EFFECT OF DISCOVERY, DISCUSSION AND CONVENTIONAL LECTURE METHODS ON LEARNING OUTCOME IN BIOLOGY - UNIPROJECTS

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EFFECT OF DISCOVERY, DISCUSSION AND CONVENTIONAL LECTURE METHODS ON LEARNING OUTCOME IN BIOLOGY



EFFECT OF DISCOVERY, DISCUSSION AND CONVENTIONAL LECTURE METHODS ON LEARNING OUTCOME IN BIOLOGY
TABLES OF CONTENTS
Title page                                                                                     
Approval page…                                                                             
Dedication                                                                                    
Acknowledgement…                                                                          
Table of Content…                                                                         
Abstract                                                                                        
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1             Background to the Study…                                                                   
1.2             Statement of the Problems…                                                         
1.3             Research Questions…                                                                
1.4             Purpose of study                                                                     
1.5             Significant of the Study…                                                         
1.6             Definition of Terms…                                                                
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE
2.1     Students performance in Biology                                         
2.2     Meaning  of discovery                                                                   
2.3     Advantages of Discovery method                                         
2.4     Disadvantages of Discovery method                                         
2.5     Fostering effective classroom discussion                                            
2.6     Strategies for fostering Effective Classroom Discussion …         
2.7     Key points in conducting classroom Discussions …                
2.8     Discussion Techniques                                                          
2.9     Research findings concerning the use of Discussion as a learning tool …            
2.10   How to ask effective classroom questions …                              
2.11   Conventional lecture method                                                              
CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY
3.2       Research Methodology                                                              
3.3       Research Design …                                                                    
3.4       Population of the Study                                                             
3.5       Sampling Procedure                                                                     
3.6       Research Procedure                                                                    
3.7       Data Collection                                                                       
3.8       Data Analysis                                                                          
CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
4.0       Presentation of Results                                                              
4.1       Discussion of Findings                                                               
4.2       Summary of Findings …                                                            
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1       Summary                                                                               
5.2       Recommendations…                                                                  
5.3       Conclusions…                                                                         
5.4       Suggestions for further findings…                                                        
References                                                                                
Questionnaire…                                                                              
  ABSTRACT
          This study investigated the effects of three instructional methods on students learning outcomes in selected Biology skills in order to find out the most effective method of teaching Biology skills.
          The results of the study revealed that Discovery method was the best method even than those students in Discussion and conventional lecture method. The findings also revealed that conventional lecture method was the least effective.
          Based on the above findings, the following recommendations were made: Discovery method should be adopted as effective method of teaching Biology skills at Senior Secondary Schools level. Although Discussion method was effective but it should not be used as sole method.


CHAPTER ONE
BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Since the Nations Independence in 1960, up through 1985, when the implementation of the two tier 3 -3 secondary education began nationwide, secondary science education was either a five-year course in the Grade II Teachers’ College depending on the candidate entry qualification influenced by the worldwide wave of sciences curriculum reforms and in recognition of the changing in needs of the Nigerian pupils, the science teachers’ Association of Nigeria (STAN) in response to the West African Examination Councils (WAEC) invitation in 1968, spearheaded the curriculum reform movement for the Nigerian schools science.
          Consequently, subject panels were set up which developed curricular in Physics, Chemistry and Biology for the Senior Secondary Classes and later in integrated science for Junior classes. Other notable curriculum agent include the comparative Education Study and Adaptation Centre (CESAC) which is now part of the National Education Research and Development Council (NERDC) etc were sponsors of conferences whose combined effort culminated in the development and the production of the pupils textbooks, workbooks and teacher’s guild of the Nigerian integrated science project (NISP) by STAN.
          It is necessary for any teacher of Biology to become familiar with teaching methods that will help students to achieve their learning objectives. There are many methods that Biology teachers can use to ensure effective learning. However teaching methods tells little concerning the value or success of the learning procedure in any particular class; this is because many factors contribute to good teaching among which are the teachers personality, reinforcement and the choice of materials.
          Seweje and Jegede (2005) listed some methods that are commonly used for teaching in secondary schools which are: Traditional lecture methods, Demonstration, Discussion, investigating or laboratory, Team teaching, Playway, Discovery, Field trip methods.
          There are many subjects taught in secondary school, each of those subjects has its own methodology which must be applied in order to achieve maximum success in teaching –learning situation, Biology is not an exception in this case. Hence this study deals with the effectiveness of Discovery, Discussion and Conventional lecture methods on learning outcome in  Biology.
          Biology is rated to be important among other science subjects, it is the science subject option of many students in order to satisfy the registration requirement at the senior school Certificate Examination (SSCE). As such, Biology attracts a large number of students, hence its popularity among students.
          Though the Nigerian Integrated Science Project (NISP) and NSSP of CESC and STAN recommended the guided inquiry approach in which the teacher only act as mere facilitator, while the students undergo continuous experience in science process skills such as observing, classifying, measuring, communicating, asking questions.
          Based on the popularity and the claim by student that Biology is the easiest of the science subjects, one would expect better performance in it but the reverse is the case (Adeyemi, 1987, Duyilemi 1998) from observation, performance in Biology is the poorest when compared to other science-subjects, even from the researchers personal experience, it was discover that students performed far below expectation despite all effort put into the teaching of the subject.
          The poor academic performance of Biology students has been partly blamed on the poor methodology of teaching; it is one thing to possess the knowledge and another to transmit that knowledge to the students. The national policy on Education (2004), advocated that teachers should be provided with sufficient intellectual and professional background adequate for their assignment.
          Educational system had translated this to mean that teachers should not have only sound knowledge of the subject matter of their disciplines but also formally trained in the act of teaching, any teacher that does not fall into this category had always been tagged unqualified and had always been held responsible for poor academic performance of students.
          Poor teaching methods, Abudlahi (1982) and Ogunniyi (1986) asserted, is the major cause of poor performance in the sciences Akinyele (1980) submitted that no single method is the best for science teaching generally or for Biology.
          The major aim of science teaching is to promote understanding to the concepts being taught with a view to fulfilling the objectives of the curriculum. The consistence poor performance and negative attitudes of students towards science attest to the fact that science teaching has not been properly done.
          Despite the recommendation made relative to the improvement, students’ performance in the science especially Biology is still very poor, the question is, how can the teaching and learning of Biology be improved so as to equip the learners with the right scientific knowledge and skills to enable them improve their performance and also function effectively in a scientific and technological world?
          Teachers should approach instruction systematically and purposefully by planning the instruction so that it forms a distinct bridge between what they want to teach and whom they want to teach.

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
          Many reports have shown the poor performance of secondary school  students in Biology examinations. There are many reasons associated with this; despite the fact that teaching environment is conducive students are still performing very poorly in Biology Examination, in respect to these, it is likely to be problem of method of teaching in Biology. Based on this background of the study aims to investigate the effects of Discovery, Discussion and Conventional lecture methods on learning outcome in Biology.

RESEARCH QUESTIONS
For the purpose of this study, the following research question will be considered.
1.                 Would there be any significant difference in the pre-test and post-test scores of students exposed to discovery, Discussion and Conventional lecture methods on learning outcome in Biology?
2.                 Would there be any significant difference in the post-test achievement mean scores of students exposed to Discovery, Discussion and Conventional lecture methods on learning outcome in Biology?
3.                 Would there be any significant difference in the post test achievement among male and female students exposed to Discovery, Discussion and conventional lecture methods on learning outcome in Biology?
4.                 Would there be any significant difference among the scores of science and non-science students exposed to Discovery, Discussion and Conventional lecture methods on learning out come in Biology.
5.                 Would there be any significant difference in the post-test achievement of students exposed to Discovery, Discussion and Convectional lecture methods on learning outcome in Biology?

PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
          The purpose of the study was to investigate effectiveness of Discovery, Discussion and Conventional lecture methods on learning outcome in Biology, and to find out the most effective method of teaching in Biology.





SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
          The study would reveal the importance of instructional methods as a key determinants of students’ achievement towards learning methods in Biology, there is no specific method of teaching but this study would reveal the most effective method of teaching in Biology, to the society and parents, it would enable the students to achieve dual purpose of Education and it is to prepare individual to develop their own potentials to students. It would increase the level of their performance.
          The findings would enable science teachers to use the most appropriate and most effective methods of teaching in Biology thereby improving students’ performance in Biology Examination.

DEFINITION OF TERMS
1.     Discovery method – Discovery refers to all forms of acquisition of knowledge through the use of findings of origin or use of mental process
2.     Discussion method: This is an oral exploration of topic, object, concept or experience
3.     Conventional Lecture Method: This is a group teaching which require large number of people
4.     Urban School: These are schools that are established by the Government Headquarters
5.     Student Learning Outcome: This is the Student’s achievement in the standardized researchers constructed test
CHAPTER TWO
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
          This chapter presents the review of related literature under the following headings
i.                   Students performance in Biology
ii.                 Meaning  of discovery
iii.              Advantages of Discovery method
iv.              Disadvantages of Discovery method
v.                 Fostering effective classroom discussion
vi.              Strategies for fostering Effective Classroom Discussion
vii.            Key points in conducting classroom Discussions
viii.         Discussion Techniques
ix.              Research findings concerning the use of Discussion as a learning tool
x.                 How to ask effective classroom questions
xi.              Conventional lecture method