DIGGING AND CASTING OF A HAND DUG WELL
In any form of organization or establishment where open registry exist and comprises of junior workers who are attached to senior officers, the need for water supply system becomes expedient and imperative, as the efficacy of water in the safety of workers and tools can’t be over emphasized. (H. Bruus 2008). Water exit in various form and man have strategize various mean by which water (natural resources) is made available for human use. Hence, the need for introduction into various sources by which water is made available which is the focus of this project.
SURFACE WATER : is water in a river, lake or fresh water wetland which is naturally replenished by precipitation and naturally lost through discharge to the oceans, evaporation, evapotranspiration and sub-surface seepage. Although the only natural input to any surface water system is precipitation within its watershed, the total quantity of water in that system at any given time is also dependent on many other factors. These factors include storage capacity in lakes, wetlands and artificial reservoirs, the permeability of the soil beneath these storage bodies, the runoff characteristics of the land in the watershed, the timing of the precipitation and local evaporation rates. All of these factors also affect the proportions of water loss.
Human activities can have a large and sometimes devastating impact on these factors. Humans often increase storage capacity by constructing reservoirs and decrease it by draining wetlands. Humans often increase runoff quantities and velocities by paving areas and channelizing stream flow. The total quantity of water available at any given time is an important consideration. Some human water users have an intermittent need for water. For example, many farms require large quantities of water in the spring, and no water at all in the winter. To supply such a farm with water, a surface water system may require a large storage capacity to collect water throughout the year and release it in a short period of time. Other users have a continuous need for water, such as a power plant that requires water for cooling. To supply such a power plant with water, a surface water system only needs enough storage capacity to fill in when average stream flow is below the power plant’s need.
Nevertheless, over the long term the average rate of precipitation within a watershed is the upper bound for average consumption of natural surface water from that watershed.
A NATURAL WETLAND: Natural surface water can be augmented by importing surface water from another watershed through a canal or pipeline. It can also be artificially augmented from any of the other sources listed here, however in practice the quantities are negligible. Humans can also cause surface water to be “lost” (i.e. become unusable) through pollution.
UNDER RIVER FLOW: Throughout the course of a river, the total volume of water transported downstream will often be a combination of the visible free water flow together with a substantial contribution flowing through sub-surface rocks and gravels that underlie the river and its floodplain called the hyporheic zone. For many rivers in large valleys, this unseen component of flow may greatly exceed the visible flow. The hyporheic zone often forms a dynamic interface between surface water and true ground-water receiving water from the ground water when aquifers are fully charged and contributing water to ground-water when ground waters are depleted. This is especially significant in karst areas where pot-holes and underground rivers are common.
GROUND WATER, Sub-surface water, or groundwater, is fresh water located in the pore space of soil and rocks. It is also water that is flowing within aquifers below the water table. Sometimes it is useful to make a distinction between sub-surface water that is closely associated with surface water and deep sub-surface water in an aquifer (sometimes called “fossil water).
Sub-surface water can be thought of in the same terms as surface water: inputs, outputs and storage. The critical difference is that due to its slow rate of turnover, sub-surface water storage is generally much larger compared to inputs than it is for surface water. This difference makes it easy for humans to use sub-surface water unsustainably for a long time without severe consequences. Nevertheless, over the long term the average rate of seepage above a sub-surface water source is the upper bound for average consumption of water from that source.
The natural input to sub-surface water is seepage from surface water. The natural outputs from sub-surface water are springs and seepage to the oceans.
If the surface water source is also subject to substantial evaporation, a sub-surface water source may become saline. This situation can occur naturally under endorheic bodies of water, or artificially under irrigated farmland. In coastal areas, human use of a sub-surface water source may cause the direction of seepage to ocean to reverse which can also cause soil salinization. Humans can also cause sub-surface water to be “lost” (i.e. become unusable) through pollution. Humans can increase the input to a sub-surface water source by building reservoirs or detention ponds.
Hence, the construction ( Hand dug and Caste Water Well) is done , at the back of H. O.D Technical Education Department of the school. The beneficiary shall be the entire college community in general and the entire school of vocational and technical education in particular. The installation is done such that the control panel can only be assessed by the ordain individual as directed by the authority to ensure safety and maintenance of the machine.
Like fire, electricity is a good servant but a bad master, before anyone can install a safe and efficient electrical system, he must be familiar with the nature of electricity and the danger inherent in its use (safety act 1978).in this wise, this project is done under the combine supervisions, of the experienced workers from the directorate of works and maintenance service and supervising lecturer.
1.1 STATEMENT OF THE PROJECT
This project among all; aims at constructing a deep and casted water well to ensure water supply to the school, thereby resulting to safe working environment. Thus, some existing problems are highlighted below:
1. To demonstrate our practical experience on Building Technology works in the process of this project.
2. To meet the programme requirement
3. To ensure the availability of water as to promote efficiency in the part of employee, employer: machine, tools, and equipment as well as the students of the school.
1.2 PURPOSE OF THE PROJECT
The purpose of this project is to demonstrate:
1. The practical ability of the learners, its usefulness to the college community and to solve the problem of water supply in the college
2. To show to the college authority that there are lots of projects the student can do in their practical programmes.
1.3 SIGNIFICANTS OF THE PROJECT
The significance of the study are as follow:
1. To promote the Technical/ industrial programme of the institution,
2. To encourage Building Technology students to be more self reliance and
3. To help other students who want to carry out the same project in the nearest future to serve as a guide
1.4 LIMITATION OF THE PROJECT
This project is limited to the college community: the students, staffs and all the dweller in the college.
1.5 DEFINITION OF TERM
STEEL RING; this is circular in shape. It is been bonded with a copper wire to form an artificial ring. It is been place into a dug well so that casting operation could be easily done.
BRAZING POLE; this is usually made up of wood. And its main purpose is to adjust the artificial steel ring to the required shape.
BOLT & NUT; this is made of metal. Its basic uses if for tightening and losing the size of an artificial steel ring.
CONCRETE; this is the mixture of sand, cement, gravel and water in which they are been mixed together to form concrete.