EFFECT OF THE USE OF VISUAL AIDS IN THE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF BASIC SCIENCE
This project work was undertaken to survey the effect of the use of visual aids in the teaching and learning of Basic Science in some selected junior secondary school in Ikere Local Government Area of Ekiti State. To find solution to the problems which gave to undertaking the survey questionnaires were raised to check the availability use and the attitude of teachers towards visual aids in basic science teaching in the selected junior secondary school in the local government areas of study. From the findings it was discovered that visual aids are not available in schools therefore teachers teach the various science theories and skills without the required basic aids. Recommendations were therefore made to the appropriate authorities to provide and maintain audio/visual aids in the teaching of Basic Science so as to enhance the promotion of learning among pupils towards improved yearly performance and daily use.
1.0 BACKGROUND OF STUDY
Instructional materials are materials or tools used to enhance or enlighten the effective teaching and learning process among students in schools. Teaching and learning are concerned with the training of students, but learning is a complete process.
It can however be defined as a change in disposition, a relatively permanent change in behaviour overtime and this is brought about by experience, learning can occur as a result of newly acquired skills, knowledge, perceptions, facts, principles, new information at hand etc Adeyangu (2001). Learning can be reinforced with learning aids of different variety because they stimulate, motivate as well as arrest learner’s attention for a while during the instructional process.
Learning aids are instructional materials are devices through which teaching and learning are done in schools as in Ekiti State secondary schools (junior). Examples of learning aids (instructional materials) includes visual aids, audio – visual aids, real objects and many others like laboratory apparatus which are test – tube, Boiling tube, conical flask, spring and chemical balance, separating funnel, filter paper, burettes, retort stand, pipette, beakers etc for effective stability of teaching and learning of integrated science. Again materials for effective teaching and learning of Basic Science are use of textbooks, specimen or chart and chalkboard for demonstration.
Visual Aids referred to as teaching aids which called instrument materials is described by Terry and Thomas (2009), as “Teaching materials or learning resources available to teaching”. It is against this background that the applications of teaching aids are very necessary in teaching or learning situations in the school system; especially in Basic Science. According to advanced learners’ Dictionary, teaching aids are things used to help the teachers during teaching or used in teaching.
Visual aids are designed materials that may be locally made or commercially produced. They come in form of wall – charts illustrated pictures, pictures, pictorial materials and other two dimensional objects. There are also audio – visual aids. These are teaching machines like radio, television and all sorts of projection with sound attribute, Inyang (2007). There are two main reasons why it is important to actually show the students what the teachers are teaching.
1. Visuals clarify the material being taught.
2. Visuals make learning more permanent.
Audio visual aids in teaching and learning of basic science embrace all possible media presenting information effectively through the topics teaching in the subjects
According to Chinese proverb which says “what I hear I forget, what I see I remember, what I do I know”, audio – visual aid can be projected and non – projected aids. Therefore teaching aids are meant to improve and supplement, also implement and give a sophisticated analysis based on the topics taught in Basic Science in junior classes.
In Basic science, students will have the knowledge of how water can be separated from kerosene by the method called separation techniques, they will know how the light rays disperse and also know the functions of organs, tissues and cells in the human body by the use of laboratory apparatus, specimen, charts and textbooks. Basic science is a combination of the main science subject which includes integrated science, chemistry, physics and biology. Therefore, teaching of Basic science give the junior students the knowledge of integrated science, chemistry, physics and biology which they could understand and forge ahead in senior classes.
It is interesting to note that large percentage of junior students in Ekiti urban that undergo teaching and learning with some learning aids achieve more performance in Basic science. They do so consciously because it is known that the students who make the use of instructional materials have impacted more positive effect on learning outcomes as their cognition experience during teaching and learning which improves and revealed by use of instructional materials.
Yusuf (2003) asserted that instructional materials are these materials and devices used to supplement the written or spoken words in the process of transmitting knowledge, attitudes, ideas and skills to the learners. He listed these materials as including chalkboards, charts, graphs, diagrams, exhibits, flannel boards, flat pictures photographs, prints, maps, models, motions pictures, objects, specimens and textbooks. Others include equipments, excursion or field trips and demonstrations, the necessity of instructional materials in the teaching – learning process for the attainment of the goals of instruction is not disputable. Ikwuakam (2006) observed that these materials bring the learner face to face with reality. They concretize ideas, concepts, facts, principles and generalizations. They are dependable for capturing the learner’s imaginations. Azikiwe in Offorma (2004) asserted that these materials facilitate learning and to save the teaching – learning process from being merely the talk approach. They are needed for the achievement of curriculum objectives.
The adequate provision of instructional materials for teaching is important but it is useless filling up rooms with materials which may end up getting spoilt without being put into use for a day. It therefore means that the effective utilization of instructional materials is necessary for the achievement of the objective of instruction. The utilization of instructional materials according to Olaitan (2009), involves the teacher manipulating these materials to facilitate the teaching learning process.
The extent of use of instructional materials in teaching and learning of Basic science stimulates on the operational definition of perception as it is reflected and focused on variable and contextual factors as having effects on how perception takes places. The individual perceives as a result of variables surrounding the interpretation, this is why a teacher supposed to organize his or her method of teaching around the aim and objective he/she intends the student to achieve, in order to attain the objective. Instructional materials are perceived as very important in the teaching – learning of Basic science.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
It is a common knowledge that the success of effective performance of students depend on how the teacher make use of instructional materials and their failure depends on when the instructional materials are not available and where it is available it was not properly used.
There is the assumption generally that visual aids are inadequate materials in our secondary schools in Ikere local government area of Ekiti State.
This research is an exploratory study that seeks to examine the effects of using Visual teaching and learning by the use of instructional materials in junior secondary schools in Ikere local government area of Ekiti State which will give change in behavior, comprehensible in learning and make them to be vibrant in knowledge.
Education is the bedrock and key to any national development. It helps in producing the needed manpower for both economic and technological development. It also teaches skills to the youths thereby preparing them for a useful living. The acquisition for practice skills and basic knowledge by student for activities in Basic science require the good manipulation of skill oriented instructional materials. The Basic science curricula are expected to achieve certain objectives, which the realization may be difficult without an adequate provision and effective utilization of certain materials (Visual Aids) in the teaching – learning process.
The power attitude of students toward Basic Science, high cost of some instructional materials and poor performances of students in Basic Science in (JSSCE) are some of the fundamental issue which educational policy makers need to resolve. Salami (2012), stated that adequate provision of facilities and equipment and their proper utilization have always been positively correlated to good performances have been blamed on in adequacies and ineffective utilization.
The teaching of Basic Science should be dynamic, practical oriented and activity based. This would only be possible when the necessary instructional materials are adequately provided in the secondary schools. This would make the teaching and learning of Basic Science to be effective, motivating and capture students’ interest. The benefit from the use of instructional materials are only realized when the available materials/facilitates are utilized by teachers in teaching-learning process. Udosen (2003) said that most teachers have formed the habit of adopting the verbalistic and theoretical method as a way of teaching subjects in secondary schools; this could be as result of unavailability of instructional materials in the schools. Mkpa (2000), reported that even when instructional materials like Visual Aids are available in schools, most teachers still do not use them in teaching. The non-utilization of instructional materials in the teaching learning process by teachers, according to Eshiet (2006), result to rotation learning with all kinds of misconceptions, poor motivation, dampening of aspirations, killing of morals and poor skill development.
It is also a fact that the government has demonstrated a Luke-worm attitude to the provision of instructional materials [Visual Aids] in our secondary schools in Nigeria and Ikere local government as a case study cannot be exonerated.
It is on this premise that this research work intends to study the Effect of Visual Aids on the academic performance of students in Basic Science in selected junior secondary school in Ikere local government area of Ekiti State.
PURPOSE / OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The major purpose of this study is to determine the effects of the use of visual aids in the teaching / learning of Basic science in junior secondary schools in Ikere local government area of Ekiti State.
Other purposes of the study are:-
1. Identify the instructional materials available for teaching Basic science.
2. Assess the adequacy of the available instructional materials in the schools.
3. Find out the extent to which teachers utilize the available materials in teaching integrated science and their effects in the academic performance of the students.
4. Identify the factors constraining the provision of instructional materials in the schools.
5. Determine measures for maximizing the utilization of instructional materials especially Visual Aids in teaching of Basic science in junior secondary schools in Ikere local government area of Ekiti State.
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
· The findings of this study would provide the ministry of education with some useful information which would make them appreciate the need to work out effective means of providing the essential instructional facilities for junior secondary schools in Ikere local government area as well as Ekiti state at large. The ministry would do this by establishing instructional resources centre where there materials could be easily made available.
· Government would also see the need to organize seminars and conference for serving teachers on the improvisation and utilization of visual aids and other instructional materials for teaching the subjects in the schools.
· The finding of this research would provide basic science teachers with some useful information which would help them see the need for effective utilization of instructional materials in the teaching – learning process.
· Students would also benefit from the findings of the study as use of instructional materials especially visual aids by teachers in the teaching of basic science would arouse their interest in the subject and help them acquire skills in basic science.
· Officials of Education services and curriculum planners in the areas of basic science would benefit from the findings of the study. They would be provided with some information on the need for making instructional materials available for use by basic science teachers, (Basic Outline of the National Policy on Pre – Primary and Primary Education 2004).
SCOPE OF STUDY
These covered the effect of the use of visual aids in teaching and learning of basic science in Ikere local government area of Ekiti state. It identified the various instructional materials available, assessed their adequacy and effect of utilization by teachers in the junior secondary schools, determined factors constraining provision and measures for improving the use of instructional materials (Visual Aids) for teaching and learning Basic science.
1. What instructional materials are available for teaching Basic Science?
2. How adequate are the available instructional materials for the teaching – learning of Basic Science.
3. To what extent do teacher utilize the available instructional materials for teaching – learning of English and integrated science.
4. What are the effects of Using Visual Aids in the teaching and learning of Basic Science?
5. What factors constrain the provision of instructional materials in the schools?
6. What measures could be employed to improve the utilization of instructional materials (Visual Aids) in the junior secondary schools?