THE ASSESSMENT OF STUDENTS’ FAILURE IN VOCATIONAL AND TECHNICAL EDUCATION COURSES IN TECHNICAL COLLEGES IN EKITI STATE - UNIPROJECTS

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THE ASSESSMENT OF STUDENTS’ FAILURE IN VOCATIONAL AND TECHNICAL EDUCATION COURSES IN TECHNICAL COLLEGES IN EKITI STATE



THE ASSESSMENT OF STUDENTS’ FAILURE IN VOCATIONAL AND TECHNICAL EDUCATION  COURSES IN TECHNICAL COLLEGES IN  EKITI STATE
 
TABLE OF CONTENTS
                                                                                                      Page
TITLE PAGE                                                                                 
APPROVAL PAGE                                                                            CERTIFICATION                                                                   
DEDICATION                                                                            
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS                                                            
TABLE OF CONTENTS                                                                
ABSTRACT                                                                                 
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
Background of the Study                                                                          
Statement of the Problem                                                                          
Purpose of the Study                                                                       
Delimitation of the Study                                                                         
Significance of the Study                                                                          
Research Questions                                                                          
Definition of Terms                                                                          
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
Historical Background                                                                    
Factors Influencing Students’ Performance or Failure in Schools.   
Summary of the Review of Literature                                                       
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Introduction                                                                                               
Design of the Study                                                                         
Area of the Study                                                                   
Population of the Study                                                         
Sample Size                                                                                     
Instrument for Data Collection                                                        
Validity of the Instrument                                                      
Reliability of the Instrument                                                   
Method of Data Collection                                                     
Method of Data Analysis                                                                
CHAPTER FOUR:
PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS   OF DATA
Analysis of Research Questions                                                        
Research Question 1                                                               
Research Question 2                                                               
Research Question 3                                                               
Research Question 4                                                               
Findings of the Study                                                             
Discussion of Findings                                                           
CHAPTER FIVE :
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Conclusion                                                                              
Recommendations                                                                           
Suggestion For Further                                                          
References                                                                              
Appendices                                                                            
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ABSTRACT
          Vocational and technical education has been identified as a tool for the realization of the proposed vision 20:20 by the federal government of Nigeria. The vision is for Nigeria to become one of the top twenty economics in the world by the year 2020. In this research work, it is necessary to look into the causes of failure in vocational and technical courses in technical colleges in Ekiti state and juxtapose with what was obtainable on ground in our institution where technical education learning takes place.
          Questionnaires were rolled out and accessed in four (4) technical colleges within Ekiti State of Nigeria and a total of two hundred and ten (210) questionnaires were assessed by students randomly selected in this four colleges. The reliability of this research instrument was conducted using the mean method of 3.50, which is enough for this work. It was discovered through assessment the level of technical tools, equipment and drawing materials are not adequate. They needed effective maintenance of the equipment make effective teaching and acquisition of skills. The research work also revealed that the personality of the students towards National Business and Technical Examination Board (NABTEB) is encouraging. This will go a long way in motivating the students and teachers in the discharge of their duties.


CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Background of the Study
          Technical education plays a significant role in providing middle level manpower needed for work in various industries for development and economic growth of every nation. Sarfo (2011) stated that there is the need for technical education to provide students with expertise to cope with the changing industrial demands in the present knowledge and technological economy. The expertise for the economic growth of a nation can best be provided in Technical Colleges. Technical Colleges are formal institutions where vocational and technical courses are offered by students in order to acquire skills, knowledge and attitudes. The aim of Technical Colleges according to the report of National Board for Technical Education (NBTE) (2001) is to give training and impart the necessary skills in various occupation leading to the production of craftsman, technicians and other skilled personnel who will be enterprising and self-reliant among others. Okpara (2003) added that Technical Colleges are designed to prepare individuals to acquire practical skills, basic scientific knowledge and attitude required as craftsman and technician at sub professional level.
          Technical colleges are set up by Federal or state government as principal vocational training institutions intended to prepare individuals without gender bias for entry into various occupation, as artisans and craftsmen. Okoro (2006) stated that Technical College are regarded as principal vocational institutions in Nigeria that give full vocational training intended to prepare students for entry into various occupation as operatives or artisans are craftsmen. Various technical trades such as Woodwork, Metalwork, Electrical and Maintenance, Electrical/Electronic, Automobile Craft, Furniture Craft, Building construction, Painting and Decorating are offered. 
          These technical trades learned by students in technical colleges are listed in National Policy on Education to equip students with skills, knowledge and altitude (Federal Government of Nigeria, 2004). These trades expose students to various skills, knowledge and altitude.
          A teacher is an individual that have been trained pedagogically and in the subject matter to teach skills, knowledge and attitude to students. Obanewa (1994) stated that a teacher is someone who has undergone the necessary and recommended training in a teacher preparation programme and in charged with the full responsibility of managing the classroom in such away as to enhance the learning behaviour of the students. According to Ede and Olaitan (2009) a teacher is a person who communicates knowledge, skills and attitude to someone in a school. A teacher according Miller, Balceave and Ikatunde (2010) is an individual who is trained in pedagogy and technical area of a particular subject to impact knowledge, skills and attitude to students in an institution. Teachers in this study are individuals who have been trained professionally in this art of teaching technical curriculum to students in Technical Colleges. These individuals are also called technical teachers. Okoro (2005) described a technical teacher as an individual who has acquired adequate skills and knowledge in an occupational area and fully trained to impact skill and knowledge to others. The teaching of technical teachers is effective when they are knowledgeable in subject matter and skilled in using various tools and equipment related to the subject. Effective teaching is the act of imparting planned knowledge and skills in a subject to students step to step in order to achieve objective of the lesson technical teachers therefore needed to be equipped the more for effective teaching.
          However graduates of the Technical Colleges acquire insufficient skills and knowledge for employment, which requires competent teachers to impact appropriate skills to enable them be employable in the world of work. Moreover, the students performance in technical courses (NABTEB) result released in 2011 was poor. NABTEB boss revealed a comparative analysis of the results showed a 26.12 percent failure, reflecting an increases of 0.30 percent against 25.85 percent in the previous year, the failure of these students may be as a result of ineffectiveness of the teachers in the technical colleges. Graduates of this field demonstrates can not practice what they learnt in the school which makes them roaming the street for non existing white scholar jobs.
          The level of competence of a nation’s skilled workers and technicians is certainly important for the flexibility and productivity of its labour force. The skilled workers and technicians enhance the quality and efficiency of product development, production and maintenance. The rapid changes of technology and knowledge in the present world are expanding the cognitive and practical knowledge required for productivity in technicians. Technical Education enables technicians to flexibly adjust to rapid changes in their environment (Van merrienbeer and Kirschnnir, 2007). Teachers need the necessary knowledge and skills in their areas of craft in order to turn out quality graduates who will serve as skilled workers and technicians for the nation.
Statement of the Problem
          Technical Colleges are established by government to equip individuals with skills, knowledge and attitudes in different occupations. This crafts is expected to expose students to skills and knowledge in areas such as surface preparation, tools and equipment. To achieve this much qualities is needed from the teachers. The competencies of these teachers have been tagged with the low performance of graduates in the field. Graduates in all fields of technical education in Technical Colleges acquire insufficient skills and knowledge for employment. Cross (2004) explained that there is urgent need for competent teachers to teach both the skills and knowledge in technical education curriculum of Technical Colleges to students who will be the future technicians. This will promote the development of expert in technical education students in order to cope with complex demands in the world of work (Vogatzki, 2002).
          It was discovered that most of the equipment in some technical colleges were found in a bad condition in the school workshops. A major problem in some technical schools is the adequacy of tools and equipments.
          It is also discovered by the researcher that maintenances work are not done on this machines to enhance the frequent use. Fafunwa (1999) also observed that a lot of equipment procured to accelerate technological education in this country have remain  under-utilized and unmaintained. As a result of all these, students may not receive the training that meets the employers demands due to insufficient equipment and well-trained technical instructors to manage, operate and maintain availability workshop.
          These above problems have prompt the researcher to undertakes this study, which is set out to ascertain the failure of students in vocational and technical education courses in Technical Colleges in Ekiti State.
Purpose of the Study
          The general purpose of the study was to determine the causes of students failure in vocational and technical education in Technical Colleges in Ekiti State.
          Specifically, this study will determine.
1.     The extent that the present curriculum affects students’ performance.
2.     The influence of availability of tools, equipment and training materials on the student’s performance.
3.     The teachers that will facilitate performance of the students.
4.     The causes of poor performance of students in National Business and Technical Education Board.
Delimitation of the Study
          The study is limited to technical colleges in Ekiti State. The study will focus on all students of vocational and technical education in all the four technical colleges in Ekiti State.
Significance of the Study
          The study will provide useful information to the ministry of education on the causes of failure of students in Technical Colleges.
          It is also hoped that this study will provide information which will be useful during planning for the ministry of education (Science and Technology Division) and all these concerned with the planning and preparation of students for the National Business and Technical Examination Board.
          It is also hoped that this study will provide bases for employment of staff into Ekiti State Technical Colleges in terms of qualifications and skills.
Research Questions
          In this study answers were sought for the following research questions:
1.     To what extent does the present curriculum affect student’s performance?
2.     What is the influence of availability of tools, equipment and training materials on the students’ performance in vocational and technical education?
3.     What are the factors that facilitate performance of the students in vocational and technical education in technical college in Ekiti State?
4.     What are the causes of poor performance in National Business and Technical examination Board?
Definition of Terms
Vocational and Technical Education: This is defined as vocational/technical training or retraining which is designed to prepare individuals for gainful employment, semi-skilled workers, technicians or sub-professionals in recognized occupation (Encyclopedia of education 1971).
Technical College: These are schools designated as senior secondary schools offering mainly technical subjects. They also train students in the skills that makes them craftsmen and self-reliant.
National Business and Technical Examination Board (NABTEB):  This is an examination body set up by Federal Government of Nigeria to administer examinations to generate education and all vocational trade in the technical colleges’ nationwide at the end of the three years programme.
Failure: This is the inability of an individual to meet up with the stated standard of any programme.