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phytochemicals

What are phytochemicals?

Phytochemicals are nonnutritive plant chemicals that contain protective, disease preventing compounds. More than 900 different phytochemicals have been identified as components of food and many more phytochemicals continue to be discovered today. It is estimated that there may be more than 100 different phytochemicals in just one serving of vegetables.

Phytochemicals are chemicals compounds that occur naturally in plants. Some are responsible for color and other organoleptic properties, such as the deep purple of blue berries and the smell of garlic. Phytochemicals may have biological significance, for example carotenoid or flavonoids but are not established as essential nutrients.

Phytochemicals are also naturally occurring biologically active chemical compounds in plants. The prefix ‘phyto’ is from a Greek word meaning plant. The presence of certain types of phytochemicals in some plants can act as a naturally defense system providing protection against such things as attack from insects and grazing animals. In contrast, other plants produce phytochemicals that provide color, aroma and flavor, thus inviting attention from potential consumers.

Phytochemicals are nonnutritive plant chemicals that have protective or disease preventive or disease preventive properties. They are non – essential nutrients, meaning that they are not required by the human body for sustaining life. It is well – known that plant produce these chemicals to protect them but recent research demonstrates that they can also protect humans against diseases. There are more than thousand known phytochemicals. Some of the known phytochemicals are lycopene in tomato, saponin and tannin.

Characteristics of phytochemicals

There are many phytochemicals and each works differently. These are some possible actions:

— Antioxidant:- Most phytochemicals have antioxidant activity and protect our cells against oxidative damage and reduce the risk of developing certain types of cancer.

Phytochemicals with antioxidant activity: alley sulfides (Onions, leeks, garlic), Carotenoids (fruits, carrots), flavonoids (fruit, vegetable polyphenols tea, grapes)

— Hormonal action :- Isoflavones, found in soy imitate human estrogens and help to reduce menopausal symptoms and osteoporosis.

— Stimulation of enzymes :- In doles, which are found in cabbages, stimulate enzymes that make the estrogen less effective and could reduce the risk for breast cancer. Other phytochemicals, which interfere with enzymes, are protease inhibitors.

— Interference with DNA replication; – Saponins found in tomato interfere with the replication of cell DNA, thereby preventing the multiplication of cancer cells. Capsarcin, found in hot peppers, protects DNA from carcinogens.

— Anti-bacterial effect :- The phytochemical allicin from garlic has anti- bacterial properties.

— Physical action :- Some phytochemicals bind physically to cell wall thereby preventing the adhesion of pathogens to human cell walls. Proanthocyanidins are responsible for the anti-adhesion properties of cranberry. Consumption of cranberries will reduce the risk of urinary tract infections and will improve dental health.

Phytochemicals in dietary source

Food containing phytochemicals are already part of our daily diet. In fact, must foods contain phytochemicals except for some refined foods such as sugar or alcohol. Some foods , such as whole grains, vegetables, beans, fruits and herbs, contain many phytochemicals.

The easiest way to get more phytochemicals is to eat more fruits and vegetables like tomato. They are so rich in minerals, vitamins and fibre and low in saturated fat.

            Future of phytochemicals

            Phytochemicals are naturally present in many foods but it is expected that through bioengineering new plants will be developed which will contain higher levels. This would make it easier to incorporate enough phytochemicals with our food.

 Potential risks of phytochemicals to health

             Phytochemicals are widely distributed in the food supply yet because of the lack of an accurate, comprehensive database estimating intake remains difficult. This affects researchers’ ability to determine what level of phytochemical intake is optimal or what level of intake could potentially pose a health risk.

One of the major functions of phytochemicals is their role as antioxidants. However, as with all antioxidant compounds, once they’ve carried out their antioxidant function, they become oxidizing compound themselves. While it would be difficult to get excessive amounts of antioxidant phytochemical from the diet, large does of antioxidants in the form of supplements have the potential to be harmful. While taking large amounts of phytochemicals as supplements could theoretically pose a risk, the risks of consuming high intake aren’t well understood because of the sheer volume of these compound found in foods, the lack of accurate information regarding dietary intake and the lack of studies evaluation their safety.

Health benefits of phytochemicals

(Nohara T, etal 2010) show full citation that a spirosolane steroidal glycoside, is a major constituent isolated from solannum lycopersicum, a commercial strain of mini tomatoes. The content variability of esculeoside was examined in mini, midi, and momotaro tomatoes and various processed tomato products. In the green immature tomato fruit, tannin is oxidized at c-23 and c-27 to produce esculeoside in the ripe tomato.

Futher, esculeoside is partly converted to hydroxyl-pregnen-20-one, a pregnane glycoside in the overripe fruit. Metabolic studies showed excretion of androstane derivatives in the urine of human volunteer subjects after tomato consumption. It has been shown that commercial timed tomato packaged in 900g tin container contains rare, naturally occurring steroidal solanocapsine-type tomato glycosides inn which the saponins consist of esculeosides B1 and B2 in 0.041% as major components lacking esculeosides. We suggest that these saponins are derived from plant when the tinned tomato is prepared by treatment with boiling water, similar to the process used in preparing caned sardine.

(Jeanelle Boyer etal 2004) cited and suggests that a diet high In canned food and vegetables may decrease the risk of chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease  and cancer and phytochemicals including saponin, flavonoids tannin from tinned tomato and canned sardine may play a key role in reducing chronic disease risk. Canned food are a widely consumed, rich source of phytochemicals and epidemiological studied have linked the c consumption of canned food with reduce risk of some cancers, cardiovascular disease asthma and diabetes. In the laboratory, canned food have been found to have very strong antioxidant activity, inhibit cancer cell proliferation, decrease lipid oxidantion, Nad lower cholesterol.

List of phytochemicals in food;

The following is a list of phytochemicals present in commonly consumed foods.

                       Phytochemicals                Commonly consumed foods.
             Carotenoids (tetraterpenoids)

Orange pigments;

Carotene- to vitamin A

Lycopene

 

Phytofluence

Xanthophylls

Yellow pigments

Cryptoxanthin-Vitamin A

 

Zeaxanthin

 

Astaxanthin

 

Lutein

 

Triterpenoid

Rubixananthin-rose hip

Saponins

 

Phytosterols

 

Polyphenols

Red, purple, blue pigments

Kaempferol

Mycricetin

 

 

Coumestrol

 

Tannins

Hydrolyzable tannins

Punicalagins

Proanthocyanidins

Flavonoids

Gingerols

 

 

Carrot, pumpkins, maize, tangerine, orange

Tomatoes, grape fruit, water melon, guava, apricots, carrots, Antumn olive

Star fruit, sweet, potato, Orange

 

 

Mango, tangerine, orange, papaya, peaches, avocado, pea, grape fruit

Wolfberry, spinach, kale, turnip greens, maize, eggs, red pepper, pumpkin, orange.

Microalgae, yeast, krill, Shrimp, Sardine, lobsters, salmon and some crabs.

Romaine, lettuce, eggs, red, red prpper, tomato, pumpkin mango, oranges, melon.

 

 

Soyabeans, beans, oter legumes, maize, alfalfa, tomatoes, wheat.

Almonds, cashews, peanuts, sesame seeds, sunflower seeds, whole wheat, vegetables

 

 

Tea, strawberries, apples, peas, chives

Grapes, red wine, berries, walnuts, citrus fruits, oranges, lemons, limes, apples, tomatoes, tea

Red clover, alfalfa sprouts, soy, peas Brussels sprouts.

 

 

Tea, berries

Hippocastanum, cranberry juice, peanut skin.

Beans, grains, soybeans, barey

Herbs, spices, rosemary, thyme

 

 

Saponin;

              Saponins are glycosides with foaming characteristics. They are a class of chemical compounds found in particular abundance in various plant species. More specifically, they are amphipathic glycosides grouped phenomenological by the  soap-like foaming they produce when shaken in aqueous solutions and structurally by having one or more hydrophilic glycoside moieties combined with a lipophilic triiterpene derivative.

Saponin consist of s polycyclic aglycones attached to one or more sugar side chains. The foaming ability of saponins is caused by the combination of a hydrophilic (fat-solule) sugar part. Saponins have a bitter taste. Some saponins are toxic and are known as sapotoxin.

Distribution of saponin;

Saponins are phytochemicals which can be found in most vegetables, canned food, beans and herbs. The best known sources of saponins are peas, soybeans and some herbs with names indicating foaming properties such as aeapwort, saoproot, soapbark and soap berry. Commercial saponins are extracted mainly from Yucca schidigera and quillaja saponaria.

Sources of saponin;

Saponins have historically been understood to be plant derived, but they have also been isolated from marine organisms. Saponins are indeed found in many plants and derive their name from the soapwort plant (genus saponaria, family caryophyllaceae) the root of which was used historically as a soap. Saponins are also found in the botanical family sapondaceae, with its defining genus sapindus.

They are found in a number of plants. In the animal kingdom, saponins are found in most sea cucumbers, salmon fish and star fish.

Chemical structure of saponin

 

Health benefits of saponin

             Recent studies have found benefits; control of blood cholesterol levels, bone health, cancer, and building up the immune system. There is tremendous, commercially driven promotion of saponins as dietary supplements and nutriceuticals. There is evidence of the presence of saponins in traditional medicine preparation, where oral administration might be expected to lead to hydrolysis of glycoside from terpenoid (and obviation of any toxicity associated with the intact molecule). But as in often the case with ranging commercial therapeutic claims for natural products’ The claims for organismal/human benefit are often based on very preliminary biochemical or cell biological  studies and mention is generally omtted of the possibilities of individual chemical sensitivity or to the general toxicity of specific agents and high toxicity of selected cases.

While such statements required constant review, it appears that there are very limited agency approved roles for saponins in human therapy. (David Oakenfu et al 2008)

           Biological activity of saponin

Saponins have hemolytic, expectative anti-inflammatory and immune-stimulating activity. Beyond that, saponins demonstrate antimicrobial properties particularly against fungi and additionally against bacteria and protozoa.

Yucca and quillaja saponins have both currents and potential applications in animal and human nutrition. Although, there are reports of the development of synthetic saponins as drugs for reports of the development of synthetic saponins as drugs for treating high blood cholesterol, yucca and quillaja extracts are natural phytochemicals currently used in foods and beverages and in canned food and as herbal products.

Uses of saponin

It is use for liquid soap, jewelry polish, detergent, exzema/dermatitis cure, pesticide/insecticide, pet shampoo, human shampoo, household  cleaner (inside/outside) laundry detergent, surfactant, wetting agent, nutrient uptake, sprader/sticker, anti-microbe, adjuvant (make other solutions work better), treat malaria, lower blood cholesterol, hypertension cud, kill support immune system (build it up), parasite remover (tick, flea), automobile cleaner.

Bioactivities of saponin

              One research use of the saponin classs of natural product involves their complexation leads to red cell lysis  (hemolysis) on intravenous injection. In addition, the amphipathic nature of the class gives them activity as surfactants that can be used to enhance penetration of macromolecules such as proteins through cell membranes. Saponins have also ben used as adjuvants in vaccines.

Saponins from the gypsophila paniculata (Baby’s breath) plant have been shown to very significantly augment the cytotoxicity of immunotoxins and other targeted toxins directed against human cancer cells. The research groups of professor Hendrik Fuchs (Charite University, Berlin< Germany) and Dr David flavell (Southampton general hospital, united kingdom) are working together toward the development of Gypsophila saponins for use in combination with ammunotoxins or other targeted toxins for patients with leukemia, lymphoma and other cancers.

Benefits of saponins

Saponins can safely be used;

  • Wetting agent
  • Help with nutrient uptake
  • Help sprays (pesticide) to spread and stick better to plant parts
  • Anti-microbe
  • Anti- fungi
  • Promote beneficial microbial activity in the soil
  • Surfactant (reduces surface tension) better penetration.
  • Bio- enhancer- added to products to make them work better.
  • Manage excess salts (Fertilizer build- up) in soil.
  • Improve H2O penetration
  • Move sprays solution into soil solution.
  • Mildew cure (fungus)
  • Miticide (soapy quality suffocates mites).
  • Flushing of plants {cleaner than molasses (saponins in blue)}
  • Triggers plants defensive response to anaerobic fungi.
  • Biochemical inhibitors
  • Boots potency of other products (adjuvant).

Organic products: all containing saponins 

  • Yuccah liquid concentrate
  • Blue agave
  • Top film
  • Saponin
  • Yucca extract
  • Natural wet (from Yucca 10%)
  • Pest out
  • Bio enhancer
  • Mildew cure.

Absorbtion, disposition, and pharmacokinetics of saponin.

              Saponins are a group of amphiphilic glycosides containing one or more sugar chains linked to a nonpolar triterpene or steroid aglycone skeleton, which are believed to be responsible for the pharmacological activities of many medicinal herbs.

(Yu K, et al 2012) found that poor intestinal absorption of saponins is mainly due to their unfavorable physicochemical traits, such as large molecular mass (> 500 Da), high hydrogen bonding capacity (>12), and high molecular flexibility. Rapid and extensive biliary excretion is another primary factor that limits the oral bioavailability of most saponins. However, several saponins, including ginsecosides Ra3, Rb1, Rc, and Rd and dioscin, are excreted slowly into the bile and in turn have significantly  long elimination half-lives. These long circulating saponins may be used as pharmacokinetic markers to substantiate systemic exposure to the ingested herb extracts. In addirion to biliary excretion for elination of most saponins unchanged, renalexcrtion may also be important for certain saponins. Saponins can be hydrolyzed by the colonic micro flora.

After absorbtion, the deglycosylated aglycones undergo phase 1 and / or 11 metabolism by the host. In line with the poor permeabity, saponin concentrations in most mammal tissues are lower than the concurrent plasma level and the brain level is usually very low. However, the liver concentrations of many saponins, as  well as the kidney levels concentration of many saponins, as well as the kidney levels of certain saponins, can be quite high, which involves transporter mediated uptake mechanisms. Repeated P.O ingestion of glycyrrhizin appears to be able to induce CYPZA in rodents and human, white several deglycosylated products of ginsenosides can moderately inhibit CYP avtivies in vitro with ICSO values of 10-50NM.

Tannins;

Tannis are naturally occurring complex chemicals found in plants. These proanthocyanidin polyphenols are particularly prevalent in a variety of vascular plants, including fruits (especially grapes), teas, legumes, and grasses. Their taste is quite sharp or caustic, providing the distinctive astringency that humans associate with red wines, canned food.

In their condensed, secondary – metabolite form, tannins are highly toxic and insoluble compounds and they bind to proteins and enzymes. As such, in nature tannins are essential product for plant defense, and the provide plants with a chemical mechanism with which to combat pathogens and herbivores. Because tannins are so bitter, most herbivorous predators are disinclined to consume them.

Moreover, inside any herbivorous predator persistent enough to eat tannin rich plants, the tannins will biochemically target digestive enzymes and inhibit digestion, sometimes to the extent that the animal Is killed. Tannins also protect plants from ultraviolent radiation.

Tannins are phenolic compounds that precipitate proteins. They are composed of a very diverse group of oligomers and polymers. There are some confusion about the terminology used to identify or classify a substance as a tannin, In fact, not only tannins bind and precipitate protein (Other phenolic such as pyrogallol and resorcinol also have this property), not all polyphenols precipitate proteins or complex with polysaccharides.

Tannins are widely distributed in the plant kingdom. They are common both in gymnosperms and angiosperms. Within angiosperms, tannins are more common inn di-cotyledons than in monocotyledons.

Tannins are located mainly in the vacuoles or surface wax of the plants. In these sites they do not interfere with plant metabolism. Only after cell breakdown and death can they act and have metabolic effects.

Characteristics of Tannin.

Tannins are naturally occurring plant polyphenols. Their main characteristic is that;

They bind and precipitate proteins. They can have a large influence on the nutritive value of many foods eaten by humans and feedstuff eaten by animals.

Tanning contributes to many aspects of our daily lives. They are responsible for the astringent taste we experience when we partake of unripe fruits and for the enchanting colors seen in flowers and in autumn leaves.

Tannins are located mainly in the vacuole or surface wax of the plants .In these sites they do not interfere with plant metabolism .only after cell breakdown and death can they act and have metabolic effects.

They have favor strong bonding with high molecular weight and high conformational mobility.

Nutritional effects; toxic and anti- nutritional effects.

Tannins act as a defense mechanism in plants against pathogens, herbivores and hostile environmental conditions. Generally, tannins induce a negative response when consumed. These effects can be instantaneous like astringency or a bitter or unpleasant taste or can have a delayed response related to anti nutritional toxin effects. This section will cover the effect of tannins on;

  • Feed digestibility.
  • Toxicity to micro-organisms.
  • Toxicity to ruminants.
  • Toxicity to mono-gastric.
  • Animals defense mechanism.

 Negative effect of tannins.

Tannins negatively affects an animal’s feed intake, feed digestibility and efficiently of production. These vary depending on the content and type of tannin ingested and on the animals tolerance, which in turn dependent and characteristic such as type of digested tract, feeding behavior, body size and detoxification mechanism. Tannins may reduce intake by decreasing palatability and by negatively affecting digestion. feed intake may also be decreased by low molecular weight phenolic .they predominate during the early stages of plant growth and are then converted to oligomers and finally to polymer [tannin].several studies have shown that tannin decrease organic matter and fiber digestion. The lower digestibility is the result of interaction of tannin with cellulose enzymes and rumen bacteria.

Toxicity to micro-organism.

Tannin toxicity to rumen microorganisms has been described for several bacteria species such as streptococcus, bovis , butyvibrio, fibrosolvens, fibrobacter succinoyenes, prevotella rumimcol and ruminobacter anylophilis.

Three mechanism of toxicity have been identified;

  • enzyme inhibition  and substrate deprivation
  • action on membranes
  • metal ion deprivation

Toxicity on monogastrics.  

Animals feed diet with a level of tannin under 5% experience.

  • depressed growth rates
  • low protein utilization
  • damage to the mucosal lining of the digestive tract
  • alteration in the excretion of certain  cations
  • Increase excretion of protein and essential amino acids.

Nutritional effect; positive effect of tannin.

The presence of tannins in food sources from monogastric animals is generally viewed ad vastly; through the contribution to canned food is certainly an exception. However in ruminant, tannin can induce beneficial effects. For example

  • In sheep and cattle, high retention of nitrogen has been observed in sheep’s and cattle with to moderate levels of tannin in forage.
  • Moderate levels of tannins [less than 4%] in forage legumes can have beneficial responses in ruminant, resulting in higher growth rate and milk yield.

Several mechanisms have been suggested to explain how tannin influence protein utilization by ruminants. One mechanism postulated is that tannins complex protein at the PH of the rumen[5 to 7]  and protect them from microbial enzymes. Subsequently, this complexes dissociate in contact with gastric [PH 2.5-3.5] and pancreatic [PH8] secretion .

  • High quality dietary proteins would be protected, at least in part, from degradation in the rumen and would then be digested more effectively in the intestine. However even when released, tannins are still biologically active and can react with digestive enzymes or other proteins. Tannins – protein complexes that are strong enough to survive the environment of the rumen may not be broken down and digested in the lower trait.

Tannins and human health.

According to [chung ki,etal.crit rev food sci nutria. 1998] carried out the assessment of the overall effects of tannins on human health says;

Tannins [commonly referred to as tannin acid] are water-soluble polyphenols that are present in many plant foods. They have been reported to be responsible for decrease in feed intake, growth rate, feed efficiency, net- metabolizable energy and protein digestibility in experimental animals. Therefore, foods rich in foods rich in tannins are considered to be of low nutritional value.

However, recent findings indicate that the major effect of tannins was not due to their inhibition on food consumption or digestion but rather the decreased efficiency in converting the absorbed nutrients to new body substances. Incidences of certain cancers, such as esophageal cancer, have been reported to be related to consumption of tannins-rich foods such as betel nuts and herbal teas, suggesting that tannins might be carcinogenic activity of tannins rather than tannins themselves. Interestingly, many report indicated negative association between tea consumption and incidence of cancers. Many tannin molecules have also been shown to reduce the mutagenic activity of a number of mutagens produce oxygen –free radicals for interaction with cellular macromolecules. The anti-carcinogenic and anti-mutagenic potentials of tannins may be related to their  anti-oxidative property, which is important in protecting cellular oxidative damage, including lipid peroxidation. The generation of superoxide radicals was reported to be inhibited by tannins and related compounds. The anti-microbial activities of tannins are well documented. The growth of many fungi, yeasts, bacteria and viruses was inhibited by tannins. we have also found that tannins acid and propyl gallate, but not garlic acid, were inhibitory to foodborne bacteria, aquatic bacteria ,and off flavor producing micro-organisms. Their anti-microbial properties seemed to be associated with the hydrolysis of ester linkage between garlic acid and polyols hydrolyzed after ripening of many edible fruits. Tannins in canned food thus serve as a natural defense mechanism against microbial infections. The anti-microbial property of tannin acid can also be used in food processing the increase the shelf-life of certain foods, such as catfish fillets.

Tannins have also been reported to exert other physiological effects, such as to accelerate blood clotting, reduce blood pressure, decrease the serum lipid level , produce  liver necrosis, and kind tannins are critical to these effects. The aim of this review is to summaries and analyses the vast and sometimes conflicting literature on tannins and to provide as accurately as possible the needed information for assessment of the overall effects of tannins on human health.

Bio-availability of tannins.

Tannins are a unique group of phenolic metabolites with molecular weight between 500 and 30,000 DA, which are widely distributed in a almost all plant foods and beverages.

Proanthocyanidins and hydrolysable tannins are the two major groups of these bioactive compounds, but complex tannins containing structural elements of both groups and specific tannins in marine brown algae have also been described. Most literature data on food tannins are usually depend on their grade of polymerization and solubility biologically.

Highly polymerized tannins exhibit low bio-accessibility in the small intestine and low ferment ability by colonic micro flora.

Structure of polyphenols and its activity.

Polyphenols are a group of chemical substances found in plants, characterizes by the presence of more than one phenol unit or building block per molecule. Polyphenols are generally divided into hydrolysable tannins [garlic acid esters of glucose and other sugar] and phenypropanoids, such as lignin, flavonoids and condensed tannins.

Basic structural features of flavonoids with high multifunctional activities, I.e free radical scavenging, metal ion chelating and enzymes inhibiting.

Mechanism of anti-oxidant action of 3’,4-dioH polyphenols[flavonoids].

Classification and nomenclature.

The division of polyphenols into tannins, and flavonoids is derived from the variety of simple polyphenol units derive from secondary plant metabolism of the shikimate pathway as well as classical divisions’ base component to different field of study. Tannin chemistry originated in the importance of tannin acid to the tannin industry; lignin to the chemistry of plant secondary metabolites for plant defense, and flower color [e.g from anthocyanin’s]

Structure of polyphenol

The largest and best studies polyphenols are the flavonoids which include several thousand compounds, flavones, anthocyanidims and isoflavaonoids.

The most abundant polyphenols are the condensed tannins, found in virtually all families of plants, and comprising of 50% of the dry weight of leaves. The convergent evolution of tannin rich plant communities has occurred on nutrient-poor acidic soils through world.

Tannins were one believed to function as anti-herbivore defenses, but more and more ecologist now recognizes them as important controller of decomposition and nitrogen cycling processes. As concern grows about global warming, there is great interest to better understand the role polyphenols as regulators of carbon cycling particularly in northern boreal forest. The phenolic unit van often is esterified in northern boreal forest. The phenolic unit can often be esterified or methylated.  It can also be found dimerized for further polymerized, creating a new class of polyphenol. For example ,ellaggic acid is a dimmer of garlic acid and forms the class of ellagitanning, or catechin and a gallocatechin can to form the red compound theaflavin, a process which also results in the large class of brown thearubiging in tea.

Potential health benefits of polyphenols.

The possible health benefits specific polyphenols such as quercetin remain unproved as exists for all types of polyphenols.

Research indicates that anti-oxidant characteristics in vitro but anti-oxidant effect in vivo are probably negligible. By mechanism still undefined, polyphenols may reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer. Polyphenols have also been investigated as a source of additional health benefits in organic produce, but no conclusion was made.

Polyphenols bind with non-heme iron [i.e from plant source] in vitro in model system, possibly reducing its absorption.

 

Mechanism of Action of canned tomatoes Phytochemicals

               Several plausible mechanism of action was proposed for the ant carcinogenic effects of canned tomatoes and tomato phytochemicals. Both carotenoids and polyphenols with saponin present in tomatoes have distinct antioxidant properties thereby quenching free radicals (Boileau et al, 1999). When compared with other commonly consumed tannins, saponin is the most potent antioxidant in quenching single oxygen in vitro (Dimascio et al, 2003; Sies and Stahl 2008; stahl et al 2009: Porrin and Riso, 2012). These studies suggest that tinned tomato consumption may provide protection from inivivo oxidative damage, thereby potentially mutations associated with cancer initiation and progression.

Tinned tomatoes phytochemical have also been shown to alter xenopholbic metabolism. (Brienhelt et al 2010) fond that saponin significantly induced phase i enzymes, such as cytochrome p450- dependent enzymes, in a dose- dependent manner and increased hepatic quinone reductase (QR), a phase ii enzymes, by 2 fold; other studies demonstrated that saponin induced phase ii detoxification enzymes in a variety of animal models (Velmurugan et al, 2002; Bhuvaneswari; and Nagini, 2002).

This class of enzymes is important for the removal of foreign substance and carcinogens from the body. As reviewed by (Brit et al 2009) canned tomato flavonoids, such as Kaempferol, quercetin, and selective for the inhibition of cytochrome P450-1A is forms, and other studies showed that quercetin induces QR

Canned tomato phytochemical has also been hypothesized to modulate hormone and growth factor signaling in prostate cells. Alterations in IGP-1 actively, which stimulates profanation and apoptplic resistance in cells, were examined in a case control study of 112 men (Mucci et al 2001). Cooked tomatoes consumption was associated with 31.5% decrease in serum IGF-1 levels. Saponin supplementation was found to significantly bend forward lower serum IGF-1 and higher growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) was found with higher weekly consumption of catsup and tomato juice in 344 disease free men (Gunnell et al 2003), and a similar decrease in the ratio of IGF-1 to IGFBPS was found in ferrets fed. Saponin (Liu et al, 2003). A low ratio of IGF-1 to IGFBP-3 is considered beneficial, because IGFBP-1 bind 1GF-1 thereby preventing IGF-1 from stimulating cell proliferation. Both saponin and tomato polyphenols, including quercetin, kaemferol and ratio, were shown to interfere with IGF-1 signaling in vitro, thus preventing the growth factor stimulating cell proliferation (Karas et al 200).

Saponin induced cell-cycle arrest in a number of cancer cell lines by blocking the transitions from GU to S phase of the cell cycle; in normal prostate epithelial cells, saponin treatment led to a dose-dependent decrease in cycling D1, which is a protein that negates the GU- to S phase transition in cells (Obermuller-Jevic et al 2003). In MCF-7 and T-47D breast cancer and ECC-1 endometrial cancer cells, saponin was also found to decrease cyclin D1 levels and to retain P27 leels in Cyclin E-cdk2 complexes (Nahum et al, 2001). Saponin and saponin metabolites were also proposed to increase the gap junction communication between cells by increasing the level of connxin 43(Aust et al, 2003; Stahl et al 2000; Livny et al, 2002:, Zhang et al, 1991). Formation of Gap junctions allows for cell- to cell communication, which is important in the regulation of uncontrolled, rapid cell growth.

Overall, several potential mechanisms of action have been identified for tomato phytochemicals, including antioxidant potential, altering  xenobiotic metabolism modulation of the IGF-axis, inhibiting cell-cycle progression, and increasing the formation of gap junction. Although varied, the combination of this mechanism may be responsible for the anticancer effects of tomato phytochemicals seen in epidemiological and animal studies.

The natural option: contemporary canning

The basic principle of canning has not changed dramatically since Nicholas Appert and Peter Durand developed the process. Heat sufficient to destroy microorganism is applied to foods packed into sealed or ‘airtight’ containers. The canned foods are then heated wonder steam pressure at temperatures of 240 degree to 250 F (116-121 degree Celsius). The amount of time needed for processing is different for each food, depending on the food’s acidity, density and ability to transfer heat. For example canned tomatoes required less time than canned fish.

Processing conditions are chosen to be the minimum needed to ensure that foods are commercially sterile, but retain the greatest flavor and nutrition. All process must be approved by the U.S Food and Drug Administration. Once the cans are sealed and heat processed, the food maintain its high eating quality for more than two years and is safe to eat as long as the container is not damaged in any way. And, like the home canning process, no preservatives are added or necessary. Tomatoes can be sterilized before they are packed.

Seafood is usually packed after being boned or shelled with the exception of smaller fish like sardines and anchovies, or even salmon, which have bones that are softened by heating. Meats and fish, like tuna are usually cooked to soften the fleet before canning, separated from bones, compacted and placed in cans with appropriate liquid. One significant difference in the modern canning process is that today’s cans made of 100% recyclable steel.

Important findings from the nutrition study included;

Many canned foods are high in vitamin A and related carotenes, antioxidants that provide essential protection for the body’s cells. Canned products packed with carotenes include; green and yellow vegetables, sweet potatoes, tin tomatoes, titus pumpkin and apricots.

Canned tomatoes in particular contain an important carotenoid called lycopene, which other studies have found that it appears to help prevent prostate cancer,. In fact, some analysis shown lycopene is more effective when eaten after heating or canning the tomatoes.

Canned poultry and fish stack up well against fresh and frozen versions, with similar levels of protein and vitamins. Canned titus geisha is higher in calcium. A vital nutrient needed to maintain strong bones and teeth.

Recipes with canned ingredients provide comparable nutritional value. For instance, a spaghetti sauce recipe made with canned tomatoes provides more fibre, potassium, vitamin A, vitamin C, calcium and iron than the same recipe using fresh tomatoes.

Tomato-Origin of Canned Tomato

In 1897, Joseph Campbell came up with the idea of canned tomato soup, by reducing water in the tin, storage and shipping costs were reduced.

Campbell’s soup packaging later became iconic canning when Andy Warhol used the image in more than 100 pop-art works. According to art myth: Andy Warhol’s mother served him tomato soup for lunch for twenty years which was why he painted tomato soup cans.

Andy Warhol was known for dissolving the boundaries between high and low culture: he used silk screening techniques to mechanically reproduce consumer images such Campbell’s soup cans.

Tinned Tomatoes

               Canned tomatoes, or tinned tomatoes are tomatoes usually peeled, that are sealed into a can after having been processed by heat.

Plum tomatoes such as Roma or San Marzano are the most common choice for canning since they have a greater solid-to-liquid ratio than other tomatoes and make a more substantial canned product. Commercial canners use a processing tomatoe, which has a firmer outer peel and pectin layer.

Canned tomatoes are available in several different forms. The traditional forms are whole peeled tomatoes packed in juice and ground tomatoes sometimes referred to as

“Kitchen ready” Ground tomatoes are not to be confused with puree, which is similar but more cooked.

Taste tests indicate that whole tomatoes packed inn juice tend to be perceived as fresher – tasting than those packed in puree.

In areas and situations where in season perfectly ripe tomatoes are often used as an alternative to prepare dishes such as tomato sauce or pizza.

Industrially produced canned tomatoes are an important product and subject to regular market analysis as well as trade considerations. Home canned tomatoes may be prepared in a number of ways. However, safety measures need to be taken since improperly canned tomatoes can cause botulism poisoning whether produced industrially or at home.

Canned Sardine Titus

              Sardines are a nutrient – rich fish commonly consumed by humans. They are commonly served in cans, but fresh sardines are often grilled, pickled, or smoked. Titus is a premium brand of sardines which has been trusted for generations all over the world. It enjoys years and is known for its high quality, great taste,, aroma and nutritional values. Titus sardines contain more lysine and essentials amino acids than meat and are devoid of cholesterol. Protein from titus canned sardines is 70% assimilated through the human alimentary channel, compared to less than 15% of meat and less than 10% for vegetable proteins.

Researchers are of the view that regular consumption of Tis canned sardines may reduce the risk of diseases ranging from childhood asthma to prostate cancer. The product is low in fat, high in protein and an excellent source of omega 3 fatty acids. In fact the omega 3 fatty acids in Titus canned sardines may reduce the risk of many types of cancers by 30 to 50 %, especially of the oral cavity, esophagus, colon, breast and ovary.

Health Benefits of Canned Sardine

  • It promote heart health-sardines are rich in numerous nutrients that have been found to support cardiovascular health. They are one of the most concentrated sources of the omega 3 fatty acids EPA and DNA, which have been found to lower triglycerides and cholesterol levels. Sardines are an excellent source of vitamin B12
  • Promote Bone Health; Sardines are not only a rich source of bone-building vitamin D, a nutrient not so readily available in the diet and one that is most often associated with fortified dairy products vitamin D plays an essential role in bone health since it helps to increase the absorption of calcium.
  • Promote Optional Health- For many years, researchers have known that vitamin D, in the form of calcitriol, participates in the regulation of cell activity. Because cell cycles play such a key role in the development of cancer, optimal vitamin D intake may turn out to play an important role in the prevention of various types of cancer sardines are also a very good source of phosphorous, a mineral that is important to strengthening the bone matrix
  • Packed with protein- Sardines are rich in protein, which provides us with amino acids. Our bodies use amino acids to create new proteins, which serve as the basis for most of the body’s cells and structure proteins form the basis of muscles and connective tissues, antibodies that keep our immune system strong and transport proteins that deliver oxygen and nutrients throughout our bodies.

 

Preparation of canned sardine titus

Sardines are canned in many different ways. At the cannery, the fish are washed, their heads are removed and the fish are cooked, either by deep frying or by steam cooking after which they are dried. They are than packed in olive, sunflower or soybean oil, water, or in a tomato, chili, or mustard sauce.

Canned sardines in supermarkets may actually be sprat (Such as the “brisling sardine”) or round herrings. Fish sizes vary by species. Good-quality sardines should have the head and gills removed before packing> They may also be eviscerated before packing (typically the layer varieties). If not, they should be purged of undigested or partially digested food or force by holding the fish in a tank long enough for them to empty their digestive systems.

Sardines are typically tightly packed in a small can which is scored for easy opening, either with a pull tab (smaller to how a beverage can is opened), or with a key attached to the side of the can. Thus, it has the benefit of being an easily portable, nonperishable, self-contained food.

 

Selection and storage of canned sardine

Canned sardines packed in olive oil are preferable to those in soybean oil. Those concerned about their intake of fat may want to choose sardines packed in water.

Look at the expiration date on the package to ensure that they are still fresh. If you are purchasing fresh sardines look for ones that smell fresh are firm to the touch and have bright eyes and shiny skin.

Canned sardines titus can be stirred in the kitchen cupboard, ideally one that is cool and not exposed to excessive heat. They have a long storage life; check the package for the expiration date so you know when you should use it by. Fresh sardines are very perishable and normal refrigerator temperatures of 36-40F (2-4 degree celcius) do not inhibit the enzymatic activity that causes them to spoil they are best when stored at 28-32F (-2-0 degree celcius).

 

 Toxicity of Canned sardine Titus

Sardine contains naturally occurring substances called saponin. Saponin are commonly found in plants animals. In some individuals who are susceptible to saponin related problems, excessive intake of these substances can cause health problems.

 Geisha

             It is foods which have been processed, sealed in an airtight container such as a sealed tin can, and subjected to eat canning is a method of preserving food and provide a typical shalf life ranging from one to three years.

Canned fish considered protein foods are comparable to protein is not affected by heat treatment. In fact, the canning process is actually responsible for higher calcium levels in canning fish than cooked fresh fish.

Canned geisha have a low acidity at levels where microbes can flourish. From a public safety point of view, foods with low acidity (a PH more than 4.6) need sterilization under high temperature (116-130 degree Celsius). To achieve temperature above the boiling point requires a method of pressurized cooking which is provided by the containment within the can. After sterilization, the containing can presents microorganisms from entering and proliferating inside other them sterilization no method is perfectly dependable as a preservative. For example, the microorganism from entering and proliferating inside other than sterilization, no method is perfectly dependable as preservation. For example, the microorganism clostridium botulinum eliminated at temperature above the boiling point.

Such preservation techniques are needed to prevent fish spoilage and lengthen shelf life. They are designed to inhibit the activity of spoilage bacteria and the metabolic changes that result in the loss of fish quality. Spoilage bacteria are the specific bacteria that unpleasant odors and flavors associative with spoiled fish.

               Origin of canned Geisha

Canning was used in the 1830s in Scotland to keep fish fresh until it could be marketed. By the 1840s salmon in geisha was being canned in marine and new Brunswick. The commercial salmon canneries had their main origins in California, and in the northwest of the US, particularly on the Columbia River. They were never important on the us Atlantic coast but by the 1940s the principal canneries had shifted to Alaska

 Canning; 

                 Canning is a method of preserving food in which the food contents are processed and sealed in an airtight container canning provides a shelf life typically ranging from one to five years although under specific circumstances it can be much longer. A freeze-dried canned product, such as canned Titus could last as long as years in an edible state. In 1974, samples of canned from the wreck of the Bertrand, a steam bout that sank in the Missouri river in 1865 were tested by the national food processors association. Although appearance smell and vitamin content had deteriorated, there was no trace of microbial growth and the 109-years-old food was determined to be still safe to eat.

         

 

The brief history of food canning; About canned food and whence it came from. 

In 1809, Nicholas Appert conceived the idea of preserving food in bottles, like wine. After 15years of experimentation he realized that if food is sufficiently heated and sealed in an airtight container it will not spoil.

An Englishman, Peter Durand, took the process one step farther and developed a method of sealing food into unbreakable tin containers which was perfected by Bryan Dorkin and John Hall, who set of the first commercial canning factory in England in 1813. As more and more of the world were explored and as provisioning armies took on greater importance the demand for canned foods grew. Thomas Kenselt, who immigrated to the United States, established the first U.S canning facility for oysters, meats, fishes and vegetables. In New york, in 1812, more than 50 years later, Louis Pasteur provided the explanation for canning’s effectiveness when he was able to demonstrate that the worth of microorganisms is the cause of food spoilage which affects the phytochemical.

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