CULTURAL FACTORS INFLUENCING FEMALE STUDENTS PARTICIPATION IN RECREATION SPORT IN LAGOS STATE - UNIPROJECTS

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CULTURAL FACTORS INFLUENCING FEMALE STUDENTS PARTICIPATION IN RECREATION SPORT IN LAGOS STATE



CULTURAL FACTORS INFLUENCING FEMALE STUDENTS PARTICIPATION IN RECREATION SPORT IN LAGOS STATE
ABSTRACT
The study examined the cultural factors influencing female participation in recreation sports in secondary schools in Alimosh Local Government Area, Lagos State. The objective of this study was to investigate the cultural factors influencing female participation in recreation sports. A descriptive research design of the survey type was employed for this study. Simple random sampling technique was used to select all the 300 hundred (300) female students consisting of 134 female students in JSS classes and 166 female students in SSS classes representing 50% of the total population. Researcher’s designed questionnaire was used to elicit data. The questionnaire was validated by three experts from the Department of Physical and health Education which was tested for reliability; a co-efficient of 1was obtained through test-retest method using Pearson’s Product Moment Correlation. Questionnaire was administrated and collected by the researchers. The null hypotheses were analyzed using of Chi-square statistics at 0.05 alpha level. The findings of this study revealed that; that there was significant influence of religious practice, gender constraints and cultural practice on sports participation among female students in secondary schools in Alimosho LGA, Lagos State. With cal,v (70.160) > crit.v (16.92), calc.value (39.347) > crit.value (16.92) and calc. value (99.200) > crit. value (16.92) at 0.05 alpha level and 9 degree of freedom respectively. It was concluded that; there is significant influence of religion, gender constraints and cultural practice on sports participation among female students in secondary schools in Alimosho LGA of Lagos State. It was recommended that, school administrators should not allow religious and cultural practices to influence sports participation among female students in secondary schools in Lagos  state

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Background to the study
Recreational sports are competitive physical games such as basketball or baseball that are played for fun as opposed to professionally. Basketball and football games you play with your friends or as part of a intramural league are examples of recreational sports.  Recreational sports are those activities where the primary purpose of the activity is participation, with the related goals of improved physical fitness, fun, and social involvement often prominent. Recreational sports are usually perceived as being less stressful, both physically and mentally, on the participants.
Recreational sport is a universal phenomenon that encompasses all the facets of human endeavour, which appeal to men and women of all ages, gender, religion, culture or creed. Albueku (2011)  defined sport as a dynamic social force, an institutionalized physical activity usually requiring the demonstration of physical process and involving competition between individuals or groups, who play to win under certain predetermined rules. Sports is the activities involving power and skills, competition, strategy, and (or) chance, and engaged in for the enjoyment, satisfaction and (or) personal gain (Ă–cal, 2006). Sports play very important roles in educational institutions in virtually all parts of the world, and the contribution of sports to the educational process in institutions cannot be overemphasized (Ongonga, Okwara, & Okello, 2010).
Smoll and Smith, (2002) believed that involvement in organized Recreational sports activities allows young people to learn many of life lessons and develop desired attributes within the mainstream society. Engagement in school sports programmes is supposed to promote boys’ and girls’ moral
functioning, self-discipline, ability to work with others, and capacity to compete and effectively cope with success as well as failure (Mahoney, Eccles, & Larson, 2005). Adedeji (2005) explained that sports participation is a means of correcting physical illness, a medium for cultural change. Also, Recreational sports is wholesome, mentally stimulating and socially sound. Sport as a social agent brings  people  of  different  sexes,  ages,  cultures  and  religious  settings  together  as participating athletes and spectators alike make use of their free time to entertain themselves being an instrument of promoting unity, understanding and fostering peace among people.
Empowerment of girls is often overlooked because sport is not universally perceived as a suitable  or  desirable  pursuit  for  girls.  Existing  social  constructs  of  masculinity  or  socially accepted ways of expressing what it means to be a man or woman in a particular socio-cultural context play a key role in determining access, levels of participation, and benefits from sport. It is true in all countries that girls are less likely than boys and men to participate in sports, and
sport continues to be dominated by males. Kjonniksen and Wold (2008) explained that through structured sport programmes, girls can become more physically active, benefiting their physical and mental health, including the reduced risk they will suffer from chronic diseases, depression and  anxiety,  and  engaging  in  health  risk  behaviours.  Sport  can  also  be  a  powerful  health information and education platform, connecting girls with the information, skills and strategies they need to reduce health risks in their lives, particularly in connection with their sexual and reproductive health. Sport can help increase self-esteem by giving female the opportunities to learn new skills, engage in positive relationships, engage in volunteer service and receive public recognition. In contrast to the expectation of sport for all, most female experience role conflict and this is reflected in the attitude of the general public regarding female participation in sports in Nigeria. Female’s participation in recreational sporting activities has for a long time been relatively low compared  with  men  due  to  differential  treatment  based  on  socialized  gender  roles  and expectations. Consequently, the traditional images of gender in Nigeria have often worked against women’s participation in sport. This perhaps, extensively reduces already existing opportunities available for women to be involved in sports (Adesoye, 2012).
Klun and Mala (2009) reported that women in Nigerian communities were not active recreational sport participants and not regard sport as conducive to their physical wellbeing. Also, most communities in Nigeria especially rural ones, cultural beliefs and attitudes have strong influence on low participation of women in sports. Besides, organization of sporting activities in most communities is usually focused on combative sports, such as boxing, wrestling, archery and shooting. These sports are mainly participated by men and tend to discriminate against women. While some cultures strengthen the practice and propagate sporting programmes in their communities, others do not for reasons they considered against their religious inclinations. Islam and Christianity are religions that are alien to African cultures especially the stoppage of the killing of twins that was in practice in Africa before the coming of Mary Slessor to Nigeria and the introduction of Western Education to Africa and abolition of slave trade (Zakus & Daniel, 2007).
Babatunde (2005) define religion as a cultural universal with a unified system of beliefs and practices relative to sacred things, uniting into a single moral community all those who adhere to those beliefs, values and practices. Religion is an institutionalized system of symbols, beliefs, values and practices that focuses on questions or ultimate meaning. Religion as a cultural heritage is evident as it often seems out of culture of a given society. Religion, as a belief and the practicing of particular system of faith coupled with the social attributes of organizations and relations between people and communities, play great roles in determining acceptable standards, customs, traditions, religious practices and beliefs have modelled the woman's image worldwide and the suitability of activities they engage in. Ikulayo & Adekoya, (2006) viewed female participation in sport as anti-religious. Sports wears are often smart-looking and could be offensive to some religious faithful, Oworu (2005) stressed further to agree with the earlier statement that in some parts of the Nigeria, women are forbidden to expose themselves beyond the knees and elbows. Such women find it difficult to participate in sports which would require
them to wear shorts, skirts and sleeveless vests. Example of such cases can be viewed in Sokoto state in 2000, in Zanfara and some Northern part of Nigeria.
Ogunleye (2009) further stressed that female especially, the adults is expected to cover all ther body from head to the legs. So the type of dress used by sports women which expose them from the "top to the bottom" are not acceptable by come religion. According to Ogunleye (2009) religious belief of an individual has a strong influence on his attitude toward issues. The implication of this is that various religious doctrines might have strong influence on women’s
participation in sports. In contrast to the expectation of sport for all, women experience role conflict and this is reflected in the attitude of the general public regarding female participation in sports in Nigeria. Women’s participation has for a long time been relatively low compared with men due to differential treatment based on socialized gender roles and expectations.
Consequently, the traditional images of gender in Nigeria have often worked against women’s participation in sport. This perhaps, extensively reduces already existing opportunities
available for women to be involved in sports (Adesoye, 2012). Klun and Mala (2009) reported that most women in Nigerian communities were not active sport participants. According to them these women did not regard sport as conducive to their physical wellbeing. Klun further showed that in most communities in Nigeria, especially rural ones, cultural beliefs and attitudes had strong influences on low participation of women in recreational sports. Besides, organisation of sporting activities in most communities is usually focused on combative sports, such as boxing, wrestling, archery and shooting. These sports are mainly participated in by male and tend to discriminate against female.

Statement of the problem
However in spite of the importance of recrational sports and physical activities to the female secondary school students, many factors seem to be hindering their participation. These include cultural factors, parental influence, availability of standard facilities and equipment, coping with academic stress. At times many parents frown at their children’s participation in sports while some encourage them.  In Nigeria, many  secondary school lack standard facilities and equipment needed for sports participation either for competition or for recreational purposes.
Despites all the benefits listed in participating in sports, it is observed that majority of the female secondary school students in Alimosho Local government area of Lagos  State are not participating in recreational sports. This worrisome situation has kindled the researcher’s interest in investigating the cultural factors affecting female students’ participation in recreational sports in secondary schools in Lagos

Objective of the study
The major objective of this study is to find out cultural factors affecting female secondary school students participation in recreational sport in Alimosho local government area of Lagos State.
          The specific objective is
1.     To find out the influence of religion on recreational sports participation among female students in secondary schools in Alimosho Local government area of Lagos State
2.     To investigate the influence of gender constraints on recreation sport participation among female students in secondary schools in Alimosho Local government area of Lagos State
3.     To determine the effect of Cultural difference on recreation sports participation among female students in secondary schools in Alimosho Local Government Area, Lagos State?
4.     To find out if parental influence inhabitating factors to female participation in recreation sports in Alimosho local government area

Research Questions
The following researcher questions were formulated to guide the study;

1.     What is the influence of religion on sports participation among female students in secondary schools in Alimosho Local Government Area, Lagos State?
2.     What is the influence of Gender constraints on sports participation among female students in secondary schools in Alimosho Local Government Area, Lagos State?

3.     What is the influence of Cultural difference on sports participation among female students in secondary schools in Alimosho Local Government Area, Lagos State?
Research Hypothesis
The following research questions were formulated to guide the study
1.     Influence of religion does not have significant different on female students participation in  recreation sport
2.     Gender constraints does not have significant different on students participation in recreational sport in Alimosho local government Area of Lagos State
3.     Cultural factors does not have significant different on female student participation in recreational sport
Significant of the study
The study provides valuable knowledge in the field of gender and sport and especially in the Ministry of Education Science and Technology in achieving equality for all as recommended by the Gender Policy in Education (2007). It further sets to help the government while formulating policies aimed at achieving the millennium goals on promotion of gender equality and empowerment of women, and in realizing the constitutional bills of rights which calls for equal treatment for both men and women 8

in all social spheres. The study provides information to other researchers and other readers in general on gender participation and leadership in teacher training colleges in Eastern Zone, Kenya.
Scope of the study
This study is aimed at investigating cultural factors affecting female secondary schools students participation in recreational activities in Alimosho local government area of Lagos state. The study covers five selected secondary schools in the local government area.