TEACHERS QUALIFICATION EXPERIENCE AND GENDER AS DETERMINANTS OF SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS’ PERFORMANCE IN BIOLOGY IN IKERE LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EKITI STATE
Background of the Study
Many factors contribute to a student’s academic performance, including individual characteristics, family andNeighborhood experiences. But research such as Jordan, Mendro and Weersinge (1997) suggests that among school related factors, teachers matter most. When it comes to student performance on reading and math tests, a teacher is estimated to have two or three times the impact of any other school factor, including services, facilities and even leadership (Mohammed and Yusuf, 2015).
Effective teachers are best identified by their performance not by their background or experiences. Despite common perceptions, effective teacher cannot reliably be identified based on where they went to school, whether they are registered or how long they are taught. The best way to asses teachers’ effectiveness is to look at their on the – job performance including what they do in the classroom and how much progress their students make on Performance tests. Quality teachers are considered to be those who bring about student learning. (Harris and Sass, 2006) Non-school factors do influence student Performance but effective teaching has the potential to help level the playing of such factors. The importance of good or quality teachers is no secret or it cannot be overemphasized. Schools have always sought out the best teachers they could get in the belief that their students’ success depends on it. If teachers are so important to student learning, how can schools make sure all students receive the benefit of good/quality teachers?
More than two decades of research findings are unequivocal about the connection between teacher quality and student learning. The report of the National Commission on teaching and America’s future (1996) made teaching the core of its three simple promises in its blueprint for reforming the nation’s schools. They are: what teachers know and can do is the most important influence on what students learn. Recruiting, preparing and retaining good teachers is the central strategy for improving schools. School reform cannot succeed unless it focuses on creating the conditions under which teachers can teach well. A highly effective teacher, therefore, is one whose students show the most gains from one year to the next. By using this approach, researchers are able to isolate the effect of the teacher from other factors related to student performance such as students’ prior academic record or school they attended. “The effect of teaching on student learning is greater than student ethnicity or family income, school attended by student or class size.
Biology education aims at equipping learners with diverse basic scientificskills, competencies and creativity needed to provide opportunities for wealth creation. These aims will remain a mirage if teachers of biology do not have the pre-requisite qualification and experience needed for an engaged
biology interactive classroom to enhance their productivity.
The effect is stronger for poor and or minority students than for their more affluent peers, although all groups benefit from effective teachers. The effects accumulate over the years. The positive effects associated with being taught by a highly effective teacher, defined as a teacher whose average student score gain is in the top 25% were stronger for poor and minority students than for their white and affluent counter parts. The study found that low income students were more likely to benefit from instruction by a highly effective teacher than were their more advantaged peers Van der Bergh and Roos, (2014). Another study found that the Performance gain from having a highly effective teacher could be almost three times as large for African American students as for white students even when comparing students who start with similar Performance levels (Sanders and Rivers 1996). All of the foregoing necessitated the need to carry out this study. It against this background that this study is undertaken to determine the impact of teacher qualification and experience on students’ performance in senior secondary school Ikere Ekiti
A second important finding from this work was that the positive effects of teacher quality appear to accumulate over the years. That is, students who were enrolled in succession of classes taught by effective teachers demonstrated greater learning gains than did students who had the least effective teachers one after another. For example, 5th grade math student who had three consecutive highly effective teachers scored between 52 and 54% percentile point ahead of students who had three consecutive teachers who w
Biology is the science that draws necessary conclusions and also the manipulation of the meaningless symbols of a first order language according to explicit, syntactical rules.
Advanced Biology is widely used, but often in an unseen and unadvertised way.
This study titled Teachers Characteristics and Performance as Determinants of senior secondary schools students’ performance in Ikere Local Government Area of Ekiti State. This will study the event that occur such as the rate of students failure in Biology in the senior secondary school(SSS), stakeholders blame students who are not ready to learn as one of the causes of their failure. Also, teacher can be blame as a result of their attitude to work which will affect the academic performance of students.
Adesina (2000), also revealed that teachers are the primary indicator and determinant of the quality of education. Thus, the ability to teach effectively depends on the knowledge of teachers and knowledge that exists in many forms.
Teacher must thoroughly understand the content of what they teach. Teachers who master the material will pass a language more clearly and provide better explanations that those with weaker backgrounds. Perspective of students to teachers in this mastery of the material have a significant influence on students academic performance.
According to Eggen and Kaunchk (2001), positive attitudes of teachers is essential for effective learning. Fisher et al (2000) stated that the study that the high level of learning that will takes place on learners when they are happy going themselves and the material being studies when teacher use instructional time effectively. Ways to deal with student-teacher affect student’s attitudes towards school and academic performance of students. How students perceptions of their teachers attitudes while teaching in the classroom be measured in this study are qualifications, Experience and teaching skills.
Ehindero and Ajibade (2000) asserts that students are stakeholders in education, and has been suspected and speculated about some of their teachers do not have the necessary professionals qualifications. In a sense, skills, techniques, strategies are needed to convey concepts, ideas, principles are a means to facilitate effective learning.
Obanyan (2000) says that teacher are considered instrumental to translate content standards into the subject matter in the classroom, the teacher remain a constant factor in the successful implementation of educational programs.
Ajayi(2006) found that the classroom teacher is one of the major determinants of student’s Performance, training is most important as a determinant of student’s academic performance.
On the contrary, Husen (2000) reported that increased in-service is accompanied by low Performance levels by students especially where the training is assumed to be for only teachers of low scoring students.
Biology is the fundamentals root on which science is based. Unfortunately, students in our secondary schools and the teacher teaching them have negative attitude towards Biology regardless of its importance in making it as far as science and technology.
It is very important to look into teachers characteristics in student’s performance in Biology. Biology as a compulsory subject in the secondary school record poor performance of students.
Biology is regarded as the key to all science and technology subject, without a good foundation in Biology student would not be able to do well in science and technology. It is very important to note that boys and girls in secondary school usually run away from Biology classes without any regard for its being a compulsory subject.
Obi (2000) noted that for the effective teaching of Biology, the teacher must be well equipped with the idea of what he or she is going to teach in the classroom. Appropriate method of teaching is also required while supporting the fact that it is necessary to be knowledgeable about a particular concept, it is also necessary to know how to impact the knowledge adequately. The teacher must know the best techniques and method of presenting his/her ideas to his or her pupils, bearing in mind their interest, needs and individual differences.
Kolawole (2005) he Stated that creative teaching requires new materials and thoughtful activities such as learning single as learning skill, procedures analysis of problem and application of generalization.
Therefore, a good teacher must have a sound knowledge of the contents, method and above all good attitudes to work. Based on the general belief that Biology is regarded as the foundation of all science subjects there is need to handle its teaching effectively. He further observed that falling standing in performance of pupils in Biology in the secondary school could attribute to the teacher’s characteristics toward its effectively teaching.
Statement of the Problem
The view of the researcher is to find the teacher’s qualification, experience and Gender as determinants with particulars reference to senior secondary school in Ikere Local Government, the researcher is going to look critically into the following.
i. Do we have enough qualified teacher to teach Biology in all our secondary school.
ii. Do we have enough experience teacher to teach biology in all our secondary school
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of the study is to examine the teachers qualification experience and gender as determinants of senior secondary school students’ performance in Biology in Ikere Local Government Area of Ekiti State.
To guide this study the following research question were raised.
i. Will perceived problems affects teachers experience and Performance of senior secondary school students in Biology
ii. Will teachers complexity in implementation of continuous assessment affect senior secondary school students performance in Biology.
From the above research question the following hypothesis were formulated.
i. Perceived problems will not affect teachers experience and Performance of senior secondary school in Biology.
ii. Teachers complexity in implementing continuous assessment will not affect senior secondary school students performance in Biology.\
Significance of the study
The study would help the teacher’s developed positive experience towards teaching and learning of Biology and would also arouse students interest to Biology.
Scope and Limitation of the study
The study is concerned with the students in Ikere Local Government Area of Ekiti State. The study is limited to five selected secondary school in Ikere Local Government Area of Ekiti State.
Delimitation of the Study
The study is delimited to SS2 students in the selected schools used for the study.
Definition of terms
Teachers:A teacher is a person that impact knowledge to the unknown and a teacher is a person who provides education for student. Teacher are like a candle which consumes themselves to show the way others. In the real sense, a teacher is a symbol of learning a leader of learner and a miracle to education.
Qualification:- A characteristics can be described as a type of personality or atmosphere as well and it also means the essential nature of a thing.
Qualification in the ability, characteristics or experience that makes someone suitable for a particular job or activity.
However, qualification within any one level can cover a huge range of subject and take different amounts of time to complete.
Teachers Qualification: -Teaching Qualification is one of a number of academic and professional degrees that enables a person to become a registered teacher. Examples of teaching qualifications include the Postgraduate Certificate in Education (PGCE), the Professional Graduate Diploma in Education (PGDE) and the Bachelor of Education.
Student: student is not just a name given to anybody that learns. A student is a learner, or someone who attends an educational institution. In some nations, the English term is reserved for those who attend university, while a school child under the age of eighteen is called a pupil. In the widest use, student is used for anyone who is learning
Biology: -Biology is a natural science concerned with the study of life and living organisms, including their structure, function, growth, evolution, distribution, identification and taxonomy. Modern biology is a vast and eclectic field, composed of many branches and subdisciplines.
Determinant:- Is a factor which decisively affects the nature or outcome of something
Performance:- An act of presenting a play, concert, or other form of entertainment and also is the performing arts, generally comprises an event
Student’s performance:- This can be explain as the attitude of student towards learning or toward education.
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
In this chapter the review of literature is organized under the following subheading:
· Teachers attitude towards Biology
· Students negative attitude toward Biology
· Teachers teaching experience
· Teachers qualification
· Teachers knowledge of subject matter
· Performance in Biology
· The use of teaching aids
Teachers Attitude towards Biology