INSTRUCTIONAL PROBLEMS ASSOCIATING WITH PERFORMANCE OF BASIC TECHNOLOGY STUDENTS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN LAGOS STATE - UNIPROJECTS

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INSTRUCTIONAL PROBLEMS ASSOCIATING WITH PERFORMANCE OF BASIC TECHNOLOGY STUDENTS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN LAGOS STATE



INSTRUCTIONAL PROBLEMS ASSOCIATING WITH PERFORMANCE OF BASIC TECHNOLOGY STUDENTS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS  IN LAGOS STATE

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Background to the study
Quality education is a global concern in virtually all societies. To achieve it, efficient and quality teaching needs to be employed. However, this may not occur without the use of instructional technologies. Instructional technologies play a vital role in teaching and learning process and have proved to have several inherent advantages when well utilized.Instructional technologies helps to provide students with the necessary experiences, concrete or simulated and integrate prior experiences as well (Dale 2009).Hence, a student who has an advantage of reacting to well-selected instructional methods can learn more effectively than those who are provided largely through verbal information.

Appropriate use of Instructional method can enrich learning settings by showing things that are far away, those that took place in the past, those that are minute to see, too large to bring to class, too complex to understand at first sight with explanations only, or things that cannot be seen, heard, or perceived by other channels (Kemp and Dayton 2015).Due to rapid technological changes, instructional technologies have become part and parcel of the teaching and learning process. Thus, Heinich, Molenda and Russel (2015) observe that:

…facilitation of learning. More modern media are also making it possible for students to use all their senses. Therefore, any instructional setting, or otherwise can become a classroom with the aid of and sometimes near total dependence upon instructional resources. Such media as tapes, records, films, transparencies, filmstrips and slides, have overtaken the chalkboard in the media becoming increasingly valuable.

Teachers nowadays find themselves with a lot of content to cover within very a short time. The use of instructional method can help reduce the length of time required for instruction leaving more time for practice of skills. Most instructional technologies are effective in the delivery of content and also helps sustain learners‟ interest. Moreover, the students can study details of instructional technologies at a time and place more convenient to them (Kemp and Dayton 2015).
Methodology is very vital in any teaching/learning situation. The method adopted by the teacher may promote or hinder learning. It may sharpen mental activities which are the bases of social power or may discourage initiatives and curiosity thus making self-reliance and survival difficult Ameh, and Dantani (2014). The way a teacher presents subject matter to learners may make them like or dislike the subject, it has also been reported by Mtsem (2005) that teaching method affects the responses of students and determines whether they are interested, motivated and involved in a lesson in such a way as to engage in good learning. What constitutes good teaching and learning of school subjects is the use of appropriate
method of teaching. Ogunniyi (2011) asserted that one of the most persistent and compelling problems besetting academic achievement in Nigeria is poor quality of teaching.
There exists a number of teaching methods for teachers to use. They include: lecture, discussion, demonstration, laboratory, individualized instructional, field-trip, peer-teaching methods and so on. Ameh and Dantani (2009) observed that because chemsisty as a subject is bulky in nature the subject teachers usually adopt lecture method in teaching in order to cover the syllabus within the stipulated time and this does not give room for proper understanding of the subject. In view of the foregoing, this study examined the acquisition of science knowledge using two instructional methods namely, Laboratory and discussion methods with the aim of determining the effect of each method on the achievement of students in junior secondary schools.


The main purpose of teaching is to impart knowledge, information, values and skills to the student. The use of instructional technologies also promotes sharing of ideas, thoughts, feelings and knowledge (Macharia 2007). According to Betz (2010), visuals attract attention, which is paramount in learning. He further observes that many distractions compete for students‟ attention making it important to employ attention-catching devices to focus on the lesson.

Clearly, the importance of instructional methods in the teaching-learning process cannot be exhausted. Teachers‟ awareness of these benefits can motivate them to appreciate, embrace acquire and use the methodology in their teaching. It can create one of the ingredients of developing a positive attitude by the teacher regarding the use of instructional methods. It was for this reason therefore this study sought to establish the instructional problem associating with performance of students in basic technology  in Lagos state


Statement Of The Problem
It was observed at the time of this study that, effective application of  instructional method were hampered by some certain factors such as location of schools and teachers’ teaching experiences; the aggregated by number of years in job. It is the number of years in service that determines the experience and inexperience teachers. In most cases, the application of certain instructional method (s) depend wooly on the availability of instructional materials to be used and the availability of such depend on the location of the school which is narrowed to urban and rural schools. It was also noticed that effective application of such instructional methods as individualized method is affect by location of school and the learning environment, which has to do with space as concerning classroom space, seat arrangement and number of students in each classroom. Most schools in the urban areas are characterized by overcrowded classroom that did not permit effective interaction while the schools located at rural areas lack competent teachers, school library and learning materials that make classroom interaction interesting, concrete and participatory. Human factors are problems associated with the teacher’s professional commitments, creative ability technical skill, ingenuity and competence.  
In Nigeria, Lagos state in particular most of the schools find it difficult to make used of appropriate instructional method to impact knwodldhe to the students as a result of lack of instructional materials, lack of qualify teachers and inability to make use of appropriate teaching method to impact the necessary knowledge to the students. On this note, the study ought to determine the instructional problems associating with performance of basic technology students in secondary schools
Objectives of The Study
This study is designed to investigate the instructional problems associating with performance of basic technology students in secondary schools  in Lagos State
The specific objective will be to
i.                   Investigate the positive and negative attitude of Basic Technology teachers towards Instructional method  in teaching and learning
ii.                  What are the problem associated with the use of  instructional method in teaching basic technology
iii.              Does the use of appropriate  instructional method impact of students academic performance in basic Science
iv.              What are types of instructional technologies used in the teaching and learning processes.
Significance Of The Study
The significance of this study is that the study could contribute to the teaching and learning of basic technology , in secondary schools. Besides, it could also suggest how appropriate instructional method would be use to teach the students. Also the study could suggest to the government how qualified personnel’s can be trained to handle available instructional materials.
The study might also give suggestions which will influence the decisions of teachers, Parent Teachers Association [PTA] as a body, Old Students Association, and the community leaders on how to improve the personal condition of schools as regards provision, caring of instructional materials.
Scope of the study
This research work investigate instructional problem associated with students performance in basic technology in Lagos State. The  study is limited to all teachers and students  of in five selected secondary schools in  IKEJA  local government area of  Lagos state