of age groups are derived either from the name of their patron or father. The Age groups carry out community development project which according to Ifemesia (1979) include

the cleaning of the source of water supply the building and maintenance of roads and bridges, village squares. Assembly houses and deity shrine; the execution of laws and decision of the council of elders and the linage or village assembly, including the collection of dues and fines, the punishment of crime and the burial of the dead.

The age groups also helps in educating the young groups about the traditions and needs for the maintenance of their culture.

Ivory Horns and Long Brass- These produce notes that can vary in length and tone. these are used to communicate long messages and herald important events. The long brass horn are mainly found in Northern states of Nigeria while the Ivory horns are found in the south East states of the country where they have also becomes states symbols of  titled men.

        Smoke Signals – Smoke Signals are almost nonexistent in modern Nigeria. Previously, one of the earliest communication patterns between distant communities, they were used to exchange information based on agreed codes. The essence of smoke signals is underscored by an Igbo proverb that says, “any message sent through smoke must reach to the heavens surely and clearly.

The Open Market- The open market always remains one of the most powerful and important institution in Nigeria. It is mostly located in or near a village/town. The village markets have a cycle, which may be every Four-Five–days intervals; town markets are open daily. Notwithstanding the fact that the market functions as the economic nerve center, it has become a beehive of all sorts of communication activities. The open market serves as a natural infrastructure for multi directional dissemination of news, opinions and rumours and is important for agitation, it provides a forum for “adherents of synergetic religions to propagate their faith, politicians to solicit the votes of the common people, the open market also offers one of the few opportunities for communication to move from community to another”. Ike S. Ndolo (2005) stated, that in many Nigerian villages, murderers and thieves are paraded and humiliated on market days where also one can see newly weds, new fashions, newly born babies, new products and new traditional dances, new products  and masquerades.

Finally, MCBride et al (1980) advised,

“policy makers and communication practitioners should find a formula to preserve the relationship between traditional and modern forms of communication without damaging the necessary march towards modernity”.

 These are to signify how effective the various traditional media of communication works for the development of our society.

 

  • STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

In the Communication processes especially as regards to modern mass media such as the print and the electronic media, the rural people seem to be marginalized due to several factors. In spite of these factors, traditional Artifacts could be positively exploited and utilized to meet the needs of rural populace. How far the harnessing and utilization of these traditional means would get to solve the problem of the rural tiesils the primary concern of this research.

The importance of traditional Artifacts where it will enhance rural

based on communication and development, how effective are the

traditional communication media, what similarities and

dissimilarities exist between these media and traditional communication

systems of Iwollo communities are all some of the problems this

study is set out to look into. The problem therefore is to find how

effective traditional media of communication are as a means of rural

based communication.

 

1.3   PURPOSE OF THE STUDY OBJECTIVE OF STUDY

This study is aimed at Identifying the role of traditional communication in the development of Iwollo town in ezeagu Local Government Area of Enugu State and other rural communities.         . This study intends to discover the Usefulness and limitation of any of those media in the community. The effectiveness of the traditional media will be determined and will serve as a base for comprising traditional communication in Iwollo Oghe community.

 

  • SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The study will be a humble contribution towards the development of traditional media of communication in Iwollo oghe community as a whole. It will also serve as a source of encouragement to marriage of traditional and modern mass media of the community and others in Nigeria.

This study will also encourage other cultural studies in African indigenous communication pattern and finally will guide others who want to know and understand the traditional media of communication and development.

SCOPE OF THE STUDY/DELIMITATION

As stated in the introduction the study is in Iwollo community in Ezeagu North Local Government Area of Enugu state. The study gives a brief background history of the community. The study also identifies the traditional communication tools mostly used by the people of the community in the past and this present day. The usefulness and limitations of these Artifacts in serving the communication in the entire Igbo Land is as a result of the short period of time.

Due to possible lack of maximum co-operation. This study might be limited to information collected from population figure of the community under study, the low literacy rate, the non-availability of previous   study on the topic and scarcity of previous study on the topic and scarcity of the text books are all        part of the limitations.

 

  • RESEARCH QUESTIONS
  1. Do Iwollo people have traditional means of communication?
  2. What are these traditional means of communication in Iwollo oghe community?
  3. Are traditional means of communication in Iwollo oghe community more credible than the modern mass media?
  4. Is there any complimentary role played by the traditional means of communication with respect to the modern mass media?
  5. Can the traditional means of communication enhance rural based communication more than the modern mass media?
  6. Can traditional means of communication play a vital role in rural development?

 

  • RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS

HO;  Iwollo oghe people do not have traditional means of communication.

HI:    Iwollo   oghe people have traditional means of communication.

HO:  The traditional means of communication are not in existence in Iwollo  oghe community

H2:   There are traditional means of communication in Iwollo oghe         community.

HO:  The traditional means of communication are not credible than the modern mass media.

H3:  These traditional means of communication are credible than the modern mass media.

 

1.8    ASSUMPTIONS OF THE STUDY

  • I assume that after this research work on the Need for the various traditional media of communication in developing our rural communities, that the people of Iwollo Oghe community and other rural communities will understand the basic needs for using their various Traditional media of communication for the development of their society.
  • I also assume that this research work will enlighten the people more and educate them widely in the need for the maintenance of their various means of communication especially the traditional means.

I assume that this work will put to an end, the problems of   traditional media of communication in our society.

 

1.9   CONCEPTUAL AND OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONS OF TERMS

 

A –   CONCEPTUAL – TRADITIONAL – According to the Oxford Advanced LEARNERS dictionary, it is being part of the beliefs, customs or way      of life of a particular group of people.

 

B   –         OPERATIONAL – TRADITIONAL – IT means the people’s way of life; the common belief of the people living in a particular geographical area.

 

A    –     CONCEPTUAL – MEDIA – According to Longman dictionary media are all the organization such as television, newspaper, Magazines or all other forms through which people      interact and get information for the public.

 

 

B    –     OPERATIONAL – MEDIA- It could also be referred to as any medium         through which information is being passed across to the people both Traditional and Modern means.

 

A-          CONCEPTUAL – COMUNICATION – According to Longman dictionary. It is the process by which people exchange information or express their thoughts and feelings.

 

B –     OPERATIONAL – COMMUNICATION – It is also the process by which we         exchange our ideas, views, opinion, norms, values, traditions, beliefs etc. from one person to another through a medium.

 

A –     CONCEPTUAL – TOOLS – According to Longman dictionary it is defined as skill that is useful for doing your job.

 

B –    OPERATIONAL – TOOLS – A useful means through which goals can be achieved.

 

A –   CONCEPTUAL – EFFECTIVE – According to Oxford Advanced learner’s dictionary, it is producing the result that is wanted or intended, producing the result that is wanted or intended, and producing a successful result.

B –OPERATIONAL –EFFECTIVE –Producing a successful result.

 

A –   CONCEPTUAL -RURAL –A remote area to the country  side, out of the city where people are dwelling with their common belief.

B –   OPERATIONAL – RURAL –An under developed area, where people are living with a common norm                                           A-       CONCEPTUAL –DEVELOPMENT –According to oxford advanced learners  dictionary, it is the gradual growth of something so it becomes more advanced , stronger and acceptable.

B –   OPERATIONAL –DEVELOPMENT – An advancement of something, people, community.

 

1.10 –      LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY –                                       The study is limited to the rural communities in Nigeria but Precisely Iwollo Oghe community.

 

REFERENCES

UGBOAJAH, F.O (1977). “Development Indigenous                                         Communication in Nigeria “Journal of Communication                  (Autumn) Vol.27, 4. 40-45.

 

MACBRIDE, Sean et al (1980), Many voices, one World:          Communication and society Today and Tomorrow.

UNESCO press paris PP.81-82

 

 

IKE .S. NDOLO (2005). “Mass Media System and Society. Enugu,           Rhyce Kerex Publishers.

 

 

EBO, Stella. J. (1996). Mass Media and Society. Enugu: ACIENA            Publishers.

 


CHAPTER TWO

REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE

2.1  SOURCES OF LITERATURE REVIEWED

There are various literature reviewed in this study, because it is well known that no man is an isolation of him/herself. With this regard many institutions, organization, groups, individuals, and authors of books related to this study were meet in order to grant this work an absolute success. The various literature received in this study were obtained from the following source, Enugu State University of science and Technology Library, Caritas university Library, Ezeagu Development Center (Iwollo Oghe Branch), magazines, newspapers, journals, encyclopedia and other related works.

Many  works and researchers have been done on the issue of traditional media of communication, prior to this, I tried to make more researches and consult works done especially on the Igbo ethnicity and other various ethnic groups and the national question.

Bearing in mind that no research is an island unto itself, it becomes obvious and important to highlight some findings of related works agreeing with this relevant ones and make up a point of departure about the subject matter. It should be noted that different authors and analyst share different view concerning traditional means of communication. Therefore, the essence of this literature review is to ascertain how other authors and analyst perceive the concept of traditional communication especially around the Igbo geographical area of Nigeria, which will serve as a favourable ground for this work to become success.

 

A BRIEF HISTORY OF IWOLLO TOWN

Iwollo is in Ezeagu Local Government Area of Enugu State. The town is located in the North periphery of Ezeagu Local Government Area. It is bounded in the East by Akama Oghe and in the North-West by Awha communities both in Ezeagu Local Government.

The people of Iwollo are Igbos to the core. Iwollo observe a central – 4 – day traditional market “AFOR IWOLLO”. Moreover, there are certain values which permit the Iwollo people way of life and gave meaning to what they did and what they are still doing today. They include.

  1. Sense of human relations
  2. Sense of sacredness of life
  3. Sense of hospitality.

 

It will be ideal to take the reader round the villages that made up the town. Iwollo emanated from Oghe, which generally has (6) six villages they are AKAMA, AMANKWO, AMANSHIDO NEKE, OYOGHS and lastly IWOLLO. Iwollo on it’s own has 6 other villages which are UMU EZEONYIA, NDIBUNAGU, AMAGU, OBUNAGU, OWOLOTI and ENUGWU AKWAOSA.

Moreover all these villages engage in an authentic communal relationship with a mutual understanding among themselves, they communicate with one language, their other means of communication and interaction are exactly the same. Their high rate of togetherness, communication and unity yields an effective impact in their community development. A visit to Iwollo Oghe will give credence to the above assertion.

 

2.2  REVIEW OF RELEVANT LITERATURE

       TRADITIONAL MEDIA OF COMMUNICATION

It will be unfair to assert that African Communication scholars have rejected the study of traditional media of communication. They put more emphasy towards the study of the modern means of communication which is generally based on electronics such as the television. Radio, Newspapers, magazines, internet, Journals etc which are not familiar with our rural community dwellers.

According to Lan Mc Donad and David Hearle (1984) Defined traditional channels of communication as “Those communication methods which have been used for centuries in rural areas. Such as songs, plays, stories, puppet shows etc. They are often neglected, though in many societies they may be most powerful ways of communicating.

Nzekwu (1960) pointed out that “Another prototype of the modern reporters was masquerade. Although it was masquerade in some societies. like the Igbos emerged in the night to gossip and expose scandals like a modern gossip columnist, except that the masquerade’s freedom of expression knew no law of libel and sedition.

Ikechukwu Nwosu (1990). asserted that ‘Traditional Communications core the products of the interplay between a traditional community’s customs and conflicts, harmony and strife cultural convergences and divergences, culture specific, tangible and intangible, symbols and codes, oral tradition which include mythology, oral literature (poetry, story telling, proverbs) masquerades witchcrafts, rituals, music, dance, drama, costumer and similar abstractions and artifacts which encompass a people’s factual symbolic and cosmological existence from birth to death and even beyond death.

Bohannan and Dalton (1962). Pointed out “News is circulated with great rapidity through the various processes of trading. Most communities had market which were not only centres of trade but also a principal means of communication, information and recreation”. They provided a most convenient forum to meet friends and kinsmen, exchange news and gossip while bringing together large number of sellers, buyers and mere visitors some from distant places.

They created an atmosphere of festivity and entertainment in which gossip and exchange of information Flourished. Some markets were also terminal points of trade routes to distribute information.

Basden (1964) said that “They gathered and relayed news as they passed from place to place, communicating with fellow trader and collecting information on resource and prospects of trade. The view that trader were satisfied with spreading their wares on the ground, waiting for possible customers to make the first advance is entirely misleading. The phenomenon of advertising which is so dear to modern newspaper owners has always been present in the African market trader called the attention of prospective customers to the excellent quality and quantity slogans to give added effect to their usually exaggerated claims.

Ugboaja on his own identified traditional media of communication in Africa among other media, the market square, town crier and the gong man has been important, and very pragmatic channels of mass communication. He likened the town crier to the radio transmitter and solicits for the revival of traditional communication pattern by the use of traditional artifacts and social institution.

The formal transference was concerned with more systematized dissemination of information not only between persons and persons but between the government and the people. The tools employed were recognized officially they are sounds, signs and symbols. But the most common of these indigenous officials was the town crier or bellman, with his loud sounding gong. He announces the promulgation of law and regulations meeting arrangements for communal works and generally spread “Official” information in the community. The town crier is very much a crucial part of the village today and can still be seen in autonomous part of the urban centres with an established indigenous monarchy.

A measures of news dissemination was achieved through the booming of guns to announce the death of important personalities and to warn of imminent danger. Smoke was also used. different thickness having particular significances, most extensively used of all is the drums. several ethnic groups in Nigeria covered by this survey have a rich heritage of drums. When some of these drums are expertly sounded, they are capable of conveying specific meaning. In other words they “Talk”.

The talking drum is the most fascinating agency or organized communication and it is a pity that no serious study of Nigerian drums has been attempted. Exploratory investigations reveal some data which permit little more than a superficial survey of the subject.

The “Ekwe” carried out of a cylindrical block of wood was a diminutive variant of the much bigger Ikoro (Ikolo) which was set up permanently in the market place, village squares or in the shrines, in Iwollo the “Ekwe Ikoro” is being kept in a shrine called “Ofufe Iwollo”. The Ikoro is used to summon special meeting, proclaim the arrival or departure of visitors to the palace, announces serious acts of sacrilege and disasters, alert the community against invasion and in war, advertise the presence of war chiefs.

 

FACTORS THAT MILITATE AGAINST THE RURAL COMMUNICATION DEVELOPMENT

There are certain factors that militate against the rural communication development. They include.

  1. POVERTY:- Lack of wealth made the ruralites to lack the basic requirement for effective communication. Their source of income is too low, most of them engage in farming, hunting and fishery activities which yields low capital. They are unable to purchase a radio set, rural newspapers and magazines.
  2. ILLITERACY:- Illiteracy is another factor that militate the rural communication development. These ruralites are not educated, they lack the basic knowledge; inability to neither read nor write. Even when this rural newspaper is published they are unable to read not even to understand it’s content. In other words, they are technically deaf.
  3. UNAVAILABILITY OF BASIC INFRASTRUCTURE:- There is a serious lack of raw materials in the rural communities, no tiled road, no community radio station, not even a community newspaper or magazine which could have helped in information dissemination, the rural dwellers are automatically blind from what they should know. The government are unable to finance the various traditional media of communication.
  4. NON-INCLUSION OF THE RURAL COMMUNITIES:- The urban journalists do not include those in the rural areas in their day to day activities, the rural people are not communicated, they are not carried along with what is happening in the urban area. The urban journalist’s doest not include he rural activities in their reportage.

 

CATEGORIES OF TRADITIONAL MEDIA

Traditional media forms have been categorized into two broad perspectives to ease the understanding of the concept for the purpose of this study.

These two groups are:

  • Human communication
  • Instruments or symbolic communication

 

HUMAN COMMUNICATION

This aspect of communication is referred to as verbal, as it encompasses all spoken words, conversation, folk-tables, proverbs, riddles and jokes, songs, town criers etc explaining how message is disseminated verbally.

Dayo Digile (1979). Noted that “Announcer technique is down native both in content and approach on analyzing the function of the village announcer or gong man that has clear voice of confidence with which the message is delivered, the timing with remarkable input.

Ekwulie and Okonkwo (1995) wrote that among the Igbo people, communication began with words of mouth. Through this medium socialization occurred with family circles with large groups. Role ascriptions were thus explained from person to person in a grape vine fashion. Festivals and wrestling matches were fixed and their dates announced. News of epidermic was spread with varrying degrees of speed and concern. Stories of invading armies and intended incursions were urgently dispersed to small clusters in enclosures of secrecy. Before the invention of instruments that summoned people to the village or town centers, message delivery and travel were sluggish and tended to run the whole rumour mongering. To save the loss of message fidelity at the end of the channel and to ensure that nothing is lost in emphasis, urgency, quality, sequence or even actual content, the people decided to invent instrument that will help to address virtually everybody at the same time. These instrument were made possible by the help of carves, black smiths and hunters with the materials available.

 

INSTRUMENTAL/SYMBOLIC COMMUNICATION

This category of traditional media is the non-verbal aspect and it included gestures, facial expressional body movement (Kinetics) marks attire, attitude, belief, values, behaviours etc. on the other hand there is the use of such instrument as gongs, talking drums and flute. A number of times communication goes on without anybody necessarily opening his/her mouth to say a word.

Oreh defined Non-verbal Communication as an indispensable component of any society. He observed that in any given society, if at least two persons expect to understand each other to hold the same kind of meaningful discussions; they attach a mutually accepted meaning.

 

2.3  THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

This research work will be grossly incomplete without a befitting theoretical framework which will form the foundation on which the various literature gathered and analysed in this work would rest on. After careful examination, we arrived at two (2) theories that are considered to be conditionally powerful. We recognized that the mass media worked with other variables to bring about change either at the individual level or at the group or social level. The theory is the cultural norms theory.

 

CULTURAL NORMS THEORY

This theory portends that through selective presentations and tendentious emphasis on certain themes, the mass media created the impression among their audience that such theme were part of the structure or clearly defined cultural norms of the society.

In relation to the traditional communications the media are expected to meet the felt needs of the teaming audience who in this case are rural based. The felt needs of the people are those functions of the mass media which includes surveillance, educating the masses, entertainment, coordination, promoting the cultures and norms, giving them the accurate information etc. functions of information and education respectively because his listeners get informed and educated. The function of entertainment is achieved through the activities in various social gatherings like festivals and dance. Such includes, New Yam Festival, (mmanwu) masquerade festivals, Naming Ceremonies, wrestling etc. These festivals constitute viable forms of cultural transmission, socialization and reinforcement of the existing norms.

However, through the use of masquerade and peer group in tax collection, an avenue for enforcing attention are created because they see to the adherence of the norms of the land by the people by using force, threat or fine when necessary.

 

2.4  SUMMARY OF LITERATURE REVIEW

In rural populance, the traditional media of communication plays a vital role in information dissemination. The importance of the traditional artifacts is to enhance rural communication between persons and person, between the government and the people.

Stella – Joan Ebo (1999) pointed out that “Traditional media of communication are also effective because they are part and parcel of African people and they understand the modes of communication too well. People do not need to be literate before they can use this media of communication because language and understood symbols are used to communicate to them.

This communication system is also effective because it is simple in form and generally available to all at no material cost.

Etukudo (1987) identified the town crier and the drums, the age grade, interpersonal networks, traditional, religious groups songs and dances as the traditional media that cut across all our ethnic traditional communities. He showed in his write-up how traditional communication systems can be made the authentic information media in the rural communities.

Dilip mukerjee, an Indian journalist stated that our need is urgent and acute; we belong to societies which are in the process of restructuring and reshaping themselves. In our environment, there is, and will be for a long time to come, much that is ugly and distasteful. If we follow the western norm, we will be playing up only these dark spots, and thus helping unwittingly to erode faith and confidence without which growth and development are impossible.

This emotion-laden argument presumes that the media affect the attitudes and values of people.

 

REFERENCES

Colin, Cherry. (1957). Human Communication 2nd-Edition.

London: Protinch Company.

 

Doyle, Dayo. (1979). The village Announcer As a Public Relations                                        Expert. Lagos:Dyison Publishers.

 

Ebo, Stela – Joan. (1999). African mass media systems.

Enugu: Clet Publisher.

 

Ekwelie and Okonkwo (1995). Communication in Transition,

A case study of Igbo Land. Ibadan: Macmillan

 

Ogbuoshi, Linus (2001) Data Analysis in Communication

Research.

 

Nwosu, Ikechukwu. (1990). Mass Communication and National

Development. Abai Frontiers Publishers.

 

CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

The survey method on the basis of self administered questionnaire is the research technique used for this study. This method is appropriate since the study is based on a critical look concerning the various Traditional media of communication as an agent of rural development. It is also the most suitable method to gather a vast number of data since it makes data arrangement and computation less cumber some to compute. It is also the most suitable research method for this study.

 

3.1  RESEARCH DESIGN

Research design according to Haskins (1968) refers to the total plan of an investigation or study; it is not restricted to one aspect of research only.

Nworgu, (1991) stated that research design is a plan or blue print which specifies how data relating to a given problem should be collected and analysed. Research design provides the procedural outline for the conduct of the investigation. The research design helped in providing the necessary Framework needed by the researcher for tackling certain problems such as what ought to constitute the target population, what is sample population and the sampling technique to be used in determining it, how to collect and analyse the data, what type of statistical test is appropriate etc. the researcher made use of questionnaire as a means of measuring instrument.

The questionnaire has to be administered to the respondents in their various homes to ensure error free and high morality rate of the questionnaire.

 

3.2  AREA OF STUDY

This study is done within the Ezeagu Local Government Area of Enugu State. Precisely in Iwollo Oghe Community. The study treated the various traditional media of communication. It also went further to study how effective these various media of communication are and how it affects rural development.

 

3.3  POPULATION OF THE STUDY

Population refers to animate or inanimate things which the study is focused. It could be class, libraries, town, local government areas, states, nation or persons the researcher is interested in getting information from for the study. (Nnayelugo 2001).

In this study the population used is iwollo Oghe Community which comprises of 8,348 (Eight thousand three hundred and forty eight].people, As stated by the National population commission in 2006, National Population Census. However, the community will be stratified into the six villages.

 

3.4  SAMPLE AND SAMPLING TECHNIQUES

Sample comprises of the part of the population studied. Nworgu (1991) stated that sample is that part or portion of the population that is studied of the entire population.

Ezeja .E. Ogili (2005). Further narrated that sample is the actual number or part of a study of the population that is objectively selected for such study.

F.O. Obodoeze (1996) also stated that for a researchers works to be successful he/she has to lay down it sample of the population to be studied. sampling techniques is the process of taking any portion of a universe or population of study as representatives of the population.

Sampling enables us to be cost-effective and cost efficient in our research that is spend less in terms of time, money, energy and other resources (Nnayelugo: 2001). A sample random sampling techniques will be used in different strata to select the actual respondents. And this is to enable every member of the community to have equal chance of being selected.

A scientific means or statical tools were used to determine ‘the sample size for the study.

Yaro Yamai (1964) used this formula for finite population as –

N

n = 1+ N(e)2

Where: n  =      Desired sample size

N   =      The entire population

e   =      Level of significant or limit of tolerable error                    assumed to be 5% or 0.05

1      =      Unit, a constant figure.

Therefore:

n      =      8348

1+8348 (0.05)2

 

 

n      =      8348

1+8348 (0.0025)

 

 

n      =      8348

1+20. 87

 

 

n      =      8348

21.87

 

 

n      =      381.7 (Approximately 382)

 

 

n      =      382  =      The sample size

 

 

Thus, 64 questionnaires were administered to respondents in each of the six villages. Moreso, the questionnaires were  administered to adults of 18 years and above irrespective of their educational and marital status in the society.

 

 

  • INSTRUMENT FOR DATA COLLECTION

The measuring instrument used in collecting data is questionnaire structured fifteen (15) items. The questionnaire would cover the postulated research questions and hypothesis as in chapter one (1). Open ended and closed ended questions should be included in the questionnaire.

VALIDITY OF THE INSTRUMENT

The measuring instrument employed is valid in the sense that it has numerous advantages. The method of instrument used in measuring the data is concurrent method.

  • It is credible because the results are usually reliable.
  • It reduces the monotony of the project work
  • It also makes the work less expensive.
  • A large volume of information is usually collected.

Moreover, it is expected that the rural respondents will respond accordingly by answering the questions effectively. This study will be useful for other researchers’ n the field of mass communication. At   the end of this study, traditional media of communication will truly manifest itself as an effective tool for rural communication and development.

 

  • METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION

The method of data  used for this study were collected both from primary and secondary sources. The researcher administered the questionnaires to the respondents in their homes and collects their responses immediately without delay. The researcher will assist the illiterate ones by reading out the questionnaire questions to them and indicating their responses against the questions.

The researcher will do this in their homes and in their local language in order to enable them to understand more effectively. The population size of Iwollo Oghe community which was collected from the National population commission office at Agbani serves as the secondary data while the questionnaire remains the primary data.

  • DATA ANALYSIS

It is generally noted that no research/study is complete Until the researcher is able to analyze the result of the data he collected as a result of that study. This simply means, given meanings to the characteristics of the data themselves, for better understanding, even by the readers who are not experts in researches, data analysis helps researchers to test their hypothesis, in order to find out which one is rejected or accepted.

The researcher used the chi-Square and simple percentage statistical techniques in the data analysis. The chi-square would be used to test the statistical significance of the hypothesis by showing the difference or relationship between observed and expected frequency, while the simple percentage is used to interpret and analyse the data for the understanding of the readers. Responses will also be close tabulated during the testing of the hypothesis. Questionnaire is used to gather the basic facts about the research.

Uzoagulu (1998) states that a questionnaire is a carefully designed instrument for collecting data in accordance with the specification of the research question and hypotheses. They are used  to ascertain facts, opinion, beliefs, attitudes and practices. They can be structured or unstructured. They are generally made to seek information necessary for answering the research questions.

 

REFERENCES

E.C. Osuala (1986). Introduction to Research methodology.   Onitsha African FEP publishers.

 

F.O. Obodoeze (1996). Modern Tex book of Research              methodology. Enugu. Academic publishing Co.

 

Emma E.O Chukwuemeka (2002) Research Methods and thesis    writing A multi-Disciplinary Approach. Enugu. Hope-Rising ventures publishers.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


CHAPTER FOUR

 

4:1   DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND RESULTS

 

In this chapter, the data analysed and the results arrived at, were presented. The six villages of Iwollo oghe in Ezeagu North Local Government Area of Enugu state were studied. A total of 382 copies of the questionnaires were distributed and encouragingly, all were completed and returned. This shows 100% response, which is highly appreciated.

Meanwhile, this was as a result of the receptive nature of the respondents as well as personal approach which the researcher adopted in administering the questionnaire.

ANALYSIS OF  DATA..

TABLE : 1  GENDER DISTRIBUTIONS OF THE RESPONDENTS.

OPTION FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE
Male 267 69.9
Female 115 30.1
Total 384 100

   

The above table shows that 267 (69.9%) respondents were male, 115 (30.1%) were female this shows that most of the respondents were male.

 

TABLE 2 LITERACY LEVEL OF RESPONDENTS.

OPTION FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE
Yes 101 26.4
No 281 73.6
Total 382 100

 

The above table shows that 101 (26.4%) were literate while 281 (73.6%) were illiterate. This means that most of the respondents were illiterate. The researcher assisted the illiterate people by reading out the questions of the questionnaire and indicating their responses against the questions. The researcher did this in their local language in order to enable them understand effectively.

 


TABLE 3: EDUCATIONAL QUALIFICATIONS OF THE RESPONDENTS .

 

OPTION FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE
FSLC 60 15.71
SSCE/NABTEB 25 6.54
DIP/ND 10 2.62
HND/B.Sc 6 1.52
M.Sc/PHD
None 281 73.56
Total 382 100

 

Table 3 shows that 60 (15.71%) of the respondents have FLSC 25 (6.54%) have SSCE/NABTEB, 10 (2.62%) have DIP/ND, 6 (1.52%) have HND /B.Sc Nobody has M.Sc/PHD, 281 (73:56%) have no educational qualification. This indicates that a greater number of the respondents have no qualification.

 


TABLE 4: MARITAL STATUS OF THE RESPONDENTS.

OPTION FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE
Single 122 31.9
Married 260 68.1
Total 382 100

 

In table 4, the data collected shows that out of the 382 respondents that completed and returned their questionnaire, 122 (31.9%) were single, 260 (68.1%) were married, this shows that most of the respondents were married.

 

TABLE 5, AGE DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS. 

OPTION FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE
18-20 years 20 5.2
26-35 years 52 13.6
36-46 years 95 24.9
47-above 215 56.3
Total 382 100

 

 

        The above table shows that 20(5.2%) were between the age range of 18-20years, 52 (13.6%) were between the age range of 26-35 years, 95 (24.9) were between the age range of 36 and 46 years while 215 (56.3%) were between the age range of 47 and above. This shows that a greater number of the respondents fall within the age range of 47 and above.

 

TABLE 6  ; ANALYSIS OF RESEARCH QUESTIONS WHETHER

 IWOLLO OGHE PEOPLE HAVE TRADITIONAL MEANS OF COMMUNICATION . 

OPTION FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE
Yes 382 100
No
I don’t know
Total 382 100

 

The table shows that 382 (100%) agreed that Iwollo oghe  people have traditional means of communication. Nobody  said No, and  I don’t know, they all answered yes which shows that Iwollo oghe  people have traditional means of communication.

TABLE 7 THE MEDIA IN IWOLLO OGHE COMMUNITY. 

 OPTION FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE
Town crier 4 1.04
Ikoro 7 1.83
Gong 7 1.83
Market place 2 0.52
Town Union 15 3.92
All of the above 347 90.83
Total 382 100

 

In the above table, the data shows that 4 (1.04%) is of the opinion that Iwollo  oghe people  have town crier, 7(1.83%) were of Ikoro , 7 (1.83%) said it is gong, 2 (0.52%) is of market place,  15 (3.92%) said that it is town union,  while 347 (90.83%) said that all the above listed option are the traditional means of communication in Iwollo community.

This shows that all the media are in existence in the community.


TABLE 8 WHICH OF THESE TRADITIONAL MEDIA OF COMMUNICATION IS CREDIBLE.

OPTION FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE
Town union 220 57.6
Age grade 75 19.6
Town crier 32 8.4
Friends 22 5.8
Market place 30 7.9
None 3 0.8
Total 382 100

 

Table 8 shows that 220 (57.6%) Considered town union as more credible traditional medium 75 (19.6%) consider town crier as a more credible medium, 32(8.4%) consider town crier as a more credible medium, 22 (58%) see friends as a credible medium, 30 (7.9) consider market place as a more credible medium while 3 (0.8%) do not consider any of the medium credible. A great number of the respondents consider town union as a credible traditional medium.

 

 

TABLE 9: WHETHER TRADITIONAL MEDIA PLAYS A COMPLEMENTARY ROLE IN IWOLLO OGHE COMMUNITY.

OPTION FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE
Yes 310 81.2
No 52 13.6
I don’t know 20 5.2
Total 382 100

 

Table a shows that 310 (81.2) agreed that traditional media plays a complementary role; 52 (13.60%) said No, while 20 (5.2%) said that they do not know whether it plays the role or not. A large number of the respondents agreed that traditional media plays a complementary role.

 

TABLE 10: THE SIGNIFICANCE OF IKORO.

 OPTION FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE
War
Achievement/success 100 26.2
Funeral 26 6.8
Tax 23 6.0
Accident 18 4.7
Call to duty 5 1.3
Festivals 210 55.0
Total 382 100

 

The table 10 above shows that 100 (26.2%) expects achievement/success whenever Ikoro sounds, 26 (6.8%) expects funeral, 23 (6.0%) expects taxation, 18 (4.7%) expect accident, 5 (1.3%) expects call to duty while 210 (55.0%) expects festivals whenever Ikoro sounds. This means that a great number of respondents expects festivals whenever the Ikoro sounds.

 

TABLE 11: NEWS GENERALLY ABOUT THE STATE AND FEDERAL GOVERNMENT.

OPTION FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE
Town crier 215 56.3
Friends 26 6.
Newspaper 18 4.7
Market place 23 6.0
Radio 70 18.3
Television 30 7.9
None
Total 382 100

 

In the above table that is receiving news generally about state and federal government 215 (56.30%) hear news from town crier, 26 (6.8%) from friends, 18 (4.7%) from newspapers, 23 (6.0%)) from market places, 70 (18.3%) from radio, 30 (7.9%) from television, there is nobody that do not get news from all the options listed above.

The number of respondents that gets news generally about state and federal government from the town crier are more.

 

TABLE 12: OWNERSHIP OF RADIO/TELEVISION SET.

OPTION FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE
Yes 222 58.1
No 160 41.9
I don’t know
Total 382 100

 

        From the above table, It shows that 222 (58.1%) own radio/Television set while 160 (41.9%) do not have radio/television set; while nobody answered I don’t know .

This means that greater number of respondents own radio/television set.

 

TABLE 13: LISTENING/WATCHING HOUR.

OPTION FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE
I hour 201 52.61
Less than I hour 25 6.54
2 hour 54 14.13
3 hours 40 10.50
More than 4 hours 23 6.02
None 39 10.20
Total 382 100

 

The above table shows that 201 (52.61%) of the respondents listen and watch television I hour a day, 25 (6.54%) in less than I hour, 54 (14.13%) in 2 hours, 40 (10.50%) respondents  listen and watch television in 3 hours, 23 (6.02%) in more than 4 hours while 39 (10.20%) respondents do not listen and watch  television/radio set.

This means that great number of the respondents listen and watch to television and radio set a day.

 

TABLE 14  NEWS ABOUT ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN IWOLLO OGHE COMMUNITY.

OPTION FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE
Town criers 12 3.1
Friends 30 7.9
Newspapers 45 11.8
Radio 228 59.7
Television 65 17
None 2 0.5
Total 382 100

 

        The above table shows that 12 (3.1%) of the respondents get news about economic development in Iwollo Oghe community through the town crier, 30 (7.9%) through Friends, 45 (11.8%) from newspapers, 228 (59.&%) from radio, 65 (17%) from television while 2 (0.50%) do not get news from any media. This means that majority of the respondents receive news about economic development in Iwollo Oghe community through radio.

 

TABLE 15 MEDIA FOR ENTERTAINMENT

OPTION FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE
Town crier 33 8.6
Friends 28 7.3
Age grade 104 27.2
Radio 53 13.9
Television 11 2.9
Festivals 153 40.1
Total 382 100

    

Table 15 shows that 33 (8.6%) of the respondents depend on the

town criers for entertainment, 28 (7.3%) depend on friends, 104

(27.2%) depend on age grade, 53 (13.9%) depend on radio, 11 (2.

9%) on television while 153 (40.1%) depends on festivals.

This shows that many of the respondents depend on festivals

for their entertainment.

 

  • TESTING OF RESEARCH HYPOTHESES

Here the three hypotheses used for this study were tested using the chi-square statistical technique. The aim of this hypotheses testing is to find out if the various variable in the hypotheses are statistically related. However, in testing the hypotheses, we compared observed frequency with expected frequency, and the probability level of testing all the hypotheses was at 0.05.

 

HYPOTHESES TESTING,

Ho: Iwollo people do not have traditional means of communication.

H1: Iwollo people have traditional means of communication.

Calculation of CH1-SQUARE FOR HYPOTHESES ONE

Calculated as X2      =      (O-E)2

E

 

RESPONSE       0        E     0 – E     0 – E2   0 – E2

      E

Yes 382 127.3 234.7 6487.69 509.6
No 0 127.3 -127.3 16205.29 127.3
I don’t know 0 127.3 -127.3 16205.29 127.3
Total 382 382     763.6

 

X2       =      763.6

DF    =      5

P      =      0.05

∑XU2            =          11.070

 

RESULT:

The test shows that calculated value is 76.3 while the table value at 0.05 of probability, less than five (5) degree of freedom is 11.070 this means that the calculated value (X2 = 763.6) is greater than the table value (11.070).

 

DECISION RULE:

Accept research hypotheses if the calculated value is greater than the table value. In the other hand, reject research hypotheses and accept null hypotheses if the calculated value is less than the table value.

 

DECISION AND CONCLUSION

Based on the decision rule stated above according to our result. We accept the research since it received statistical support. Therefore , Iwollo people  have traditional means of communication.

 

HYPOTHESES TWO

Ho: These traditional means of communication are not in existence in Iwollo Oghe community.

H2: These traditional means of communication are in existence in Iwollo Oghe community.

In testing for hypotheses two, question 7 of the questionnaire will be used. What are these media?

 

CALCULATION OF CHI-SQUARE FOR HYPOTHESES TWO

X2 = (0-E)2

E

 

RESPONSE       0        E     0 – E     0 – E2   0 – E2

      E

Town criers       4 63 . 7 -59 . 7 3564 – 09 56.0
Ikoro       7 63 . 7 -56 . 7 3214.89 50.5
Gong        7 63 . 7 56 . 7 3214.89 50.5
Market place        2 63 . 7 61 . 7 3806.87 59 – 8
Town union        15 63 . 7 48 . 7 23071.69 37.2
All of the above     347 63 . 7 283.3 80258.89 1260.0
Total 382 382     1514.0

 

X2 = 1514

DF = 5

P = 0.05

E X U2 = 11.070

 


RESULT: 1

The above test shows that calculated value is 1514 while the table value at 0.05 level of probability, under Five (5) degrees of freedom is 11.070, this means that the calculated value (x2 = 1514) is greater than the above table value (11.070).

 

DECISION RULE:

Accept research hypotheses if the calculated value is greater than the table value. On the other hand, reject research hypotheses and accept null hypotheses if the calculated value is less than the table value.

 

DECISION AND CONCLUSION:

Based on the decision rule stated above and according to our result we accept the research hypotheses since it received statistical support. Therefore, these traditional means of communication are in existence in Iwollo community.

 


HYPOTHESES THREE:

H0:   The traditional means of communication are not more credible than the modern mass media.

H3; The traditional means of communication are more credible than the modern mass media.

Question 8 of the questionnaire will be used in testing these hypotheses. Which of these traditional media do you consider more credible?

CALCULATION OF CHI- SQUARE FOR HYPOTHESE THREE.

X2 = (0 – E)2

E

Response      0       E    0 – E    0 – E2    0-E2

E

Town Union 220 63.7 156.3 24429.69 383.5
Age grade 75 63.7 11.3 127.69 2.0
Town crier 32 63.7 -31.7 1004.89 15.8
Friends 22 63.7 -41.7 1738.89 27.3
Market 30 63.7 -33.7 1135.69 17.8
Nme 3 63.7 -60.7 3684.49 57.8
Total 382 382     504.2

   

X2 = 504.2

DF = 5

P = 0.05

E X U2 = 11.070

 

RESULT:

The above test shows that calculated value is 504.3 while the table value at 0.05 level of probability under five (5) degree of freedom is 11.070, this means that the calculated value is (x2 = 504.2) is greater than the table value (11.070).

 

DECISION RULE:

        Accept research hypotheses if the calculated value is greater than the table value. On the other hand, reject research hypotheses and accept null hypotheses if the calculated value is less than the table value.

 

DECISION AND COWCLUSION:

Based on the decision rule stated above and according to our result, we accept the research hypotheses since it received statistical support. Therefore, the traditional means of communication are more credible than the modern mass media.

4:3  DISCLOSURE OF FINDINGS:

        This study has further supported some earlier postulations with regards to the effectiveness of traditional communication in Iwollo oghe community.

Firstly in the calculation of chi – square for hypotheses one (I), the results shows that Iwollo oghe people have various traditional means of communication. Also the calculation of chi- square for hypotheses two, the results indicated that these traditional means of communication are found in existence in Iwollo oghe community. These include town union, Ikoro, Age grade, Market place, Village square, Gong, Drum and Festivals etc. These traditional means of communication are tools for effective communication in Iwollo oghe community.

The study revealed from the results of the calculation of chi- square for hypotheses three shows that Iwollo oghe people rely many on traditional media than they do on modern media for information. All the information emanating from these media are usually more credible. From the calculation of chi-square from the hypotheses, the results show that these traditional media of communication play a complementary role which modern mass media cannot afford, since the traditional channels in Iwollo Oghe community are those communication methods which have been used for centuries and is the most powerful ways through which Iwollo Oghe people communicate.

Finally, Mac Bride (etal) stated that even though modern technologies are increasing constantly, humans are still making use of traditional modes of communication. These postulates support the findings in the calculation of the Chi-square for the hypotheses which shows that these traditional means of communication enhance rural communication.

Thus, from the findings the three researches and hypotheses in the study got an over whelming support. The research hypotheses have been confirmed and authenticated therefore traditional media of communication are the tools for effective rural communication in Iwollo Oghe community

 

 

REFRENCES

  1. Osuala .E.C (1982). Introduction to Research

Methodology. Onitsha African Fed. Publishers

 

  1. Oreh,O. (1988). Mode of Communication in African

Cultural Development. Enugu: Fourth Dimension

 

  1. Wimmer R. and Dominic J. (1987).Mass Media Research

An Introduction London: Watson: th Publisher.

 

  1. Yamane, Taro, (1964). Statistics, An Introductory

Analysis (3rd ed.) New York: Harper and

Row Publishers.

 

  1. Ugboajah, Frank. (1990). Mass Communication,

Culture and Society. New York: Hans Zell

Publishers.

 

 

 

CHAPTER 5

 

SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, RECOMMENDATION AND CCALCLUSION

 

  • SUMMARY OF FINDINGS

                   Traditional instrument of communication are based on

homophiles linkages, involving persons  known, respected and

trusted. They involve the collaboration of individuals and therefore are never  alienated.  The traditional media afford the individual participatory opportunity, thus removing educator/ educates concept. They therefore decentralize communication instrument like gong (Ekwe and Ogene), Flute [opi] and slit wooden xylophones (Ikoro) serve as correlation media. They use various sounds to code messages, which are decoded by the target audience appropriately and promptly too. These instrument also supplement cultural transmission, entertainment, educating the masses and surveillance.

The Ikoro which is usually stationary is used in sending messages to a village or neighbouring villages, especially during festivals prominent among such festival (Ani) Festival which co-memorable  the gods of the land.

The Flute (Opi) is one effective medium of communication and a musical instrument used by Iwollo people and other rural communities. It is used in raising the hopes and aspirations of the people especially during festivals or other events.

Some traditional communication media specializes in information dissemination and so remove distortion in the channel. Distortion often arise when one media carry all kinds of messages. This is typical of the modern media.

Traditional media of communication plays the following functions: They perform surveillance of the environment, advertising, it mobilizes the populace it is the window through which the community are known to the outside world, it helps in maintaining and strengthening the people’s culture and heritage, it helps in information dissemination, it educates the populace, it entertains the people, it correlates the entire members of the community, it brings the people together and social reformation functions.

 

 

5:2       RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FURTHER STUDIES

        The researcher made the following recommendations.

  1. The modern media should be used in conjunction with the traditional media of communication which people are more  familiar with. This will make for participatory communication to enhance national development.
  2. The society is very essential, this is because development cannot take place outside a society, it is from the society that development takes place and human beings must be there in order to develop the resources, to raise human standard, capacity building, because in the absence of human society there is nothing like development.
  3. In order to achieve an optimum development human resources is seriously needed, it is the human resources that helps to organize/utilize natural resources and without human resources or human being the resources cannot be developed or be used for a better living in the society Human resources is inevitable in the society.
  4. For development to be achieved the mass media must be decentralized by structures and constant. Instead of concentrating  in the urban area those in the rural areas should be carried along even with a community radio because they require such services. The villagers should be allowed to contribute to the constent of the mass media.
  5. The traditional media could however be restructured to suit our modern needs. Literate members of the community should be appointed town criers so that apart from disseminating information from the ruler of the town to the people, they should be placed on salaries and be provided with radio, television and newspaper with which they should receive government news and information to disseminate same to the people.
  6. Private enterprises, individuals should be encouraged to establish and develop community based newspapers, magazines and viewing centers, such community based press should focus primarily on the local community and not on the state.
  7. Adult education centers should be encouraged to improve material and human resources in the rural areas.
  8. Journalists, who are practicing in the urban areas should not neglect their home based/traditional media of communication, they should help by teaching and motivating the ruralites in the best way to achieve development, both for the community and the nation at large without discrimination.
  9. Developmental programs such as “operation go back to the farms’’, monthly sanitation exercise and family planning should be practicalized by government and the campaigns will be sent to the market women.
  10. There should be an effective communication this is because, it is the life blood of every society, it makes us what we are today. Both rural dwellers, urban dwellers and the government should indulge in an effective communication to enable us achieve a better goal. The felt needs and action needs of the people should be properly communicated to the government through the various traditional medium of communication for rapid development of our various communities.


5:3      CONCLUSION

This study has attempted to identity the traditional media of communication in Iwollo oghe community and other rural communities. The study also tried to determine the functions of these traditional media. It also went further to examine how the media could be established and developed as an integral component of the rural socio- economic institutional infrastructures.

The results of the research have shown the need and importance of traditional means of communication for the effective rural developement.

Due to Limited resources and low level of education, majority of the rural populance have no access to modern media. example, radio, television and newspapers.

Opubor pointed out that the process of transmitting new ideas from passive to an active state is through an atmosphere of participative communication involving dialogue, co-operation, respect and sharing of initiatives for an effective rural based communication which would enhances development, hence, these recommendations were made.

 

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Onuora, Nzekwu.(1960). Masquerade. Ibadan : Spectrum.

 

Oreh, O. (1988) Mode of Communication in African Cultural                             development Enugu Fourth Dimension.

 

Smith, A.G (ed.) (1986). Communication and Culture. Lagos: Longman Publishers

 


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APPENDIX 1

LETTER OF INTRODUCTION OF THE RESEARCHER

QUESTIONNAIRE

 

Department of miscommunication

Caritas University,’

Enugu.

22nd April, 2010.

 

Dear Respondent,

 

I am a final year student of the above mentioned department and institution, conducting a research on the effectiveness of traditional means of communication in Iwollo  oghe community.

The outcome of the research will be useful to the general public. The information gathered will be for academic purposes.

I solicit your Co-operation by filling the questionnaire. This will be treated confidentially.

Thank in anticipation for your cooperation.

 

Yours Sincerely,

 

OZOMMA CHIOMA .L.
APPENDIX II

 

QUESTIONNAIRE ON TRADITIONAL MEDIA OF COMMUNICATION AS TOOLS FOR EFFECTIVE RURAL DEVELOPMENT

 

Answer of your choice by ticking the book against your answer just like this

 

1)     What is your sex?

(a) Male            (b) Female

2)     What is your age?

(a)    18-20 years              (b) 26-35 years                         (c) 36-46years

(d) 47 and above

3) What is your marital status?

(a) 18 -20 years                (b) Single

(4) What is your occupation?

(a) Farmer                (b) Trader                         (c) Civil servant

(d) Student

(5) What are your educational qualifications?

(a) FSLC           (b) SSCE/NABTEB           (c) Diploma

(d) B.Sc/HND           (e) M.Sc/PHD           (F) None

6) Do Iwollo people have traditional means of communication?

(a) Yes              (b) No

7) What are the traditional media of communication in Iwollo community?

(a) Town crier           (b) Ikoro           (c) Gong

(d) Market place               (e) Town union                 (f) all of the  above

8) Which of these traditional media of communication is credible? (a) Town union               (b) Age grade                    (c) Town Crier?

(d) Friends               (e) Market place               (f) None

9) Do traditional media communication play a vital role in the rural communities?

(a) Yes              (b) N0               (c) I’ don’t know/No idea

10) What are the significance of the Ikoro in the rural communities?

(a) War             (b) Achievement               (e) Festivals

(d) Call to duty                         (e) Tax

11)   Which of these media gives more credible news

About the state and federal government?

(a) Town crier           (b) Friends               (c) Newspaper

(d) Market place               (e) Radio                  (f) Television

 

12) Do you own a radio/Television set?

(a) Yes              (b) N0

13) How many hours do you listen to radio /Television News?

(a) 1 hour                         (b) Less than 1 hour        (c) 2 hours

(d) 3 hours               (e) More than 4 hours              (f) None

14) Which of these media gives more credible news about economic development in Iwollo  oghe community?

(a) Town criers                         (b) Friends               (c) Newspapers

(d) Radio          (e) Television            (f) None

(15)Which of these entertains you most?

(a) Town criers                 (b) Friends               (c) Age grade

(d) Radio                  (e) Television            (f) Festivals

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