THE EFFECT OF PARENTAL INFLUENCE ON THE CHOICE OF ACADEMIC CAREER AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS
The study was carried out to identify the effects of parental influence has on the child's learning and his future life, endeavour of student in Ikere Local Government Area of Ekiti State. A student population of 50 student drawn from five Secondary School in Ikere Local Government Area randomly selected was used for the study to each student questionnaire was administered and answer offered were collated and analysed. The result obtained from the study show that, illiterate parents have little or no time to their children's education children from educated home background show more interest in education lack of motivation and parents forcing them to do their will. It was also found out that only few students are interested in their parent's occupation. Discoveries from the study reveals that illiterate parents have no interest in their children academic growth, parents are not a factor influencing the choice of career among their children. Furthermore, there is no significant different between children from educated home towards Education of given the necessary motivation. This is due to the fact that a consideration number of children live without parental support, as in orphans, children living in the streets, displaced and refused children who on account of the poverty of their parents are subjected to inhuman and sadistic ordeals. This reduces their desire to learn as it happens frequently in Ikere Local Government Area of Ekiti State.
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Table of Contents
1.1 Background of Study
1.2 Statement of Problem
1.3 Objective of Study
1.4 Research Question
1.5 Significance of Study
1.6 Scope of Study
1.7 Limitation of the Study
1.8 Assumption/Hypothesis of the Study
1.9 Definition of Terms
2.0 Literature Review
2. 1 Why People Choose Career
2.2 Factor Influencing Choice of Career
2. 3 Why Parents Influence Career Choice
2.4 Problems Associated With Career Choice
2.5 Positive Influence of Parents of Career Choice
2.6 Historical Overview of Parental Influence on Career Choice
2.7 Theories of Career Choice
3.0 Research Methodology
3.1 Research Design
3.2 Source of Data
3.3 Population of Study
3.4 Sampling Technique
3.5 Research Instrument
3.6 Administration of Instrument
3.7 Validity of Instrument
3.8 Reliability of Instrument
3.9 Method of Data Analysis
4.0 Analysis and Interpretation of Result
5.1 Summary, Recommendation and Conclusion
5.3 Recommendation of the Student
5.4 Recommendation to the Parent
5.5 Recommendation of the School Administration
5.6 Recommendation to Further Researchers
1.10 Background of Study
Career choice has become a complex science with the advent of information technology, the emergency of post industrial revolution and job competition. And as such, education is universally recognised to be the answer to socio-economic problems of the world. Nation and individuals look up to education to provide a clue or possibly, a cure for poverty, ignorance, jobless, hunger, bad governance, poor communication system and inadequate shelter among other things. Every nation of the world aspires towards quality of life and social status. Most student who are in secondary schools do not have adequate information about occupational opportunities to help them make appropriate career choice. This has led to so many swing of career path after graduation from the university. Hence, this has highlighted career selection as one of many important choice students make in determining future plans; these decision will impart them throughout their lives. Hence it is important to figure out the factors or determinant of career choice among secondary school student; so as to see if it can help to guide student to make the right and rational career choice. Thus, with the advent of information technology, the emergence of post - industrial revolutions and job competition, the choice of career has become a complex science (Okafor, 2012). These have given risen interest to scholars on the factors influencing career choice not just among student alone, but among adults. The essence of who the student is, will revolve around what the students want to do with their lifelong work. No matter ones age, the choice of career or desire is an important question for everybody. A lot of students in secondary schools believe that their future is a glorious adventure in which they are bound to succeed (salami and salami, 2013). Many of them have the idea that they would be able to work in the public or private establishments as soon as they complete their secondary education. Student in secondary schools like many other young adult are always worried about what they will do with their lives, the kind of adult are always worried about what they will do with their lives, the kind of adult they will become. They are concerned about early entry into the occupational world and finding productive and rewarding place in and out rapidly, fast changing societies where employment is unlikely to be available on a scale sufficient to absorb more than a small fraction of the young people when they do arrive at the labour market. How the young people of today meet the problem for tomorrow ill depend upon the amount of success they make in planning for that tomorrow.
Today one has not only to make due career planning but also exhaustive career research before making a career choice so as to adjust with the evolving socio-economic conditions. (Wattles, 2009). According to Kerka (2000), career choice is influenced by multiple factors which include personality, interest, self concept, cultural identity, globalization, socialization, role model, social support and available resource such as information and finances. Hewitt (2010), suggested that most people are influenced by career that their parent favour, others follow the career that their educational choice have opened for them, some choice to follow their passion regardless of how much or little it will make them; while others choose the career that gives high income. McQuaid and Bond (2003) cited that student perception of being suitable for particular jobs also has been found to be influenced by a number of factors which include ethnic background, years in school, level of achievement, choice of science subject, attitudes and difference in job characteristics. However, research show that the choice of career among secondary school student is determined by a combination of personal abilities, personality type and other factors (Okafor, 2012). This is why Onayase and Onayase, (2009) suggested an investigation into other factors which include some environmental factor such as family background, school environment, religious and peer group influence. Career according to Cambridge Advance Learner’s Dictionary (2005) refers to ‘‘job or series of job that you do during your working life’’. Thus, choosing a career, simply means choosing a life job. However, all career have their subject requirement, personality characteristic and personal abilities while are supposed to be fully assessed before individual can be deemed to be qualified to go into specific career (Onayase and Onayase, 2009). Career choice is influence by multiple factors include personality, interest, self concept, identity, globalization, socialization, role model, social support and available resources such as information and finance (Kerka, 2000). Bandura, Barbaranelli, Caprara, Pastorell, 2001) cited that each individual undertaking the process is influenced by several factors including the context in which they live in, their personal aptitudes, social contacts and educational attainment.
Hence, Okafor (2012) cited that generally, the choice of a career is influenced by parents, friends and counsellors. Variations occur from one population to the other. In Kenya, every secondary school student (SSS) makes their career choice before sitting for West African Examination Council (WAEC). The result of this final examination determining who Joins University since admission into careers are determined by grades obtained from it. When these students graduate from the universities, some of them enter into occupations that are totally different from the ones they had chosen and training for. The aim of this study is to look at how gender, home background and student learning outcome influence choice of career among secondary school students in Nigeria, using some selected schools in Ikere Local Government Area of Ekiti state.
Career play a very fundamental and significant role in the life of the individual not only because they determine the pattern of income but also because they affect the individual personality and concepts in life, career therefore is a choose pursuit, life work or success in one's profession occupied by a person throughout his/her lifetime. In a nutshell, career is the totality of work one does in his life time and is person centred it is of utmost importance to every individual as he or she prepares for the future.
Career choice is something very hard to decide, especially as his life will depend on it. Her (2003) indicated that, career is the totality of experience through which one learns about and prepares to engage in work as part of his way of living ' Splete (12001) Stress career is an enjoying process that occurs over the life span and includes homes, schools and community. Every human being needs to do one job or the other to help contribute his quote to the development of the country.
Ipaye (2000) refers to the need for one to discuss with one's peer school counsellors, parents and teachers on the need to choose a life span work as “career convention” or “career conference”. However, career convention according to him is an instrument of career information. This occurs for a number of reasons, which includes:
1. To stimulate career thinking and widen occupational horizon.
2. To focus attention on particular jobs in order to help an individual crystallizes his preference and to create a situation in which parents can on one hand meet employers and discuss the opportunities they offer and on the other hand meet the career teachers or career officers with whom they can exchange views.
Work experience during industrial training or those experiences acquired during vocational education also aids the students in choice of career. This is a techniques in which students do job under realistic conditions without payment this may help them choose a career to that effect.
James (2004) Observes that the influence home has on the child's learning is the fundamental concepts of life. This cause and most of the habits and basic adjustment were established during pre-school years. The highlights the fact that home and parents occupy the most important position in the child’s education. It should be stressed that work experience is not an attempt to find job for the students but an attempt to widen the horizons of students and ease the ultimate transition from school to work. This is usually based on the information given to the school by the parents, such guidance and information are necessary because most school children are adolescents and are controlled by double standards, hypocrisy, truancy, materialism, dishonesty etc. .
The factor that may influence choice of career includes.
Ø Socio-economic factors
Ø Personal or family factors
Ø Cultural factors, which include schools, peer group, age and work experience. The effect of parental influence on choice of career is both negative and positive this is due to: security factors
Ø No usual hazards to health
Ø Assured steady income
Ø Certainty of continued employment
Ø Career or occupational satisfaction
Ø Social rewards.
To increase students interest and ability to use his hands and brains, the parents, must be involved to give desired assistance/guidance to the students.
1.11 Statement of Problem
This research is based on the effect of parental influences on the choice of career among secondary school students in Ikere Ekiti Local Government Area of Ekiti State. The parents may desire what they think is good or best for their ward.
This may affect the child positively if the child can cope with it but negatively when such a child has other things in mind, which he/she wishes to do. The result of this is that the child may not concentrate on the parents needs and so may not adjust positively towards the career. This sometimes leads to students waywardness, secrete cult involvement, armed robbery and so on. The child may not cope with the parents continual force against his/her will.
The world is marking such drastic demand upon the coming workers every truthful man and woman every teaches and reflecting parents is planning way to fit the students for the life and needs of this new century. This statement which is still relevant today was written by Mejer Bloomfield in his book ‘finding ones place in life in (2007) since the early 2000 career development or vocational guidance at it was then known has increasingly gained more and more attention and respect in essence career counselling is a specialty within the profession of counselling one that fosters vocationally development and work adjustment of individual abilities interest and goals with the work roles structured by the community and occupation organised by companies and assist a developing and deciding individual to make suitable and viable choice why examine the factors affecting career choice on senior secondary school students, in the past and even now for many. It was assumed that on individual going through late adolescent would be developing their independence and slowly eliminating his or her family’s constraints as he or she formed his or her own identity into the larger word in effect the person would make career decision based on his or her own interest research and occupational goals with limited influence from others. Infact even when young adult move away from home, their family will likely still have a strong influence upon them on two significant life events marriage and their career.
1.12 Objective of Study
The main purpose of this study is the attempt to find out the effect of parental influence on the choice of career among students in Ikere Ekiti Local Government Area of Ekiti State.
It will as much as possible, try to find out to what extent, the influence of the parent will play on the students choice of career, and whether the influence will always aid the students positively or negatively.
It will also focus on how processing techniques. Learned from family system can lead to effective career counselling research concerning the impact of a family social economic status has ultimately divided this lack of consensus is partially during 60 the limited research in this particular are as it is rarely the main focus of the students. (Brown, 2001) but also because of the lack of detail given by the researcher about their participants.
1.13 Research Question
The research question which the study attempt to verify are as follows:
i. Do you always desire most things your friends do?
ii. Is student’s choice of career influenced by their peer group?
iii. Does career choice affect the academic performance of students?
iv. Is your choice of career based on your interest and value towards that career?
v. Illiterate parents have no influence on their children’s choice of career?
1.14 Significance of Study
The importance of this researcher work is to investigate to what extent the influences of the parent will affect the student choice of career and the attendance performance of students on the subject that would heard them successfully toward this occupation or job as a life span endeavour.
i. It will enable the research give recommendations to the parents about their children’s response to the advice five to them.
ii. It will enable the researcher make concrete recommendations to the government about the choice of career among students especially now that the rate of unemployment is high.
iii. It will enable the researcher to make recommendation to school administrators.
iv. The findings will also enable the researcher made recommendations for further research on the issue of career prospects.
v. It will enable the peer and the students community to have an impact on the youth adult expectation and perception of vocation.
1.15 Scope of Study
The research study is limited to the effect of parental influence on the choice of career among student's in Ikere Ekiti Local Government Area of Ekiti State. This research work will cover five secondary schools in Ikere Ekiti Local Government Area. Three public and two private secondary school, were selected:
Ø Amoye Grammar School
Ø Bobas high School
Ø Demonstration Secondary School
Ø Eleyo high School
Ø Comprehensive High School
Furthermore, for the survey to be properly conducted questionnaire will be employed. Students’ questionnaires, teacher’s questionnaires and parents questionnaires will be given to men and women in the community to know their degree of involvement in their children’s education and choice of career.
1.16 Definition of Terms
Ø Career - A chosen pursuit or course of business activity or enterprise, especially one's professional life or employment that offers advancement and honour.
Ø Influence- The power of acts by which parents or a person has to control the desire of another.
Ø Choice: An act of choosing between two or more possibility. The right to choose or the possibility of choosing.
Ø Factors: One of several thing that cause or influence something or somebody to include as particular fact or situation when you are thinking about or planning something.
Ø Effective: Producing strong feeling of sadness and sympathy.
Ø Counseling: This is the process where a troubled or a confused person is helped by a professional to solve his problem and to make better adjustment to his society.
Ø Guidance: This is the process of helping the student to understanding himself and his environment in other to develop self defectiveness.
Ø Personality: a characteristics way of thinking, feeling and behaving (Britannica, 2002). The personality is the collection of impression in the appearance of the student’s body and the impression believed to have been made on others, good or bad. Ones personality may embrace attitudes and opinions that affect the way we deal with interactions of people and in particular to this study, the situation of choosing a career.
Ø Environment: the complex physical factors that make up our surrounding (Britannica, 2002) and in turn act upon us for the purpose of this study they would include the forces of family, social and economic issues that both typical and non-typical students may deal with on a day-to-day basis.
Ø Opportunity: those choices in one’s life which are exposed either in a subtle or obvious manner. These choices or paths give the individual a selection between two or more outcomes. The outcomes of one’s choosing may or may not exceed one’s present abilities.
Ø Family: the people one lives with and sees daily.
Ø Peers: peers are adolescents who are about the same age of maturity level.
Ø Students: in this study, it refers to individuals who are officially admitted and registered in the secondary and non secondary school system as full time candidates.