EFFECT OF USE OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIAL ON PUPILS PERFORMANCE IN TEACHING BASIC SCIENCE IN PRIMARY SCHOOL - UNIPROJECTS

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EFFECT OF USE OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIAL ON PUPILS PERFORMANCE IN TEACHING BASIC SCIENCE IN PRIMARY SCHOOL



EFFECT OF USE OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIAL ON PUPILS PERFORMANCE IN TEACHING BASIC SCIENCE IN PRIMARY SCHOOL


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CHAPTER ONE
1.0            INTRODUCTION
1.1     BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
          Basic Science is a subject dealing with fundamental constituent of the universe, the force they exact on one another and the result produced by these forces. Aiyelabagan (2003), writes that Basic Science is derived from Greek term meaning nature. Therefore Basic Science should be a science dedicated to the study of matter in relation to energy. Abdullahi (1982), defines Basic Science as the  study of the relationship between matter and energy.
          The wrong notion of some people about the abstractness of Basic Science should be corrected. Basic Sciences is not abstract if taught with the right materials and method. Our environment is rich with materials to be used if properly harmness. It is great important to note that apart from physical and mental readiness and interest of the pupils on different subjects, the academic standard of any school is likely to be contingent upon instructional materials.
          One major purpose of improvisation is to allow pupils to take part in the process. According to Adediran (2006), when learners participate in improvisation of instructional materials they are exposed to creativity, innovation and curiosity all of which are fundamental to teaching and learning of science. Today, there has been much concern about the apparent falling standard of education mostly at the primary school level. There is also mutual laying of blame the parent, blaming pupils for not being interested for taking their studies serious. Parents are also blamed for their inability to provide the pupils with the necessary tools to aids learning, and the government for not providing schools with instructional materials that will eventually foster efficiency in teaching and learning situation.
          Many science teachers do not see improvisation as anything to talk about or labour for. This is simply because equipment are readily available in the market for teaching and learning. Improvisation is very important to teaching and learning of science. Roding top fatubarin (2001), improvisation in science teaching is described as an important issue in science education which has attracted a lot of contribution from science teachers. Science has been regarded as the bedrock of modern day technological breakthrough is built. Nowadays, countries all over the world, especially the developing ones like Nigeria, are striving hard to develop technologically and scientifically, science the world is turning scientific and proper functioning of lives depend greatly on science.
          Some of the equipment we use in teaching Basic Science can be improvised. There are discarded materials like milk tins, broken plastic, and some wood that can be used for improvisation. Many science teachers do not see improvisation as anything to talk about or labour for. This is simply because equipments are readily available in the market for teaching and learning. Improvisation in science subject is described as an important issue in science education which has attracted a lot of contributions from science teachers. According to Ogunleye (2002), science is a dynamic human activity concerned with understanding to working of our world. This understanding helps man to know more about the university. Without the applications of science, it would have been difficult for an to explore the other planets of the universe. Science comprises the basic disciplines such as physics, chemistry, mathematics and biology. Many investigations have shown that primary school pupils are exhibiting dwindling interest in science.
          Poor academic performance in Basic Science could be attributed to many factors among which teacher’s strategy itself  was considered as an important factor. This imply that the mastery of science concepts might not be fully achieved with the use of instructional materials the teaching of Basic Science without instructional materials may certainly result in poor academic achievement. Frazer, Okebukola and Jegede 2012) stressed that a professionally qualified science teachers no matter how well trained, would unable to put this idea into practice if the school setting lacks the equipment and materials necessary for him or her to translate his competence into reality. Researchers such as Obioha (2006), and Ogunleye (2002), reported that there were inadequate resources for teaching science subject in primary schools in Nigeria. They further stated that the available ones are not usually in good conditions. There is of therefore, for improvisation.
Statement Of The  Problem.
          Inspite of the desire for technological development, couple with the fact that Basic Science is a very vital subject for technological development and as such its teaching and learning as well as pupils’ poor academic performance have become a source of concerns to all stakeholders. The problem of the present study  is to investigate the effect of  using improvised instructional materials on the  achievement of primary school pupils in Basic Science. The main problem that calls for research work is the fact that teacher particularly those in primary school often ignore the use of instructional materials even when such materials are available in the school, some consider their use and improvisation  as waste of time.
1.2 Purpose Of The Study
          The purpose of this study is to find the effect of  use of instructional materials on the pupils performance in teaching Basic Science in primary schools
Specifically, this study sought to:
1.     Investigate the availability of instructional materials for the teaching and learning of Basic Science  in the Primary  schools in Ilaje Local Government Area of Ondo State.
2.     Determine how often Basic Science  teachers use instructional materials to teach Basic Science  in Primary  schools in Ilaje Local Government Area of Ondo State.
3.     Investigate the reason why instructional materials are not effectively used during Basic Science  teaching and learning in Ilaje Local Government Area of Ondo State.
4.     To determine the impact of instructional materials on the attitude of Basic Science  students towards the teaching and learning of Basic Science  in Primary  schools in Ilaje Local Government Area of Ondo State.
1.4 Research Questions.
          The following research questions. Were raised to guide the study:
1.     Are instructional materials available for the teaching and learning of Basic Science  in the Primary  schools in Ilaje Local Government Area of Ondo State?
2.     How often do Basic Science  teachers use instructional materials to teach Basic Science  in Primary  schools in Ilaje Local Government Area of Ondo State?
3.     What are the problems hindering effective use of instructional materials during Basic Science  teaching and learning in Ilaje Local Government Area of Ondo State?
4.     Do instructional materials have impact on the attitude of Basic Science  students towards the teaching and learning of Basic Science  in Primary  schools in Ilaje Local Government Area of Ondo State?

1.5 Limitation Of The Study
     The research was carried out within the vicinity of ikere local so as to be able to accomplish it on time, considering the time limit, which was given to researcher, limited finance, and some logistic constraints.
     In addition, her final examination that was almost at hand was also another area of constraints.
1.6 Scope Of The Study
     The research would be restricted to forty pupils from primary four (4) to five (5) from selected primary school  in Ikere  Local Government. It would have been ideal to include other pupils from various classes, but due to limited time, human materials  resources, she could not do so.
1.7 Significance Of The Study
     This study would be of immense importance to primary school teacher who have long ignored the use of instruction in the classroom teaching. Utilization of instructional material in the classroom teaching. Utilization of instruction material coupled with the effective teaching also brings about efficiency in teaching and leaning thereby revives the falling standard of education.
     If the findings are made available to the appropriate authorities, government and other who are interested in the efficiency of learning will find this research very useful.
     If the findings are made available to the appropriate in the efficiency of learning will find this research very useful.
     Teaching aids are an integral component in any classroom. The many benefits of teaching aids include help learners improve reading comprehension skills, illustration of reinforcing a skill or concept, differentiating instruction and relieving anxiety or boredom by presenting information in a new and exciting way. Teaching aids also engage pupils’ other senders since there are no limits in what aids can be utilized when supplementing a lesson.
1.8 Definition Of The Terms
     It is necessary to define the following terms because of their unique use in the study.
     Academic performance: academic performance can be defined as excellence in all academic disciplines in doss as well as extra curricular activities.
     Basic Science: Basic Science is “knowledge attained through study or practice”, or knowledge covering general truths of the operation of generally law, especially as obtained and tested through scientific method land and concerned with the physical world.
     Instructional materials: instructional materials are learning materials or teaching aids that facilitate teaching and learning.
     Improvisation: improvising in this study refers to a way of producing or providing teaching aids that ate relevant to the teaching of Basic Science.