EFFECTIVE METHODS OF TEACHING AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN AKOKO NORTH WEST LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF ONDO STATE
This study was carried out mainly to identity method of teaching Agriculture Science in Secondary Schools in Akoko North West Local Government Area of Ondo State. Information was collected thought the use of questionnaires of frequency and mean. The study covered 3 randomly selected secondary schools in Akoko North West Local Government Area of Ondo State. Thirty teachers were picked from the school from the analysis of the data collection. It was found out that the roles of teachers the methods techniques used in teaching of Agricultural science in secondary schools in Akoko North West Local Government Area of Ondo State. The study revealed the effective teaching of Agricultural science depends on the method used as the availability of facilities and instructional materials for the teaching. The researcher offers some suggestion and recommendation in how to involve the teaching and learning of Agricultural science in secondary school in Akoko North West Local Government Area of Ondo State.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Table of contents
Background of the Study
Statement of Problem
Purpose of the Study
Significance of the Study
Scope of the Study
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Objective of teaching agricultural science
Teaching and Learning of Agricultural Science
Teachers’ Instructional Approaches in teaching agricultural
science in secondary school
Leaner centered method
The Role of Teacher in Teaching
The School Authority
Objective of Agricultural Education
Need for Agricultural Science in Nigeria Secondary Schools
Methods of Teaching Agricultural Science
Population of the study
Samples and sampling techniques
Instrument for data collection
Validation of the instrument
Reliability of the instrument
Administration of the instrument
Data analysis techniques
PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA
Analysis of Research Question
Discussion of Result
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Over a century ago, Nigeria was an agro-economy-based nation. Then Nigerian economy was sustained through agricultural produce such as cocoa, ground nut, palm produce etc. The citizens could complain of poverty but not extreme hunger. This could be probably because virtually everybody was in one way or the other involved in agricultural activities/practices. Though the practice appeared crude and unnecessary energy sapping due to crude implements in use and inadequate application of modern agricultural practices, innovative skills and facilities. Agriculture then seemed sustaining because everybody was involved, everybody had interest and it appeared to be everybody’s major source of family sustenance. There were less cases of unemployment due to less interest or crazy of white collar jobs. Families were not complaining of hunger as there were food surplus in most homes. The problem then was inadequate money (cash) to educate young ones, procure quality health facilities and enhanced standard of living in line with the developed nations. Today, the shift of economy to oil as major source of national economy has actually improved the lots of the nation.
Agricultural science is one of the core vocational curricular subjects taught at both junior and senior secondary schools in Nigeria. Egbule (2004) defines it as a process of training learners in the process of Agricultural productivity as well as the techniques for teaching of agriculture. Wikipedia (2009) describes Agricultural science education as a broad multidisciplinary field that deals with the selection, breading and management of crops and domestic animals for economic production. It is a subject taught in secondary schools as a means for self-reliance and preparation for further studies. Agricultural science is therefore designed for inculcation of the necessary skills for the practice of agriculture for effective citizenship and contribution to food security for national sustainability.
The education axiom that when a learner has not learnt that the teacher has not taught is true and directly relate to the concepts of teaching and learning as a process of inculcating the right values, attitudes, knowledge, modern life, long life skill acquisition necessary to make individuals benefit from the society as well as contribute meaningfully to the same society. Waliki and Usman (2009) see teaching as a systematic, rational and an organized process of transmitting knowledge, skills etc in accordance with professional principles. The implication is that agricultural science teachers who do not perform the act in accordance with the principles of teaching are therefore not teachers but cheaters. Naturally, the outcome of teaching is learning. Learning is an overt product of teaching which the major function of the teacher is. Learning occurs only where there is relatively positive permanent change in an individual behaviour. The implication is that majority of graduates of secondary education are looming about looking for white collar jobs that are presently farfetched and also a prerogatives of the sacred cows of the society, because they have not learnt agricultural lifelong and vocational skills. Agricultural science teachers have all failed the Nigerian students since their teaching have not led to students’ learning.
The importance of Agriculture as a vocational subject to students in secondary schools and the entire human race cannot be disregarded as it prepare them to become responsible and dependable people to be self-reliant
As a result of the importance of Agriculture to students in the secondary school. It become important to discuss the effective method a teacher can use in teaching the students effectively.
Teaching can be defined as the importation knowledge according to Akipelu (2012) teaching is a body of actions intended to induce learning he further defined teaching as the conscious and deliberate effort by matured or experienced person to impact knowledge. Information, skills, attitudes belief to an immature or less person with intention that latter (the less experienced or immature person will to an belief what is taught on a national basis according to Ogunloye (1995)teaching is defined as activities undertaken by more experienced and knowledgeable person in other to make others learn. However pointed out make that teaching involves influencing someone to change ones attitude or behaviors and the basis of new skills, knowledge and appreciation.
Clerk and Sterm (1980) submitted that teaching is described an attempt to help someone acquire on change some skills. Attitude, knowledge idea and appreciation in other words the teacher’s task is to create and influence desirable change in behavious.
Teaching Agricultural science means the process of impacting the skill. Knowledge, attitude and belief of agricultural science from the mature or experienced person to the immature or less experience person.
From Layman’s point at view, Agricultural science as a subject most people see it as simple easy subject most people see it as just production of crops and animals that are useful to man, but concept of Agricultural science is the art and science of production of plant and animal that are useful to man that is agricultural science is an arts at the same time is a science, technique includes seed rate the climatic and soil requirement diseases and pest infestation among others similarly others like crop production has to be made know to student’s by reading them using the rigid method Agricultural science does not only provide foods for the major sources of national revenue and principal foreign exchange earning Agricultural science also serve as a sources of gainful employment. Therefore Okpara (1982) suggested that our national development effort most be one.
Study how effective those methods adopted are recommended the effective methods that will enhance learning
Statement of Problem
It has been observed that, despite the fact that there are qualified teacher of Agriculture science many students still run away from Agricultural science and they do not have interest in the subject possibly because of the practical works involved. Agricultural science is a vocational subject. It can not be taught in abstract. The reason why some students do not have interest in Agricultural science may be due to the method the teacher used to teach students ,the way he or she handled the subject.
The problem of the study is that agricultural science taught at basic and secondary schools has not been able to transform the citizens and the nation adequately. Products of secondary education still lack basic vocational and entrepreneurial skills expected to be acquired from agricultural science. Products still wallow about in search of white collar jobs instead of becoming self reliant and employers of labour. The inability to manifest agricultural science practice skills and indication of interest in choosing agriculture as a career appear to be due to inadequate learning of the expected skills. It also appear to be due to inadequate teaching and learning process on the part of the agricultural science teachers in Nigerian secondary schools.
The study therefore investigated effective teaching and learning of agricultural science in secondary schools.
Purpose of the Study
The main purpose of the study is to determine the effective method of teaching Agricultural science in secondary school in Akoko North West Local Government Area of Ondo State, with the view of suggesting the best method that can be used to teach students to make for effective learning.
Specifically the study seeks to
- Find out the roles played by school authority and teacher in effective teaching of agricultural science
- identified the various method that can be used to teach Agricultural science in secondary schools.
- Identified the facilities available in teaching agricultural science in secondary schools
- To find out the challenges to effective teaching and learning of agricultural science in secondary schools in Nigeria
The following research questions were raised and it is help that the answers these question will be useful in this study;
- What are the role played by the school authority and teacher in effective teaching of agricultural science
- What are the various methods that can be employ in teaching Agricultural science in secondary schools?
- What are the facilities that are available for the teaching of agricultural science
- What are the challenges to effective teaching and learning of agricultural science in secondary schools in Nigeria
Significance of the Study
This study is significant for the following reason
- It will provides an opportunity for the writer to obtain first-hand information relating to the methods of teaching Agricultural science and hence gives deeper in sight to using the effective teaching method to enhance effective learning.
- It will highlight the extent to which the ineffectiveness in term of methodology which has always been taken for granted actually affective teaching of Agricultural science.
It is hope that this will help the Agricultural science teachers to make correction in the method they employed in teaching
- It is envisaged that information obtained will drive attention of parents in particular on the society in general to the relax the respect to the choice of careered and school subject.
- Highlight the need for the teachers of Agriculture to embark on the use of methodology best suited for effective teaching of Agricultural science in secondary schools
Scope of the Study
This study covered fifteen (15) teachers in Akoko North West Local Government Area of Ondo State. These secondary schools represent all the secondary school in Akoko North West Local Government Area of Ondo State.