AN ASSESSMENT OF THE EFFECT OF EDUCATION POLICY (6-3-3-4) ON ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS IN NIGERIA - UNIPROJECTS

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AN ASSESSMENT OF THE EFFECT OF EDUCATION POLICY (6-3-3-4) ON ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS IN NIGERIA




ABSTRACT
This study investigates the effect of 6-3-3-4 system of education on Nigeria students’ academy performance. This study was a survey research type which comprises of selected secondary schools in Ikere Local Government Area of Ekiti State. Questionnaire was used as a research instrument for data collection from one hundred (100) sampled respondents and the data was analysed with the use of frequency and simple percentage. The result shows that the curriculum of 6-3-3-4 system of education is not well developed to help students’ to realize their potentials as the Ministry of Education do not fully provide the materials needed to help the students with their academic performance. It was therefore recommended that the 6-3-3-4 system of education (UBE) should be improved the upheld as the education system in Nigeria. Also, the fact that the government has committed a huge sum of money to the 6-3-34 of education without yielding any appreciation result show that there is needs for moral, spiritual and financial support of religious, social and political organisation, teachers, parent and students, educators and educationist, including all well – meaning Nigerians to reach out to National Education goals.


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TABLE OF CONTENT
                                                                                               Page
Title Page…………………………………………………             
Certification………………………………………………                      
Dedication………………………………………………...                       
Acknowledgement………………………..………………                       
Abstract…………………………………………………...                       
Table of content…………………………………………..                       
CHAPTER ONE: Introduction
1.1     Background of the study….………………………………       
1.2     Statement of the Problem..……….……………………….             
1.3     Objective of the Study…………………………………….        
1.4     Research Questions ……………………………………….          
1.5     Research Methodology……………………………………          
1.6     Significance of the Study………………………………..            
1.7     Justification of the Study ……...………………………..           
1.8     Scope of the Study………..…………………………...…..         
1.9     Definition of Terms ……………………………………….        
CHAPTER TWO: Literature Review and Theoretical Framework
2.1     The Definition of 6-3-3-4System of Education ………….          
2.2     Challenges of Curriculum Development in Nigeria………               
2.3     The Poor State of the Nations’ Economy:                                
 Impact on Education Policies …………………………….                
2.4     Conceptualizing Education Policy ……………………….          
2.3     Method of Educational Planning …………………………         
2.6     Theoretical Framework …………………………………...       
CHAPTER THREE: Research Methodology
3.1     Research Design…………………………………………             
3.2     Population of the Study …………………………………...                  
3.3     Sample and Sampling Technique .………………………..        
3.4     Instrument for Data Collection …………….………….…          
3.5     Source of Data Collection …….………………………..…        
3.6     Validation of the Instrument…….…………………………              
3.7     Administration of the Instrument .…………………….…        
3.8     Data Analysis Technique …….……………………………                  
CHAPTER FOUR: Presentation and Analysis of Data
4.1     Presentation of Results..………….………………………            
4.2     Discussion of Findings……………………………………          
CHAPTER FIVE: Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations
5.1     Summary …………………………………..……………..           
5.2     Conclusion ….………..………………………………..…..                 
5.3     Recommendation ……………………………………..……                  
5.4     Suggestion for Further Study ……………………….…….                  
REFERENCES ……………………………………………..……         
APPENDIX…………………………………………………….…         
CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1       Background of the Study
Education is an age long phenomenon is all societies, although itmay take various forms from one society to another. In Nigeria, two forms of education were in existence before the advent of colonialism. They were indigenous education and Islamic education. Traditional education was practiced in the Southern part, and middle belt area, consisted essentially of general but informal training in character, norms, agriculture, fishing, intellectuals and other ways of life as approved by the society. Islamic education on the other hand was practiced mainly in the Northern part of Nigeria. It was based on Quran teachings. Both form of education preceded the western education which was introduced in Nigeria in the 19th century by the European Christian Missionaries. The advert of colonial brought about informal education in Nigeria. This subsequently led by Policy Formation in Education Sector.
Educational system is defined by dictionary of education, (2008) as the system of formalized transmission of knowledge and value, within a given society. Educational system is the way the people in a given society carry out all activities relating to education (Abati, 2010). To this end, educational system is a system which embraces teachers, students, contents and contexts to achieve set goals. Nigeria has established several educational systems and each of them had laid huge financial, material and labour costs on the country. It is pathetic that each of these very expensive programmes had supposedly failed leading to establishment of a new one. Even the most recent one being the 9-3-4 system has been viewed to have failed as observed by Abati (2010). Nigeria cannot continue to gamble with the future of her younger generations over various ineffective and inefficient educational systems.
Adaralegbe in Adeyinka (1991) stated that the 6-3-3-4 system of education is an educational system which administers a six year primary school course followed by six years of secondary schooling, divided into three year of junior secondary and a three year senior secondary education and lastly a four -year university programme. Anieto (2011) commenting on the ineffectiveness of the 6-3-3-4 system of education stated that; there is a general worry about the poor quality of education output in Nigeria. Researchers have pointed to the declining performance of graduates from the education system relative to what obtained in the past education system.–(Ugochukwu, 2009, Duze, 2011, Aladejana, 2013).          
A critical examination of the type of formal education in Nigeria before and after independence shows that this education was inadequate and unsatisfactory to the nation's yearnings and aspirations. In the opinion of many scholars like Nduka, (1965); Fafunwa (1974); Obayan (1982); the education was parochial, elitist, regurgitate and irresponsive to the need and aspirations of the Nigerian society.
In a bid to check this abnormality, therefore, the then Federal Government of Nigeria adopted education as an instrument par excellence for effective national development. Plan it is stated: education goals in terms of its relevance to the need of the individual as well as in terms of the kind of society desired in relation to the environment and realities of the modern world and rapid social changes should be clearly set out (National policy on Education, F.R.N. 1981).
Abati (2010), stated that it is a common knowledge that the 6-3-3-4 system of education is the major reform in Nigeria’s education system and is generally regarded as fafunwa’s baby. Also, the 6-3-3-4 did not produce the expected technician class because of the emergent culture of automatic promotion, and the situation that almost every family’s insistence on university education.
The 9-3-4 system of education was introduced to replace the 6-3-3-4 system. The system merged the six years of primary education and the first three years of the secondary education. Concerning this, Uwaifor and Uddin (2009) stated that the new system has its first nine years of basic and compulsory education up to the Junior Secondary School level, three years in the senior secondary school, and four years in the tertiary institution. They further noted that it was designed to streamline the overcrowded nature of then the 6-3-3-4 system of education was seen as a laudable programme capable of ushering in an educational revolution in Nigeria; hence step in the right direction, towards the technological development of the nation.
However, the current situation on ground is far from this ideal. This system seems to be suffering from poor and shoddy implementation. This work thus examines the effect of 6-3-3-4 system of education in students’ academic performance a case study of some selected secondary schools in Ikere local government.
1.2       Statement of the Problem
Education in Nigeria is currently in crisis. There is less money to spend on Primary, Secondary and Tertiary education. Education sector complains of under-funding while the government accuses the sector of inefficient utilization of available resources. The donors argue that public spending on education should be reduced. At the same time there are growing changes at the education level. Moreover, there are increasing complaints about poor standard of education at a period when globalization demands much from the educational system in terms of preparation of skillful labour force.
            Another problem battling with this educational sector in Nigeria is the incompetence of employed teachers. This is found rampant in private schools, for the simple fact that such schools are owned by private individuals that can employ staff on their own without verifying their educational background, standard and qualification. Owners of such schools tend to be profit oriented (capitalist). With this, their target on payment of salary will be lesser unlike public school which is anchored by the government. The gaps that this study waits to fill is that several study(ies) has been conducted by the researchers on the study, using content analysis as the method of analyzing the identifying variables, but this study employ the descriptive analysis to investigate the relationship between the independent and dependent variables.
There is a rampant notion which is generally felt in the Nigeria’s education sector. The academic performance of students at the various levels of educational system, the incessant strikes embarked by the Academic Staff Union of Universities (ASUU) and Non-Academics Staff Union (NASU), teachers in the secondary and primary schools etc. have really affected the education sector and performance of the students. Owing to this, the academic calendar have been disrupted, pupils and students have stayed more than required in their studies. To the employed staff in the academic institutions, their agitations boil down to the inability by government to meet up the new salary scheme. More so, it is attributed to the poor state of the learning institutions, which the attention of the government is drawn on. These have prompted the researcher to embark on the study to investigate the effect of 6-3-3-4 system of education on Nigeria students’ academic performance.
1.3       Objective of the Study
The main purpose of the study was to ascertain the effect of 6.-3-3-4 system of education on Nigeria students’ academic performance in some selected secondary schools in Ikere Local Government Area of Ekiti – State.   Specifically, the objectives of the study are:
1.      Examining the academic performance of students in secondary schools in other to ascertain the benefits of 6-3-3-4 system of education.
2.      Identifying factors that contribute to the poor performance of the students in secondary schools.
3.      To determine the policy implementation and the problems challenges associated with the policy.
4.      To examine the relevance of the policy, its introduction into Nigeria education system.
1.4       Research Questions
            The following research questions were formulated for the study.
1.      Does 6-3-3-4 system of education help students’ in achieving their academic performance?
2.      What are the factors affecting students’ performance at secondary school levels?
3.      What are the problems facing the implementation of 6-3-3-4 system of education at secondary school level?
4.      What are the relevance of 6-3-3-4 system of education to Nigerian education system?
1.5       Research Methodology
            The study employs the descriptive statistics as a survey design. Both primary and secondary data will be used as a source of data collection for the study. A qualitative approach is used to highlight the specific phenomena and to identify phenomena through how they are perceived by the actors in the situation. The primary data involves the data that is collected from source through interview and questionnaire, while secondary data involves the information collected from the prepared sources such as newspaper, magazine and academic journals. The method of data analysis would be based on simple percentage analysis
1.6       Signification of the Study
            The work of this nature when completed may help the school authorities to be aware of the effect of 6-3-3-4 system of education on students’ level academic attainment and how such affect the students’ positively or negatively in relation to their academic performance. From the available recommendations, they will be able to adopt measures of following proper curriculum implementation there in such a way that they will perform well academically. More so, educational and curriculum planners could be guided in planning the curriculum without rigidity to suit diverse cultural environments. In addition, the teachers would be aware that a cordial teacher/student relationship may in a way improve the influence of academic background on the academic performance of students’ in school.                       
The research of this nature is likely to help the state, nation, educational sectors and the world in general benefit from as adherence to the recommendations and implementation will help produce youths who would be better leaders of tomorrow.         
Finally, the research when completed may add to available literature and may encourage further research on the topic.         
1.7       Justification of the Study
            The needs for the study is very important at this point in time, as the nation is experiencing several reforms, policy and programme in education sector aimed at putting the education in appropriate position. The study looks at the reflection and influence of management and administrative styles of education sectors in the management and development of education sector in Nigeria with a reference to selected schools in Ikere local government area of Ekiti State. The selected schools will incorporate the elements of research and respondent that will be appropriate as the population of the study.  In the same vein, the study will draw the attention of government and stakeholders in the country to the effectiveness of curriculum implementation and using fund allocated to them and policy, instruments for education recovery from both national and global practice.
1.8       Scope of the Study
            The study is design to examine the effect of 6-3-3-4 system of education in students’ academic performance case study of some selected secondary schools in Ikere local government area of Ekiti State. It will also look at management and administrative style of selected schools.
1.9       Definition of Terms
Education: Education as an activity is as old as man across cultures. It is therefore a concept that people have severally defined according to their own perceptions. According to Emenike (2004), education is the acquisition of knowledge that tends to train and develop individual. Education embraces not only school experiences but also in direct or incidental influences which helps us to learn, such influences and activities affect our character, behaviors and perceptions. Education is a process of learning to live as useful and acceptable members of society.
Development: Is the process of developing something new, Cambridge Dictionary (2016): development related to this research work can be described as the overall development or a collective of education advancement of a nation. This is best achieved through curriculum planning, which can be described as the country’s collection of strategies mapped out by the government.
Policy: A course or principle of action adopted or proposed by an organization, government or individual.
System: A system is a collection of elements or components that are organized for a common purpose. The word sometimes describes the government or organization plan itself and is similar in meaning to method.


1.10    Organization of Chapters
            The study were divided into five chapters, chapter one of this research deals with introduction to the study which include the general background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions, research methodology, significance of the study, justification of the study, scope of the study, organization of chapters and definition of terms.
            Chapter two contain literature review and theoretical framework which include definition of 6-3-3-4 system of education, challenges of curriculum development in Nigeria, the poor state of the Nation’s economy: impact on educational policies in Nigeria, dealings and other areas.  Chapter three is concerned with the methodology which include research design, population of the study, sample and sampling technique, instrument for the collection, source of data collection, administration of the instrument and data analysis technique.
            Chapter four contains presentation and analysis of data. Chapter five which is the concluding chapter contains summary, recommendation and conclusion.

References
Abati, I. R. (2010). Reforming Nigeria’s Educational System- 6-3-3-4 or 6-5-4. Online Journal. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reuben_Abati.Retrieved 27th of January, 2013.
Adeyinka, A.A. (1991). The 6-3-3-4 Education Systems and the Drive for self-employment in Nigeria. Education Research Journal. (3) 22-328
Aladejana, F.O. (2013). Secondary Education in Ekiti State: The Functional Perspective. Government of Ekiti State, Nigeria.
Anieto, U. (2009). The 9-3-4 System: how formidable?. Online Article, retrieved from: http://www.focus Nigeria.com/934- system.html.
Cambridge Dictionary (2016). Meaning of “development” in the English Dictionary Retrieved from http://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/development
Duze, C.O. (2011). Falling Sta
ndard in Nigeria Education: Traceable to proper skills-acquisition in schools? Florida. Flap Height Press (ISSN: 2141-5161) Vol. 2(1).
Emenike, O. B. (2004). “Private Returns to Higher Education in Nigeria” African Economic Research Consortium Research Paper 139. Nairobi, March. 
Fafunwa A.B. (1974). History of Education in Nigeria.  London, George Alien & Unwin Press.
Nduka O. (1965). Western Education and Nigerian Cultural Background. Ibadan. University Press.
Obayan F.O.B. (1982). The New National Policy on Education in Nigeria:  Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 31(5), 937-943
Ugochukwu, A. (2009). The 9-3-4 System: How Formidable?. Florida. Journal of Educational Studies. (2) (3) pp 70-74
Uwaifo, V.O. and Uddin, P.S.O. (2012). Transition from the 6-3-3-4 to the 9-3-4 System of Education in Nigeria: An Assessment of its Implantation on Technology subjects. Journal of Applied Education and Vocational Technology 3(6) 33-47