knowledge and attitude of junior secondary school student towards drug abuse in Odofin Local Government area of Lagos State. - UNIPROJECTS

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knowledge and attitude of junior secondary school student towards drug abuse in Odofin Local Government area of Lagos State.



CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Background to the Study
The whole world is in trouble. The future looks bleak and there is little hope for some generation with the rate at which the age youths are getting involved in the illicit drug use, and since the leadership of the future is in their hands it will not be an over statement to say that the whole world is in trouble. There is hardly anyone in our society who has not been couched in one way or the other by the escalation of drug abuse within the society. The phenomenon has not spare any group of individual, students inclusive. Adegoke (2003) asserted the above claim in his report that drug abuse cut across the whole of the society. It is found among the affluent, top professionals, high executives, musicians, students, sport men and women, long distance truck drivers and housewives, all believing that it puts them in good mood and increase their performance. From the olden days and up till now, man has searched for plants and substance for curing all sort of illnesses, for preventing diseases, getting the body in a state of readiness, for maintaining good health and well being.    
Drug is a chemical agent that is used therapeutically to treat diseases. More broadly a drug is any chemical agent that affects living protoplasm. Nelson, (2005). The term drug is usually used in its narrower sense to refer to a chemical whose specific purpose is the treatment of a disease. Merriam, (2014). Scientifically drug can also be defined as any chemical solid, liquid or amorphous substance derived from plants, animals or minerals resources which is applied externally or internally to cause some desirable effects. Drug is a substance which by its chemical nature has an effect to open the body of higher nervous system (the mind)¸ Ebie (2012)      The effect of drugs could be positive, that is , drug  when properly used or taken into a living organisms, produces  the desire result, and may modify one or more of its functional part , it is usually prescribed by a medical practitioner such drugs or substance are either from vegetables animals or mineral origin. They could be prepared for the human body that produces the desired result into the treatment of diseases and ailment. The negative effect of drug is also referred to as drug abuse. Drug abuse is therefore defined as the excessive consumption of a drug by any individual drug abuse result when there is self injection of the drug from the approved medical in a manner that deviates from the approved medical usage (miles, 2013).Drugs are classified into different groups according to their chemical characteristics, structure and how they are used to treat specific diseases (medindia, 2015) Drug may be classified by the chemical type of the active ingredient or by the way it is used to treat particular condition examples includes cox-2 inhibitor diver tics etc. There are drugs that are considered as painkilling antibiotics and curative drug. The socio-cultural drugs are those used for social tradition and religious purpose such as coffee, tea, tobacco, caffeine, kolanut, cigarettes and alcohol. The non-medical drugs are those used for either medicinal or socio – cultural purpose but which can be termed socially unacceptable drugs. These are marijuana, cocaine, heroine, opine deliriants and others. It has been observed however that most causes of drugs abuse occur when people use drugs for non-medical reasons, Gikonyo, (2005). Excessive use of drugs and use of unprescribed drugs by users is when an individual takes in drugs without following the current prescription of the doctor. Drug can also be abused when an individual engages in purchasing unprescribed drugs e.g. over the counter drugs (OTC). The use of hard drug has also been on the increase, Abdool, (2004). Hard drugs are capable of affecting the state of the body or mind by either depressing or stimulating the central nervous system or producing other biochemical harm to the society at large. According to Agwusike, (2007), drug abuse is the use of drug above the prescribed dosage and for the purpose other than for the original prescription. Adi, (2010) also defined drug abuse as self treatment of physical ailment which could result from ignorance. The society of doctors and pharmacists frowned at the uncontrollable ways and manner in which the drugs are sold to the public in our markets, and medical stores which are contributory factors to the drug abuse .Uncivilized and develop nations, drug other than those common pain, cough and cold remedies are sold in doctor’s prescription.
Behavioral, Cognitive Sensory Sciences and Education(BCSSE,2004),stated that drug abuse could be viewed from different perspective depending on the focus .It could be described as a non medical use of drug which may cause harm to the individuals and the society’s cultural norm of a society such as marijuana .People generally misuse or abuse drug because the substances alter the mode behavior of an individual over the years, the use of hard drugs like tobacco, sedatives ,Indian hemp, cocoa leaves ,alcohol heroine, morphine ,cocaine to mention but a few have drastically been on the increase especially in this part of the world(Africa),Adelekan,(2008).
Drug abuse has a negative impact on the education of secondary school students. The overall health of the user is affected negatively and behavior associated with drug abuse predispose the abuser to crime and contagious diseases including HIV/AIDS(CDC 2009).Drug abuse appears to be a well-entrenched behavior among secondary school students .In shopping centres and other public spaces, students who have dropped out of school because of drug abuse can be found loitering and participating in other form of criminal  activity,(Obot,2005).Given the availability consequences and increasing use of drug in Nigeria, it is important to establish student perceptions influence their behavior when it comes to drug and drug users. It is against this background that the current study was undertaken.
Most traditional drugs are always misused or abused because of lack of dosage to determine the quantity required by the users. The expiration period is never stated, substances that are today referred to as drugs originated from the herbs and other natural chemicals, caffeine, which is the main ingredient in ten or coffee and nicotine as in tobacco or cigarette is widely used as mind stimulant and tension relieving drugs. They are considered socially acceptable and used recreationally. However, they produce dependence and also known to cause harm. Other drugs, although are used medically for the treatment of one ailment or the other, may also cause problems for the individual. Examples of such drugs are psychoactive drugs or sedatives like valium and mogadon which are sleeping pills and pain killers which are medically prescribed but may be abused thus causing dependence and harm, (NACADA 2010).
Essen (2010) observed that the increasing incidence of drug abuse among Secondary School Students is a contributory factor in the ugly confrontation between school administrators and students. The chronic use of these drug substances can cause serious, sometimes irreversible damage to adolescent’s physical and psychological development (Falco, 2008). In another development, he further emphasized that  adolescent drug abuse is closely correlated with other problems behaviors like delinquency, violence and early-unwanted pregnancies. Drug abuse constitutes a major threat to the survival and effective learning process of human societies. Lives are daily lost through addiction and activities of addicts. A significant number of deaths from accidents and violent crimes have been traced to the activities of persons under the influence of drugs (Folawiyo, 2008). Treatment facilities nation-wide are now gradually being over-burdened with drug related problems.


The social implications of drug abuse on the Nigerian youthful population are catastrophic for the future. Notably, environment is known to contribute a great deal to the cause of drug abuse especially in homes where parents drink alcohol freely. In such homes’ there is a likely incidence of alcoholism among the off springs of such parents. There are other reasons that influence people to take drugs, they include peer group, physical illness, psychiatric problems, etc. In response to this distress, quite a number of Nigerians faced firing squad during Buhari/Idiagbon’s regime under Degree 20 (News watch), May 13, 1985). Thanks to Decree 48 of 1989, which makes for jail term of (5) years for offenders. These problems have been of great concern not only to parents and teachers but also to all those who are concern with the proper upbringing of our children, hence the need to investigate into the problem arose.


Statement of the Problem

The knowledge and attitude of students towards learning and the academic achievement in the Secondary School has attracted the attention of many people who are concern with the educational standard of our students and their achievement, Time without number both teachers and parents are complaining bitterly about students involvement in drug abuse and their attitude to learning. Inspite of all the efforts made by the National Drug Law Enforcement Agency (NDLEA) to reduce the problem of drug abuse that may affect so many aspects of adolescent life the problem still persist particularly among adolescent in Lagos state. As a teacher of secondary school students who deal with adolescents who are vulnerable to these problems, I become interested in carrying out the research on the knwolsge and attitude of junior secondary schools students towards drug abuse with the hope of finding solutions to the problem at hand.
Objectives of the Study

The major objective of this study is to find out the knowledge and attitude of junior secondary school student  of drug abuse effect in Odofin Local Government area of Lagos State.
The specific objectives of this study are as follows;

1.                 To determine the effects of drug abuse on students attitude to learning
2.                 To find out how students have the knowledge of drug abuse
3.                 To determine the relationship between students performance who take drugs and those who do it
Research Questions
The following research questions serve as guide to the study;
1.     What are the effects of drug abuse on students attitude to learning?
2.     How does students have the knowledge of drug abuse ?
3.     What are relationship between students performance who take drugs and those who do it
Research Hypotheses

Listed below are the hypotheses that are raised and tested in the study, these are;

1.     There is no significant difference between the academic performance of those who  abuse drugs and those who do not.
2.     There is no significant difference in the attitude to learning of those who abuse drugs and those who do not.


Significance of the Study
The study is significant in the following ways;

This study will be relevant to teachers, school psychologists and school counselors in handling the adjustment problems of students for instance in the area of drug abuse involvement of their student, This can be achieved by selling the information to the appropriate Ministry of Education so as to include the subject of drug abuse and its influence on the attitude to learning and academic achievement in their plan to train and re-train school teachers, Counsellors and Psychologists for effective services in schools.

Policy makers, parents and NGOs will benefit from this study by way of exposing the findings of this study through publication in educational journals.

The researcher also intends to seek for the audience for the media to be able to campaign against drug abuse. .

Scope of the Study

This research covers all schools in Amuwo Odofin Local government area of Lagos State. Secondary school students of JSS II – III were used for the study,. Both boys and girls among the students were involved in the study. The study is also delimited to the variables on drug abuse, knowledge, attitude to learning and academic achievements of students.
Operational Definition of Terms
          Drugs: Drug is any chemical substance that is derived from plants and animals or mineral resources be it traditional or orthodox which is used for internal or external application to the human body in the treatment of diseases or to induce clam, reduce pains or modify the functions of the various system of the body.
  Substance: Substance are chemical combination of drugs in order words drug made up of combination of chemical substance and substance can as well be refer to as those build up charge like alcohol, tobacco, cigarette and kolanuts.
Drug use: Drug use is the ingestion, injection or the application of any substances which when taken in into the body of living organism may modify one or more of its function, this includes not only medical also intended primarily active substance.
Drug misuse: Is the over -zealous or indiscrete administration of drugs by using drug meant for certain purposes for another purpose rather than what it is meant for.
 Drug addiction: Drug addiction is the dependence on a substance with the presence of physical withdrawal symptoms.
 Psychoactive drugs: This is defined as in alternating drugs.
Habitualism: This is the dependence on a substance without the presence of physical; withdrawal phenomena. Thus it is the psychological desire to repeat the use of these drugs, continuously for emotional reasons.
Dependence: It is a state of psychological or physical need to both resulting from the interaction between an organism and a substance resulting from continuously or periodic use which is characterized by behavioural deviation.
Tolerance: Is defined as the situate ion when the same amount of substance can no longer produce the effects on an the individual and then  needs higher amount to produce the same effects.
Withdrawal: Is the situation when unpleasant sensation such as shaking, seating tremors, frightening feelings and some times hallucination and delusions occurs when the drug is stopped.