comparative effect of three teaching methods on secondary school students performance in Integrated Science
Background to the Study
Research on teaching methods has for long been of interest to educationists. However, some studies have been carried out on certain aspects of the programme but have not investigated the academic performance of secondary schools level of education in the use of some specific teaching methods.
Research evidence shows that the challenges confronting the secondary school teachers are basically on the methods of imparting the knowledge. It was argued by Adufe (2008) that teaching is based on methods which at the long run bring about effective teaching. Teaching, according to Oladipo and Ayeni (2000) involves bringing about or at least facilitating desirable changes in learners. However, effective teaching requires the teacher to step out of the realm of personal experience and step into the world of the learners. (Brown, 1997). It is the learner who must be engage for learning to occur, the learner is the one who must take the commitment to learn.
Instruction is the transmission to the learner and the acquisition by him on specific skills, information, knowledge or other established data. The mode of instruction or teaching applied in achieving these objectives is referred to as method. Methodology therefore, refers to the processes and techniques a teacher of either uses to transmit facts, skills, information and knowledge to the learners so as to facilitate the accomplishment of the set objectives.
Research evidence shows that the major problem in the secondary schools is the method of imparting knowledge. To this Adepoju (2006) revealed the difficulties children of some ages (usually nursery and primary level) encountered when they are instructed using verbal approach. This is also confirmed as the study carried out in Nigeria by Busari (1991) revealed that the method presently employed in teaching, in most of secondary schools is inadequate or not effective.
It is of a necessity that a skillful teacher needs to be conversant with various teaching strategies which may be applied to subjects at different class situations. Adufe (2008) affirms that many methods of teaching exist in education and these methods are meant to make teacher succeed in their bid to disseminate knowledge.
However, the success in the use of any method differs as a result of an intelligent analysis of the objectives, the pupils in class, the curriculum content or the type of subject matter.
Also, the impact of any teaching method is not only limited to the conditions surrounding the teaching but also the advantages and the disadvantages of a particular method in a particular situation should not be left out.
In Nigeria, the importance of integrated science in the development of the nation cannot be underrated especially as her national income rests on petroleum and petrochemical industries. The persistent failure of secondary school students in integrated science has however remained a major threat to its learning. The Chief Examiner’s report on the conduct of the 2010 junior secondary school certificate examination (JSSCE) in integrated science stated that there was no significant improvement in the performance of candidates when compared with those of previous years.
Methodology is very vital in any teaching/learning situation. The method adopted by the teacher may promote or hinder learning. It may sharpen mental activities which are the bases of social power or may discourage initiatives and curiosity thus making self-reliance and survival difficult Ameh, Dantani . The way a teacher presents subject matter to learners may make them like or dislike the subject. It has also been reported by Mtsem  that teaching method affects the responses of students and determines whether they are interested, motivated and involved in a lesson in such a way as to engage in good learning. What constitutes good teaching and learning of school subjects is the use of appropriate
method of teaching. Ogunniyi  asserted that one of the most persistent and compelling problems besetting academic achievement in Nigeria is poor quality of teaching.
There exists a number of teaching methods for teachers to use. They include: lecture, discussion, demonstration, laboratory, individualized instructional, field-trip, peer-teaching methods and so on. Ameh and Dantani  observed that because integrated science as a subject is bulky in nature the subject teachers usually adopt lecture method in teaching in order to cover the syllabus within the stipulated time and this does not give room for proper understanding of the subject. In view of the foregoing, this study examined the acquisition of science knowledge using two instructional methods namely, Laboratory and discussion methods with the aim of determining the effect of each method on the achievement of students in junior secondary schools.
Laboratory method is an activity-based, student-centred teaching method where students learn by carrying out activities in the laboratory. These activities include, touching, seeing, feeling, weighting, measuring, demonstrating, carrying out tests/experiments and any other practical activities in the laboratory. A deeper understanding of the science and technological processes can be achieved through laboratory activities which encourage active participation and serve to develop critical thinking and also provide concrete experiences to substantiate the theoretical aspect that might have been taught. Mkpa  maintains that laboratory activities provide exercises/problems based upon real physical situations and also appreciation of the various methods used in experimental science. Such methods include understanding competence in the use of apparatus, training in awareness of the problems involved in precise laboratory work. These methods help learners to construct definitions of concepts, formulate relevant questions and theories relating to any assumptions and arguments used in the experimental process. According to this author, the laboratory teaching method serves the following purposes; Motivating students by stimulating interest, developing understanding of scientific inquiry and expertise, inculcating scientific attitudes into students and encouraging social skill development. Omosewo  asserted that laboratory work promotes competence in the skill of gathering information, organizing, communicating, interpreting observing, drawing conclusions and making inferences. Okeke  viewed the laboratory as providing conceptual understanding, procedural knowledge and hence investigative enterprise. The author suggested that if the laboratory is to serve its purpose successfully, then the students must be actively involved in doing their own thinking, evolve solutions to problems, make use of their own hands and heads and therefore grow in skill development at the end of every laboratory exercise.
On the other hand, discussion method of teaching involves a group of people in a class who come together to exchange ideas, facts, opinions and expressions orally about a topic of mutual concern and interest under a guide. The researcher maintains that in a discussion class the students talk to each other about the concept or problem until there is an agreeable understanding to it mentally. This method encourages the learner to be independent of the teacher and discover knowledge and also see relationship on their own. As a teaching method, discussion encourages learning through active involvement of students in the lesson.
The primary purpose of teaching at any level of education is to bring a fundamental change in the learner (Tebabal & Kahssay, 2011). To facilitate the process of knowledge transmission, teachers should apply appropriate teaching methods that best suit specific objectives and level exit outcomes. In the traditional epoch, many teaching practitioners widely applied teacher-centered methods to impart knowledge to learners comparative to student-centered methods. Until today, questions about the effectiveness of teaching methods on student learning have consistently raised considerable interest in the thematic field of educational research (Hightower 2011).
As a result of this, the study on the comparative study of some teaching methods and its effects on the academic performance of students in secondary school
worth pursuing. It is hoped that the results ofthis study will provide evidence as to the nature of three basic teaching method virtually used in secondary schools (Discussion, demonstration and simulation method) and their distinctive approach towards the achievement of students in secondary school level
Statement of the Problem
Given the high value placed on integrated science at the Nigerian junior Secondary School Curriculum, and the nature of the subject, the need to teach it effectively through an effective method is indisputable. A few of the problems affecting the teaching and learning of integrated science are the meaningfulness of the content, the sustainability of the methods and probably, the teacher who handles both the content and method. The incidence of ineffective teaching of integrated science in junior Secondary School in Ekiti state has resulted in poor achievement in examination. This necessitated the need for a more effective and result-oriented. What a teacher does in the classroom depends to some degree upon his approach to learning situations. However, students’ negative attitudes toward learning may be related to the method of instruction.
Though teachers with high morale, motivation and a mastery of knowledge, learner difficulties and capacity to facilitate learning are important, correct use of an appropriate teaching method is critical to successful teaching and learning. Knowledge of how teaching methods affect students’ learning may help educators to select methods that improve teaching quality, effectiveness, and accountability to learners and the public. However, little are considered on some factors that are necessary before selecting the appropriate method. Also the methods used in teaching the of secondary school are not effective for their teaching and learning and this negate their academic performance.
Objectives Of The Study
The major objective of this study is to compare the effect of three teaching methods on the academic achievement of integrated science students in Ekiti state
The specific objective are
- Compare basically three different methods of teaching and their effectiveness in classroom setting.
- Find out the factors needed to be considered before the selection of any teaching methods
- Analyse different methods of teaching in terms of their advantages and disadvantages
- To determine the appropriate teaching method used by integrated science teachers in teaching and learning
- To determine the effect of teaching method on students’ academic performance in Integrated science.
- What are the factors needed to be considered before the selection of a particular teaching method?
- Is there any significant relationship between the methods of teaching and students academic performance in Integrated science?
- What effects does discussion method, demonstration method and laborartory method have on the academic performance of students?
- What are the effects of teaching method on students academic performance?
- What impact does teaching method have on students academic performance in integrated science
The following null hypotheses were formulated to be tested at p=0.05 level of significance:
Ho1: there is no significant difference between the academic performance of students taught with with discussion method of teaching and those taughtwith stimulation method in integrated science in JSS in Ekiti state
Ho2: There is no significant difference between the academic performance of students taught with Demonstration method of teaching and those taught with stimulation method in integrated science in JSS in Ekiti state
H03: there is no significant difference between the academic performance of students taught with discussion method of teaching and those taught with Demonstration method in integrated science in JSS in Ekiti state
Significance Of The Study
The finding of this study will be of benefit to the teachers, students and curriculum planners. The study critically discusses extensively the effect of three teaching methods on secondary school students in integrated science.
This findings will help the students who have lost hope in doing well in Integrated Science that all hope is not lost as they can still understand the subject by improvement in teaching methods used by their te The report of this study will go a long way to help the students and teachers to understand the benefit in using only three teaching methods and the qualities of an effective teacher, the study will also help the active teacher in Integrated science, it will guide the government to see the need of employing qualified teachers and retraining of the teachers, the curriculum planners on the planning and development of the curriculum etc.
The teachers will benefit since the study will help them to understand the appropriate methods of teaching to be employed in carrying out their duties. The curriculum planners will get used information that will enable them improve in their planning of curriculum.
It will highlight the extent to which the ineffectiveness in term of methodology which has always been taken for granted actually affective teaching of integrated science. It is hope that this will help the integrated science teachers to make correction in the method they employed in teaching
Highlight the need for the teachers of integrated science to embark on the use of teaching methodology best suited for effective teaching of integrated science in secondary schools
The overall significance is that when all the stake holders in this study benefit from the findings, the learning of Integrated Science will be very enjoyable and the students will perform better in both internal and external examinations.
Scope Of The Study
The study will concern itself with the comparative effect of three teaching methods on secondary school students performance in Integrated Science which will be carried out in Ikere local government area of Ekiti state. Integrated science teachers in the public secondary schools in Ikere Local Government Area will be used for the study. The study will focuss on three types of teaching method which are, demonstration, discussion and stimulation method of teaching integrated science
Operational Definition Of Terms
In this study, it is imperative to define the terms that will be appearing during the course of this work as they are used within the context of the study for clarification purposes.
Activity: This is student-centered teaching-learning approach, where the student has some control over the process and directs more or less the instructional activities with the teacher providing adequate guidance.
Teaching method: It is a teaching device or strategy adopted by a teacher to teach a lesson, this includes the use of games, text books etc. that stimulates learning.
Academic performance: Learning outcome or output in students taught government which results from teaching techniques/methods the teacher adopts.
Effect: Outcome of result of using appropriate teaching method on students as measured by government performance test.
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
This study is a comparative effect of teaching methods on the academic performance of students in integrated science. This chapter focused on the review of related literature. The review of related literature for this study was reviewed under the following sub headings:
- Conceptual Framework
- Theoretical Framework
· Types of Teaching Methods
- Concept of Student Performance
- Attitude of Integrated Science Teachers toward Teaching and Learning
- Review of Related Empirical Studies
- Summary of Review of Related Literature