EFFECTS OF EXAMINATION MALPRACTICES ON LECTURER’S ATTITUDE TO TEACHING AND LEARNING OF PHYSICS
The educational system has for long had serious hit from examination malpractice and this has brought into focus the need to tackle this issues in order of findings ways to eradicate such problems in the light of the above the study looked at examination malpractices in Ekiti State higher institution with the view to achieve the following objectives.
1. To find out the causes of examination malpractice in the college.
2. To find out the various means by which students use to cheat during examination
3. To investigate the effect of examination malpractice to both the students and educational system in general
4. To profound possible solutions, which could be use to eradicate the problem of examination malpractice.
To achieve these objectives the problem of examination malpractice. To achieve these objectives the survey method was used for data collection, we used questionnaire to elicit information from chose school students, the result of the data analysis showed that the main causes of examination malpractice is the strong desire to acquire a certificate well labeled and most parents encourage them on it and the method commonly used is spying and copying of answers to examination questions from fellow students and examination malpractices has brought disastrous effect on students and the educational system in Nigeria and finally, some measure to adopt in eradicating this problems is:
1. Punishing students or whoever is involved in the act.
2. Spacing of students in the hall
3. Higher payment and regular payment of salaries to supervisors and lecturers
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Table of Contents
CHAPTER ONE : Introduction
Background of the Study 1
Statement of the Problem
Purpose of the Study
Significance of the Study
Scope of the Study
Limitation of the Study
Definition of Terms
CHAPTER TWO : Literature Review
Forms of examination malpractice
Causes of examination malpractice
Effect of examination malpractice in Ekiti state tertiary institution
Effects of Examination Malpractice on National Development
Solution to examination malpractice
CHAPTER THREE: Research Methodology
Area of the Study 28
Population of the Study
Sample and Sampling Technique
Validity of the Instrument
Reliability of the Instrument
Method of Data Analysis
Results and Discussion
Testing of Hypotheses
Limitations of the Study
Suggestion for further research
Background to the Study
Malpractices according to the advance oxford learners dictionary (2000) is wrong doing, neglect to duty. According to Adekunle (2003) examination malpractices could be defined as behaviour contrary to a set of expected code of conduct or contrary to a set of ethic and norms exhibited in the course of examination by persons or group of persons.
The definition makes it clear that examination malpractice is not only illegal but its effect degrading and devastating.
Adesina (2000) stated that in recent years the rampant occurrence of examination malpractices in several institutions of learning in Nigeria have become a matter of concern to all. This statement denote that the rate at which candidates indulge in examination malpractice, examination leakage, impersonation, copying and certificate forging is alarming and it put the examination and the country as a sole in an embarrassing position, because it under estimate the quality of our educational system.
Examination has been viewed in different ways by different authors, educationists and researchers. According to Kailani and Usman (2009), examination is an organized assessment technique which presents individuals with a series of questions or tasks geared towards ascertaining, if the individual acquired skills and knowledge.
Oyechere (2010), also define examination as a formal test of somebody’s knowledge, skills or ability in a particular subject, especially by means of oral and written questions or practical exercise. In all countries of the world, examination which are in reality and frequently used in competitions, are designed to eliminate the majority of candidates and allocate the remainder to certain known vacancies.
Examination malpractice has been defined differently by educators, authors, researchers, administrators and supervisors. Onuoha (2009) defined examination malpractice as unfair practices or irregularities or infringement or irregularities during the conduct of examination. He posited that examination malpractice in recent times has become a threat to the integrity of the nation. As a cankerworm, it has eaten deep into the fabric of the education industry, thus becoming a global issue which has caused some sleepless nights to many genuine academics and scholars. In spite of the crusade made against it by the government and other lovers of education, it still grows speedily more than ever. To Ahmed (2010), examination malpractice is any act of wrongdoing or neglect that contravenes the rules and regulations of acceptable practice before, during and after an examination by any reason. Nowadays, it is not uncommon to hear people discuss examination malpractice as if it is a custom. Perpetrators of this social menace view it as an act which everybody partakes in, hence it is generally acceptable.
The origin of examination malpractice can be traced back to 1914 when senior Cambridge local examination leaked. This was thirty-eight years before West Africa Examination Council was established in the primary school cheating and alternation of marks are quite for common malpractice is even more evident in the West Africa Examination Council (WAEC), joint admission matriculation board JAMB and other examination conducted by the federal ministry of education. Paul (2012) reported that the above fact was responsible for the 1987 decision by the federal ministry of education professor Ajibola . (2006) states that the registrar indicated the examination malpractices constitution is one of the biggest problems facing the boards.
He expressed disappointment at the way candidates despite efforts that have been made by school admission examination bodies and the government in terms of disciplinary measure in order to curb examination malpractice.
Education is the development of an individual through training, transmission of what is worthwhile to the point that he is able to fit into his environment and contribute to the best of his ability for the wellbeing of the society. Our educational system uses examination to grade students in internal and external examinations in Nigeria. However, examinations are known to play very important roles in our educational system. They are used for academic stratification or for assigning grades to students in secondary schools and other institutions of learning. A students with a distinction all through in certificate examination will be regarded by those around him as academically precious. He is also likely to have a place in institution of higher learning or in job situation within the society than a child with a mere pass or a failure. All these conditions have combine to influence a student’s attitude to an examination malpractice
Itedjere (2006) defined examination malpractice as any misconduct or improper practice in any examination with a view to obtaining good results through fraudulent action. Okafor (2004) define examination malpractice as an irregular behaviour exhibited by candidates or anybody charged with the conduct of examination in or outside the examination hall before, during or after such examinations. Sooze (2004) sees it as irregularities which are premediated and perpetuated by the candidates or their agents with the intention of gaining undue advantages in the examination.
Investigations conducted by the national concord of Tuesday June, 1998 revealed how teachers help students to engage in examination malpractice, by coaching them before examination and the changing of incorrect answers afterwards. This trend according to the report is being used by the schools involved to improve their position in the performance tables, which have become a key indicator for parents choosing a school for their children. Examination malpractices renders certificates issued by examination bodies unreliable. The examination bodies lose finally, manpower in their bid to overcome examination malpractice. In view of the adverse effects that examination malpractices have on the educational system, it became necessary to critically examine it. At what stage do examination malpractice occur, what are their impact on the students themselves and on education standards?
Statement of the Problem
Examination malpractice has long been existence in our society and have been taken by different investigation on the subject and in-spite of these. examination malpractice still thrives in our educational system. Despite the disastrous effect it has on students, parents, educational system but the society at large, like
a. Cancellation of results
b. Lowering of standard when under serving students are allowed in posses requiring high standard of performance.
c. Lack of motivation or incentive to read hard in order to be successful in examination.
d. Promote laziness and laxity in schools where by students do not read their books with what have been taught.
It is the purpose of this research to inquire deeply into the causes of examination malpractices and find possible solution in order to eradicate this act from the educational system and the nation in general.
Purpose of the Study
In the course of the study the project researcher attempt to achieve the following objectives.
1. To find out the factor responsible for examination malpractices in Ekiti State higher institution.
2. To examine the people involved in examination malpractice.
3. To suggest possible solution to the problem of examination malpractices in Ekiti State and the various schools that make up the in the state.
Significance of the Study
The study intends to find out the factors that are responsible for examination malpractice and also some possible measure to eradicate it. It will help us to shift emphasis from paper qualification on job to experience by policy making those who plan the curriculum in Nigeria relevant authority in Nigeria institution and the state ministry of education with information and new ideas concerning examination malpractices.
It will also help such organization as the Nigeria national council in the areas of examination malpractices.
Scope of the Study
The study intends to find out the causes and some possible solution to examination malpractice in Nigeria institution. The study is restricted to the Ekiti State University, University of Nigeria Nsukka, Ikere Campus, Federal Polytechnic Ado Ekiti, College of Education, Ikere Ekiti
1. What are the influence of examination malpractice on lecturer attitude to lecturing in higher institution
2. What are the influence of examination malpractice on student attitude to learning in higher institution
3. Is there any remedies to curb examination malpractice among lectures in Higher institution
1. There is no significant influence of examination malpractices on lectures’ attitude to learning in higher institutions.
2. There is no significant influence of examination malpractice on student’s attitude to learning in higher institution
3. There is no significant influence of examination malpractice on lecturer attitude to lecturing in higher institution.
Definition of Terms
OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS
Examination: It is a way to ascertain how much of a subject matter in a particular field of study the candidate has mastered. In other words, it is a process through which studies are evaluated or tested to find out the quality of knowledge they have acquired within a specific period.
Malpractice: It is a failure of professional person to proper services through reprehensive ignorance or negligence or through criminal intent. It is also referred to as improper misconduct.
Examination malpractice: Is any act of omission or commission that contravenes the Rules and Regulations of the examination body to the extent of undermining the validity and reliability of the tests and ultimately, the integrity of the certificates issued.
School Authorities: This refers to teachers and principals who are invigilators and supervisors of examination in schools.
Education: It is the transmission of cultural renewal. It is the development of the mind and body (cognitive, affective, and psychomotor domains) of an individual in order that he/she may become useful to the society.
Educational Administrator: This refers to someone who administers an educational organization of a unit within the organization either a system or an institution such as university, polytechnics, colleges, etc.
Teacher: One who educates and train others to learn .He is the person who impacts knowledge into others through some teaching skills and methods.
Curriculum: This is a guide to the things students are taught in schools. Thus, the content of teaching and learning can be in the form of theory and practice.
School Facilities: this refers to thing such as buildings, classroom chairs, tables, school hall, Field, Materials etc. that are useful in the school system and enhances effective teaching and learning.
Test Anxiety: This refers to the fear a student exhibits before, during or after writing a test.