STRATEGIES FOR IMPROVING THE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS - UNIPROJECTS

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STRATEGIES FOR IMPROVING THE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS



STRATEGIES FOR IMPROVING THE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS
ABSTRACT
This research was carried out to find out the strategies for improving the teaching and learning of agricultural science in secondary schools in Ijero local government area of Ekiti State.  The population for the study was 30 agricultural science teachers in twenty – five randomly selected secondary schools.  The instrument used for data collection was questionnaire.  The result of the study showed that the strategies for teaching and learning of agricultural science include (i) Encouraging the students to learn agricultural science (ii) Teacher should be well competent (iii) Classroom instruction should be based on class teaching content (iv) Students should be provided with adequate text books (v) Students should be actively involved during teaching and learning processes (vi) Take home assignments should be given to students regularly (vii) School authorities should provide adequate facilities for the agricultural science teachers. (viii) Government should provide all necessary facilities for schools (ix) Teachers salaries should be paid as at when due (x) Communities should provide land for agricultural science.
From the findings, the following recommendations are hereby made that government and school authorities should ensure the proper financing of teaching and learning of agriculture in the secondary schools.  Experienced teachers should be allowed to handle teaching and learning of agriculture in the schools.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page                                                                              
Approval page                                                                     
Certification                                                                         
Dedication                                                                              
Acknowledgment                                                                    
Abstract                                                                                 
Table of contents                                                                    
CHAPTER ONE
Introduction                                                                          
Background of the study                                                                  
Statement of Problems                                                           
Purpose of the study                                                             
Significance of the study                                                                 
Research question                                                                            
Assumption of the study                                                                
Delimitation of the study                                                                 
Limitation of the study                                                           
Definition of the term                                                             
CHAPTER TWO
Review of Literature                                                               
CHAPTER THREE
Research Methodology                                                           
Area of study                                                                       
Population                                                                              
Sample of the study                                                               
Instrument for data collection                                                
Instrument validation                                                             
Data collection                                                                      
Data analysis                                                                          
Decision rule                                                                          
CHAPTER FOUR
Presentation and Analysis of Data                                         
Findings                                                                                 

CHAPTER FIVE
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
Summary                                                                                
Description of the procedure used                                          
Conclusion                                                                                       
Recommendation                                                                 
Suggestion for further research                                                        
REFERENCES                                                                     
QUESTIONNAIRE                                                              

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Background of the study
The term agriculture is derived from the Latin word “ages” meaning field and “culture” meaning cultivation.  However, the term agriculture refers to the art and science of cultivating useful plants, rearing of animals and maintenance of tree for human and industrial consumption.
This definition shares complexities which involve some specific and unique technicalities.  In view of this, the teaching and learning of agriculture should not be limited to theory alone but also agriculture has played and will continue to play vital role in the Nigeria economy.
Agriculture is the most important occupation in the country as it provides job for over 70% of the populace, foreign exchange earner, food production, raw materials for the industries among others.
Apparently, food production is now insufficient to meet the growing demands of increasing population and the need for the growing unemployment rate to at least be reduced if not eradicated became fundamental problems, which led to the recommendation and inclusion of agriculture in the curriculum of the secondary school and the establishment of colleges, universities of agriculture and faculties of agriculture consequently, students graduate from schools without acquiring necessary skills in agriculture.  The reflection of this is evident in their in – competence and failure in the public examination.  In view of this, it is necessary to determine the means that will be useful in improving the teaching and learning of agriculture in secondary schools with a view of providing lasting remedy to its attendant problem.
Statement of Problems
Agriculture is one of the subjects introduced into the secondary school curriculum, which each pupils must offer as a core subject at secondary school level throughout the nation.
Teachers are being trained by the government to handle the subject at secondary school levels.  Yet, there are still, some problems, which the teachers face in teaching this subject at a secondary school level.  This study is designed to focus on the problems facing the teachers in the teaching of agricultural science in secondary school.
Purpose of the study
The main purpose of the study is to identify the strategies for improving the teaching and learning of agriculture in secondary schools.
Specifically the study shall seek to:
1)                Determine problems involving method used by teacher in teaching and learning agricultural science in secondary schools.
2)                Identify the strategies for improving the teaching and learning of agriculture in secondary schools by the teacher.
3)                Determine ways of solving the problems identified in teaching agricultural science in secondary schools.
Significance of the study
Agriculture has been made a core subject in the primary school curriculum.  This is the secondary aim of training present and prospective farmers for proficiency in farming.  Also to reverse the lack of interest show by many young ones and their preference for the white collar jobs, which have made agriculture to be left in the hands of the aged people.
Hopefully, the finding of the study will provide information and the data that would assist curriculum planners, decision makers as well as other bodies associated with agricultural programme in schools.  This will help in harmonizing the course content of agriculture in the secondary schools and giving balance attention to both theoretical and practical aspect of agriculture.
Such finding could serve as a spring board for the improvement of agricultural programmes at the secondary school level and in motivating pupils in choosing agriculture as career.
Research Question
          This study has the following research questions:
1)                What are the strategies for improving the teaching and learning of agriculture in secondary schools?
2)                 What are the factors that affect the teaching and learning of agricultural science and effectiveness in secondary schools?
3)                What are the areas of agricultural science curriculum or syllabus that teacher find difficult to teach?
4)                What are the teaching techniques adopted in the teaching of agricultural science?
5)                What are the ways of solving the identified problems the teachers face in teaching agricultural science in primary schools.
Assumption of the study
          The following assumptions are made in designing this study:
1)                Teachers teaching agricultural science in secondary schools have varied forms of teaching background.
2)                It is assumed that all the secondary schools have some facilities for the teaching and learning of agricultural science.
3)                It is assumed that all the secondary schools have agricultural science teachers.
4)                It is assumed that agricultural science teachers in the secondary schools will give adequate response to the questionnaire.
Delimitation of the study
          The study focuses on the strategies for improving the teaching of agriculture in secondary schools in Ijero local government area of Ekiti State.


Limitation of the study
          The study was limited to thirty agricultural science teacher in all the 25 secondary schools in the 3 senatorial districts of Ekiti State, which was selected.  This resulted in time consumption during administration, collection of questionnaire, data presentation and analysis.
Definition of the Term
Research: It is the investigation data in order to discover new facts.
Sample: It is the proportion of the population selected for observation with a view to making inference about the population.
Respondents: These are the people that respond or give answers to research questionnaire.
Population: It is any people of individual that have one characteristic in common that are of interest to the research.
Vocational Education: This is the type of education that leads to the acquisition of practical and applied skills.
Facilities: These are materials or aids, which make learning or doing things easily.
Instructional Materials: These are used to refer to all kinds of material that are used to achieved educational goals.