FINANCIAL REWARDS AND TEACHERS' COMMITMENT TO SCHOOL ACTIVITIES IN SOME SELECTED SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN MOBA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EKITI STATE
A study on financial rewards and teachers' commitment to school activities in some selected schools in Moba local government area of Ekiti state. The study examines the factors responsible for the job performance of teachers and how it affects the standards of education in Moba local government area of Ekiti State, the factors which are financial rewards teachers satisfaction with the salary structure, the relationship between financial reward level and their commitment to school activities and whether working in private or public school affect their level of job performance. The descriptive research design was used for the study. The sample consists of one hundred and forty (140) teachers selected from seven (7) secondary schools and five (5) primary schools in Moba Local government area of Ekiti State.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Table of content
Background of the study
Statement of the problem
Purpose of the study
Significance of the study
Scope of the study
Definition of terms
Review of related literature
Concept of financial rewards
Factors related to school activities
Influences of financial rewards on job performance
Appraisal of literature
Sample and sampling technique
Validity of the instrument
Reliability of the instrument
Administration of the instrument
Analysis of data
Result and discussion
Analysis of demographic data
Summary, conclusion and recommendations Summary
Conclusion Recommendation References Appendix
Background of the Study
Students’ poor performances and teacher's non-challant attitudes to their respective school's activities is a set back that can be traced to a number of causes such as inadequate executive power. The principals are supposed to have poor remuneration system, lack of funds general working condition, adverse government monetary policies and so on.
Abiodun (2004) one important factors that is always over looked is the absence or inadequacy of effective motivation by way of monetary incentives to teachers for example salaries, promotion, fringe benefits and other financial rewards. It should be noted however, that teachers do not automatically give their best performance or abilities to student they teach or see to the achievement of their school activities rather, they come to work with a number of needs and expectation of certain rewards such as health allowance, car loan, promotion as at when due, salary increment which cannot be achieves with the little salary they earn. All these expectation affect individual teacher's attitude towards their work and determines their desire to work effectively for the purpose of achieving social activities. The school activities or work include teaching - Leaning activities which enhances the full participation of both the teachers and students. Other school activities include extras curriculum activities such as sport and social activities like cultural activities that help to develop the standard of education as it exposes the student to different types of tribes in Nigeria and their activities. Creative works or bandy works are also included this give room for the students or learn other work apart from teaching learning in the classroom.
The heart of Nigerian's educational system is the teachers, whether at the primary, secondary and tertiary level. Adesina (19801) was of the view that the teachers are and would continue to be the major indicator as well as the major determinant of quality education. Researchers have shown that teachers represent indispensable human resources in the educational system. This was why Akomolafe (2003) asserted that there is no doubt that school could only affect changes in the environment with effort put forward by the teachers.
However, Adeniyi (2001) as cited by Ekundayo (2011) asserted that educational organization exist in symbiotic relationship with their environment, importing human and materials resources and utilizing them in the production of educational socialized student in order to carry out these energy sapping task of building the leaders of tomorrow, the stake holders should think of how best to harness the materials and human resources available for better job performance as this will go a long way to bring forth a quality output (graduates) in the system.
According to Olaniyan (1997) several studies on Job performance have not over the years produced any general consensus on the factors that really aid and affect teachers job performance, this is because there are so many factors affecting teachers commitment which are being neglected. Ajayi and Oguntoye (2003) reported that "one of the various variable of motivation such as remuneration, authority, staff relationship, recognition, promotion or also advancement and provision of facilities" had significant relationship with teachers job performance.
In another dimension, Oloruntoba (2001) citing Blumberg and Fringe (1982) revealed that ability, knowledge, skills, intelligence, state of health, educational level, endurance, stamina and energy level are factors that can affect job performance. The financial condition of the teachers determines the achievement of the above mentioned factors of motivation. The issue of job performance feature prominently among several problems affecting teachers in different schools.
According to Melther (1992) the premise of deprivation or gratification proposition is when an individual identifies need which is not being met behaviour occurs when it is directed towards satisfying the need. To describe need gratification which include job satisfaction. Herberg (1959) develop the motivator hygiene theory, the theory states that works have factors which lead to satisfaction or dissatisfaction job satisfaction (motivator) factor include achievement, recognition, the job itself, responsibilities and advancement. Job satisfaction factors allow individuals to reach their psychological potential and are usually associated with the job itself. Job dissatisfaction (hygiene factor) is usually associated with the work environment and includes pay work. Financial reward is one of the most important and challenging task facing the educational management. It is the energetic behaviour directed toward some goals and the quality of that effort. It has been variously linked with urges, instinct, purposes, goals, desires, want, need and so on. It is looked at as involving the physiological, psychological and social aspect of human being. Herzberg (1959) explains financial rewards for teachers as means of motivation basically individual needs, desires and concept that cause him to act in a particular manner. Teachers must be motivated to higher level of achievement in order for the school to realize its full potentials.
One of the main -findings of the world bank research on Nigerian education is that extremely low remuneration, poor working condition and inadequate facilities have inevitably eroded motivation and the satisfaction of teachers, the world bank (1999). If is against this background that this study seeks to examine the relationship between financial reward and teachers commitment to school activities.
Statement of the Problem
Considering the general trend of students failure and most Nigerian teacher's attitudes to their work these days, question will quickly come to mind about what teachers are paid and how they are paid from time to time. It is on their salaries and other benefit like leave bonus that their commitment to school activities is hinged. One can further state that the reason why teachers are not commitment to activities in their respective schools in area under consideration are: the financial rewards of their job performances is not encouraging, there are some benefit which teachers in the area supposed to be given in order to complete with their colleagues in other local government in Ekiti State but it is unfortunate that these teachers in (Moba Local Government area of Ekiti State) are suffering from housing problem health care allowances and their basic salaries are not encouraging to work rather, the teachers look for alternative ways to support their selves such as trading and farming for survival.
This study therefore examines monetary rewards provided for teachers and other members of staff in school and its relationship with their commitment to activities and to look for further ways of improving their pays and integration with the needs of schools in Moba Local Government area of Ekiti State.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this research work is to examine the standard of education in Moba Local Government area of Ekiti State and the factors responsible for the job performance of teachers. The factors which are financial rewards that include upgrading the teacher's level, salary increment housing allowances and so on would either encouraged or discourage the teachers in the course of carrying out their expected duties.
The purpose of the study is therefore to examine whether the teachers in Moba Local Government area of Ekiti State are satisfied with the salary structure in the Local Government, the relationship between the financial reward level and their commitment to school activities and to know whether king in private or public school affect their level of commitment to work.
Significant of the Study
It is a common and general motion that if teachers and other members of staff of educational institutions are given the right and necessary financial rewards, they will devoted more of their attention to the achievement of their respective school activities. This is because financial rewards are considered effective motivational means of bringing the best out if workers in any organization settings including schools. This study is set out to examine the reason why there is need to encourage the teachers in order to enable them carry out their responsibilities as expected most especially in Moba Local Government Area of Ekiti State.
It is very important for government improve the level of financial rewards of the teachers in Moba Local Government not because of any other things but to make the teachers feel that they are important and make them do their school job excellently. If government recognizes the teachers in Moba Local Government, the end result of the teacher's excellent performance will benefit the entire society as the level of education in the area will be improved. Both the government teacher themselves, parent and the student will be beneficiaries of the improve payback of the teachers.
Scope of the Study
This study examines the relationship between financial rewards and teachers commitment to school activities in Moba Local Government Area of Ekiti State. It covers both public and private educational institutions in the local government. The target populations limited to Moba Local Government Area of Ekiti State.
1. Is there any relationship between the financial rewards and teacher's commitment to school activities in Moba Local Government Area of Ekiti State?
2. Is there any difference in the level of financial reward between private and public schools in Moba Local Government Area of Ekiti State?
3. Is there any difference in the level of teacher's commitment in public and private school in Moba Local Government Area of Ekiti State?
4. Is there any significant relationship between teachers gender and their commitment to school activities in Moba Local Government Area of Ekiti State? Research Hypothesis
Ho (1) There is no significant relationship between the financial reward and teacher's commitment to school activities in Moba Local Government Area of Ekiti State. Ho (2) There is no significant difference in the level of financial rewards between public and private schools in Moba Local Government Area of Ekiti State.
Ho (3) There is no significant difference in the level of teachers commitment in public and private schools in Moba Local Government Area of Ekiti State.
Ho (4) There is no significant relationship between teachers gender and their commitment to schools activities in Moba Local Government Area of Ekiti State.
Definition of Terms
In the topic of this research, a study of financial rewards and teachers commitment to school activities, the words that are sued will be define as follows:
School Activities: These include those various laid down events either for each term or for the whole session that are to be carried out in order to improve the standard of education. These activities that is, teaching -learning activities which are classroom work and extracurricular activities which are carried out outside the classroom, these are sport activities which are to improve the physique of the students, cultural activities expose the students to other cultures that varies in tribes.
Financial Rewards: These are the pay packages for the teacher as mean of compensation on what they have done. These include:
Salary: This can be described as the monetary reward for a worker's skill who is engaged in a non- manual work that is a permanent staff and is usually at interval of one month or longer.
Wages: This is the payment to a worker for the work he has performed.
Teacher's Commitment: This involves the teachers putting in the best in them into the teaching- learning activities which are curricular activities and other social activities in order to achieve excellent performance of the school.
Private Schools: This enables private education organizations which are not government but are owned by private individual.
Public Schools: This is any educational organization belonging to the central or Local Government.
Administration: This is an aspect of management that is concerned with the interpretation of policy and the implementation of procedures to effect it.
Incentives: at his means any payment made to employees over and above their basic pay in order to encourage them to work harder.
Motivation: It is process or factor that causes people to act or behave in certain ways.
Subject: These are workers and executive and principals from whom the researcher collected the data.
Psychologist: These are people or group of people who engage in the act of studying of mind.
Objectives: These are explicit statement that show the ways students are expected to be changed after undergoing a process of instruction.