THE CONSEQUENCES OF TEENAGE PREGNANCY AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN EMURE LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EKITI STATE. - UNIPROJECTS

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THE CONSEQUENCES OF TEENAGE PREGNANCY AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN EMURE LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EKITI STATE.



THE CONSEQUENCES OF TEENAGE PREGNANCY AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN EMURE LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EKITI STATE.



BY
IBIDAPO AANUOLUWAPO IBITOLA

MATRIC NO: 2013/2008


DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH EDUCATION. FACULTY OF EDUCATION, UNIVERSITY OF NIGERIA NSUKKA



OCTOBER, 2017






THE CONSEQUENCES OF TEENAGE PREGNANCY AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN EMURE LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EKITI STATE.



A RESEARCH PROJECT PRESENTED TO THE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH EDUCATION. FACULTY OF EDUCATION, UNIVERSITY OF NIGERIA NSUKKA


IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE AWARD OF THE DEGREE OF BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN HEALTH EDUCATION

BY
IBIDAPO AANUOLUWAPO IBITOLA
MATRIC NO:
2013/2008



OCTOBER, 2017



CERTIFICATION PAGE
Ibidapo Aanuoluwapo Ibitola An undergraduate student in the Department of Heath Education and With Reg No. 2013/2008 has satisfactory completed the requirement for course and research work for the degree of B.sc Ed. The work embodied in this project is original and has not been submitted in part or full for any other Diploma or Degree of this or any other university


________________                                                ______________________
Supervisor                                                     Head of Department

 


APPROVAL PAGE
            This project has been approved for the department of Health Education Faculty of Education, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Ikere –Ekiti Campus


By

________________                                    ______________________
Supervisor                                         Internal Examiner



________________                                    ______________________
External Examiner                           Head of Department


___________________________________
Dean of Faculty


DEDICATION
This project is dedicated to God Almighty who has been my hope and strength and for sparing my life throughout the programme, my life has been an example of his grace. It is also dedicated to the best parent in the world Mr and Mrs I.O Ibidapo



ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
            Life is not a bed of roses but a field to succeed in one must preserve in the face of tribulation and be courageous when faced with difficulties, considering the fact that the path of success is full of challenges and there is a royal road to success today, My sincere gratitude and appreciation goes to my project supervisor Mr Fajemibola N.B who painstakingly read through the manuscript and made all necessary correction in order to make it succeed. Also, I wish to appreciate the effort of all the lecturers in my department in persons of Mr. T.T Alade, Mr S.O Dada, Mrs A.A. Ibikunle, Mr O.M. Peter -Ajayi, Mr C.G Aribamikan, Mrs R.O Agunbiade , Mrs V.D Owolabi and my HOD Mr A.A. Ilugbusi for their parental advice.
            I also have to record my indebtedness to my father Mr I.O Ibidapo (Baba Olorire) for his unfading support through the thick and thin of acquiring this education through financial and moral support. I pray that God in his infinite mercy will grant you long life and Good health for you to cat the fruit of your labour. My appreciation also goes to my mother Mrs. E.A. Ibidapo (Iya Olorire) for her relenting effort over me right from my primary education up to this stage of my life, you have been my pillar and support even when I want to relent in my effort, you always give me hope, and reasons why I should proceed, I will also appreciate your effort over this research project, it was has if we were both carrying out the research, because we went through all the stress together I pray the Good lord will grant you long life and Good health so as to eat the fruit of your labour.
            I also heavily appreciate Mr. Ajise, Heath educator primary health centre Emure-local government, Emure –Ekiti for his counsel and encouragement to go for this course and also for his effort over this project, I pray you will never lack any good thing in life in Jesus name.       My acknowledgment is incomplete  without thanking my uncle Mr. Ayodele Gbenga (CEPHAS) for his moral and financial support towards the success of my academic endeavour, may God bless you. My gratitude goes to my siblings Engr Ibidapo Temitope Moses, Ibidapo Ayodeji, Ibidapo Olunifemi, Ibidapo Temilayo and Ibidapo Oluwatobiloba for their encouragement and moral support, I pray we will get to the top in our different careers in Jesus Name. Also to my friends Ayodele Eniola Idowu, Aderemi Femi, and brother Ologunja Samuel  for their encouragement I say a very big thanks you. My appreciation goes to Adedipe Tolulope a.k.a Toluene, for his knowledge of statistics over this research work, also my course mate Ayodele Titilayo for putting me through even though it was not convenient, I say may God bless you and your family and also Majeminu Tosin for helping me out.
            My profound gratitude also goes to Omoogun Taye managing director TY computer Institute my amiable school father also for his support, I say a big thank you. Also to all the people I met in school who I cannot mention all their names,  you guys have been wonderful and you have added to my life in one way or the other, we shall all meet at the top.  I will like to commend the effort of all the teachers who assisted me in administering my questionnaire in the selected schools in Emure Ekiti local government Area of Ekiti State, I say God bless you all. I am grateful to the almighty God for making me an overcomer all through the period of this  programme all praise be to him. Thanks be to God almighty for making it possible for me to write this research project

TABLE OF CONTENTS
CONTENTS                                                                                                   PAGE
COVER PAGE                                                                                          
TITLE PAGE                                                                                            
CERTIFICATION                                                                                     
APPROVAL PAGE                                                                       
DEDICATION                                                                                         
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS                                                                        
TABLE OF CONTENTS                                                                            
LIST OF TABLE                                                                                     
LIST OF APPENDIX                                                                                  
ABSTRACT                                                                                                
CHAPTER  I: INTRODUCTION
Background of the Study                                                   
Statement of the Problem                                                  
Purpose of the Study                                                          
Significance of the Study                                                  
Delimitation of the Study                                                  
Research Questions                                                                      
Hypotheses                                                                        
Assumption of the Study                                                  
CHAPTER  II: REVIEW OF LITERATURE              
-           Conceptual Framework                                                     
-           Theoretical Framework                                                      
-           Review of Related Empirical Studies                              
Prevalence Rate of Teenage Pregnancy                           
Reactions to Pregnancy                                                      
Culture and Teenage Pregnancy                                       
Teenage Motherhood and Social Relationship              
Causes of Teenage Pregnancy                                           
Consequence of Teenage Pregnancy                              
Infant Mortality                                                                   
Maternal Mortality                                                             
Sexually Transmitted Infections                                       
Education Disruption                                                         
Poor Health Status                                                              
Poverty                                                                                 
-           Summary of Review of Literature                                             


CHAPTER III: METHODOLOGY                                                        
Research Design                                                                              
Area of the Study                                                                            
Population of the Study                                                                 
Sample and Sample Technique(s)                                                
Instrument for Data Collection                                                     
Validation of the Instrument                                                     
Reliability of the Instrument                                                        
Administration of the Instrument                                                 
Data Analysis Technique(s)                                                       
IV       PRESENTATION AND INTERPRETATION OF RESULTS
Hypothesis 1                                                                                                       
Table                                                                                                 
Interpretation                                                                                   
Hypothesis 2                                                                                    
Table                                                                                                 
Interpretation                                                                                   
Hypothesis 3                                                                                               
Table                                                                                                 
Interpretation                                                                                   
Hypothesis 4                                                                                               
Table                                                                                                 
Interpretation                                                                                  
Hypothesis 5                                                                                             
Table                                                                                           
Interpretation
Hypothesis 6
Table
Interpretation
Hypothesis 7
Table
Interpretation

V         DISCUSSION OF RESULTS, CONCLUSION RECOMMENDATION
AND SUMMARY
Discussion of result                                                                                    
Conclusion                                                                                       
Implication of findings                                                                   
Recommendations                                                                          
Limitation of the study                                                                 
Suggestions for further studies                                                     
Summary of the study                                                                    
References                                                                                       
Appendix                                                                                            


LIST OF TABLE
Table 1: Data on level of education
Table II: Data on age of Respondents
Table III: Data on religion of respondents
Table IV: Rate of teenage pregnancy
Table V: Infant Mortality
Table VI Maternal Mortality
Table VII Sexuality Transmitted infection
Table VIII Education disruption
Table IX         Poor health status
Table X:         Poor Socio-economic status

LIST OF APPENDIX
Appendix A:             Questionnaire on the consequences of teenage preganacy among secondary school students
Appendix B:  Letter of approval to collect data/information (carry out experiment for the study)
Appendix  C: List of schools used for the study.


ABSTRACT
The purpose of this study was to know the consequences of teenage pregnancy among secondary schools student in Emure local government  Area of Ekiti state. A total of three hundred requirements were used for the study. A questionnaire was designed for the study and data were analyzed using chi –square. The result showed that teenage pregnancy will lead to infant mortality. The result equally showed that teenage pregnancy will lead to maternal mortality among the teenagers. The result also showed that teenage pregnancy also leads to sexually transmitted infections. For the teenagers and their baby, the result also showed that teenage pregnancy will lead to education disruption of the pregnant teenager. The result reflects that teenage pregnancy leads to poor health status of the teenager and her baby. The result also showed that teenage pregnancy leads to poverty for the teenager.  Recommendation were made, it was recommended that federal government in collaboration with the community and the school should determine interventions to reduce teenage pregnancy in addition to being effective, the proposed interventions to reduce teenage pregnancy should be culturally acceptable, low cost, multispectral and sustainable. 
 

CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
Background of the Study.
            Over the past few decades, teenage pregnancy rates world wide have declined yet teenage pregnancy in Emure-Local Government Area of Ekiti State is still a growing concern, the teenage pregnancy rate is the number of pregnancy per 1,000 women against 15-19 years. Some teenage pregnancies ends in miscarriages or abortions. Pregnancy rates are calculated by adding the number of live births, the number of abortions and the number of estimated miscarriages.
            However in 2010, the teenage pregnancies rate increased from 69.5 in 2006 to 71.5 ( Kost, Henshaws & Carlin, 2010.) This is the first increase in teenage pregnancy rate since 1990. Unintentional pregnancies among adolescence can severally impact the health of teenage mother and their babies women aged 10-19 years deliver only 11% of births worldwide yet they account for 23% of the overall burden of diseases from pregnancy and child birth (World Health Organization, 2008) . Infants born to women in their late teens are more likely to be premature, have low after scores, have low birth weight or die during infancy, (World Health Organization, 2010.) Teenage mothers are likely to suffer health complications such as urinary tract infections during pregnancy.
            Not only those teenage pregnancy have impact on young women, it also impact the economy, Teenagers who get pregnant in high school are at disadvantage when it comes not only to providing for themselves but for their children, women aged 18-35 years who have their first child at 17 years or younger earn #3,350 less than women who have their first child at 20 or 21 years ( Chapman, 2006) one explanation of why teenage mothers earn less is that they have lower levels of educational achievements and occupations that do not require high levels of educational are usually lower wage positions in 2004, only 40% of teenage mothers graduated from high school compared to about 75% of women who had their first child at 20-21 years (Chapman, 2006), the same trend can be seen in years of years of higher education completed. In 2004, women who had their birth at 20 over 21 years of college (21%) compared to women who had their first birth at 17 years or younger (5%) or 18-19 years (10%) (Chapman, 2006). These findings highlight the negative impact teenage pregnancy can have  on the pursuit of education. The cost of society is another reason teenage pregnancy is a concern tax payers on the federal, state and local levels pay for the teenage mothers and their children through welfare, the national campaign to prevent teenage pregnancy estimated that teenage pregnancies cost taxpayers #9.1 billion in 2004 (Chapman, 2006). The cost of tax a taxpayer pays is based on the money that could be saved due to avoiding negative outcome of teenage pregnancy. Government programme that provide public health care like Medicaid, Medicare (For disabled children), state children health insurance program (SCHIP) and civilian health and medical programme of the informed services (CHAMPUS) , renamed (TRICARE) are utilized primarily by the children of teenage mothers is provided through these sources, compared to 50% for children of mothers who were 20-21 years at the time of their first birth (Chapman, 2006). Reducing teenage pregnancy rate could be applied to other government programme there is on-going debate concerning the best way to decrease the rate of teenage pregnancy. Research has as shown that sex education programs have an impact on the sexual behaviour of teenagers (Kalil, 2007). Widespread sex education programmes that are evidence based on effective way to reduce teenage pregnancy rates (Barnette, 2008).
Statement of the Problem.
            The rate of teenage pregnancy in Emure Local Government Area of Ekiti State is very high. Majority of the secondary school girls were sexually active which prone them to be at high risk of Sexually Transmitted Infections (STD). However, most of them have developed the attitude of not been regular in school, which has resulted in poor performance within the targeted group. Further, some of these teenagers engaged in casual sex as if they are commercial sex workers, due to their socio-economic disadvantages and they were found with many social vices like drug abuse, smoking and raping, some even developed the risk of physical problem which make them to experience obstetric difficulties when compared with adult mothers. However, teenage mothers stand the risk of delivering premature babies or giving birth to children with low birth weight and respiratory distress which many later result in psychological problems or untimely death.
Purpose of the Study
            The main purpose of the study is to investigate the consequences of Teenage Pregnancy among secondary schools students in Emure Local Government Area of Ekiti State. Specifically this study is set to find out:
         i.            If the rate of teenage pregnancy in Emure Local Government Area of Ekiti State is high.
       ii.            How teenage pregnancy will lead to education disruption in Emure Local Government Area of Ekiti State.
    iii.            How teenage pregnancy will affect the level of social interaction among secondary school students in Emure Local Government Area of Ekiti State.
     iv.            How teenage pregnancy will lead to infant mortality among secondary school students in Emure Local Government Area of Ekiti State.
       v.            How teenage pregnancy will lead to poverty among secondary school students in Emure Local Government Area of Ekiti State.

Significance of the Study.
            This research work will be of importance to the school heads administrations as to investigate the cause attitude toward peer group and how parents, guardian and government should join hands together to keep their children away from premarital sex which leads to teenage pregnancy.
         i.            To enable students shows negative attitudes towards premarital and unprotected sex.
       ii.            To provide detail description of the levels and patterns and trends of teenage pregnancies.
    iii.            To find out the reasons behind teenagers having sex.
     iv.            To assist government, parents and guardian to join hands to keep the society and students away from unprotected sex.
Delimitations of the Study.
            The study covers all secondary school students within Emure Local Government Area of Ekiti State on the consequences of teenage pregnancy among them. The research will involve a research assistant who will be secondary school teacher. The research will involve the independent variables of Teenage pregnancy and dependent variables of the consequences.
            The Analysis of data will be done using descriptive statistics of frequency count, mean, median and mode for demographic data and Chi-square (x2) will be used for the section B.
Research Questions.
            In an attempt to carry out the study, answers will be provided to the following research questions:
1.      Is there high rate of teenage pregnancy  in Emure Local Government Area of Ekiti State?
2.      Does teenage pregnancy lead to infant mortality among secondary school students in Emure Local Government Area of Ekiti State?
3.      Will teenage pregnancy lead to maternal mortality among secondary school students in Emure Local Government Area of Ekiti State?
4.      Will teenage pregnancy lead to sexually transmitted infections (STI) among secondary school students in Emure Local Government Area of Ekiti State?
5.      Does teenage pregnancy leads to education disruption among secondary school students in Emure Local Government Area of Ekiti State?
6.      Will teenage pregnancy lead to poor health status among secondary school students in Emure Local Government Area of Ekiti State?
7.      Will teenage pregnancy lead to poverty among secondary school students in Emure Local Government Area of Ekiti State?




Hypotheses.
The following hypotheses are put forward for the purpose of this study:
1.      There will be no significant differences in the high rate of teenage pregnancy among secondary school students in Emure Local Government Area of Ekiti State.
2.      Teenage pregnancy will not significantly cause infant mortality among secondary school students in Emure Local Government Area of Ekiti State.
3.      Teenage pregnancy will not significantly cause maternal mortality among secondary school students in Emure Local Government Area of Ekiti State.
4.      Teenage pregnancy will not significantly cause sexually Transmitted Infection among secondary school students in Emure Local Government Area of Ekiti State.
5.      Teenage pregnancy will not significantly cause educational disruption among secondary school students in Emure Local Government Area of Ekiti State.
6.      Teenage pregnancy will not significantly cause poor health status among secondary school students in Emure Local Government Area of Ekiti State.
7.      Teenage pregnancy will not significantly cause poverty among secondary school students in Emure Local Government Area of Ekiti State.


Assumptions of the Study.
            The researcher assumes that a lot of works have been done by previous researchers on the topic consequences of teenage pregnancy among secondary school students, which makes the literature review for the study not to be scanty. The researchers therefore intend to make use of those literature reviews during the course of the study.

CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
            This study investigates the consequences of Teenagers frequency among secondary Students in Emure Local Government Area of Ekiti State. The review of literature for this study is done under the following subheadings.
-     Conceptual Framework
-     Theoretical Framework
-     Review of Related Empirical Studies
a.      Prevalence Rate of Teenage Pregnancy
b.      Culture And Teenage Pregnancy
c.      Teenage Motherhood and Social Relationships.
d.      Cause of Teenage Pregnancy.
e.      Infant Mortality
f.       Maternal Mortality
g.      Sexually Transmitted Infections
h.      Education Disruption
i.        Poor Health  Status
j.        Poverty.
-     Summary of Literature Reviewed
Conceptual framework