PROBLEM ASSOCIATED WITH INADEQUATE USE OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS IN THE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF BUSINESS SUBJECT - UNIPROJECTS

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PROBLEM ASSOCIATED WITH INADEQUATE USE OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS IN THE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF BUSINESS SUBJECT

PROBLEM ASSOCIATED WITH INADEQUATE USE OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS IN THE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF BUSINESS SUBJECT 
ABSTRACT
This study investigated the problem associated with the use of instructional materials in the teaching and learning of Business subjects in secondary schools in ilaje local government area of ondo state  
  The study adopted a descriptive research design. The sample size of one hundred and fifty (150) respondents were used for the study using random sampling technique. The respondents were drawn from five (5) secondary schools in Ilaje local government. The instrument for data collection for the study was a closed ended questionnaire. Percentages were used to answer the research questions of the study. The study revealed that instructional materials had impact on the teaching and learning process of  business studies  and also on their academic performance. Hence, the researcher concluded that there is need for availability of instructional materials for the teaching and learning of  business studies in the secondary schools. The available instructional materials were not adequate for the students to learn.There were problems hindering effective use of instructional materials during business studies teaching and learning in Ilaje Local Government Area of Ondo State. Instructional materials have impact on the attitude of  business studies students towards the teaching and learning. The researcher recommended that the government to ensure adequate provision of funds to schools in order to expand thel facilities most especially the rural areas. Business studies  teachers must make use of instructional materials frequently so as to bring taught closer to their student. Also, teachers should be ready to improvise some of the needed materials for the teaching of  business subject , particularly  business studies. The parent teacher association must be ready to give helping hands to the government in the provision of materials for the teaching of  business subject in secondary schools. Also textbooks on business studies should be provided for the student by each of the parents.

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.0     Background of the study
Teaching at any level requires that the students be exposed to some form of stimulation such as the use of instructional materials like; Education radio, charts, chalkboards, maps, film strips and realia materials.
Adekunle (2008) noted that teaching resources in  business subjects means anything that can assist the teacher in promoting teaching and learning. When the students are given the chance to learn through more sense than one, they can learn faster. The use of instructional materials provides the teacher with interesting and compelling platforms for conveying information since they motivate learners to learn more. Furthermore, the teacher is assisted in overcoming physical difficulties that will have hindered his effective presentation of a given topic. Larson (2001) quoted Lane who noted that the use of electronically mediated instruction to duplicate the traditional face- to-face classroom has resulted in a shift from teacher –to student- centered classes. In this situation the responsibility for learning is shifted to the students. The teacher facilitates the learning by acting as a coach, resource guide and companion in learning. The use of an instructional material does not only encourage teachers and students to work collaboratively but also results in more cooperative learning activities among the students.
          Ikerionwu (2000) referred to instructional materials as objects or devices which help the teacher to make learning meaningful to the learners. Similarly, Ezegbe (1994) classified them into two as visual materials, made up of reading and non-reading materials and audio-visual materials comprising electrically operated and non-electrically operated materials. Social studies is a subject that depends in the use of a number of resources. Osakwe and Itedjere (1993) summarized these resources as textual like books, audio-visual and human resources. They stated that these resources are either used individually or collectively in any meaningful social studies teaching and learning situation.
          The purpose of instructional materials is to promote efficiency of education by improving the quality of teaching and learning. Incorporating these tools and materials present support and reinforces teaching. According to Aduwa-Ogiegbaen and Imogie (2005) these materials and resources including audio tape recorders, video tape recorders, slide projectors, opaque projectors, over head projectors, still pictures, programmed instruction, film strips, maps, charts, graphs, offer a variety of learning experiences individually or in combination to meet different teaching and learning experiences
Nanassely (2001) argues that Business studies  is that aspect of total education programme that provides knowledge, skills attitudes and understanding needed to perform in the business world, as producer or consumer of goods and service that business offers. It is note worthy that Business studies  involves teaching in various level of education which include secondary schools and higher education, approximately 38% of student enroll in one or more business courses during their secondary school programme.
Business studies  include virtually all the knowledge  which hold prospect of gainful exploration in the context of business enterprises such knowledge could purely be administered or even extent to the realm of the humanities, it can then be concluded that Business studies  in secondary school prepares the student to entrepreneur.
Teaching at any level requires that the students be exposed to some form of simulation. Adekunle (2008) in Dr. (Mrs.) E. O. Okobia (2011) noted that teaching resources means anything that can assist the teacher in promoting teaching and learning. When the students are given the chance to learn through more senses than one, they can learn faster and easier.
According to Nwafor. C.E. and Eze, S.O (2014) instructional materials refer to materials that are used to facilitate teaching and learning. It enables the teacher communicate ideas or concepts with ease as they appeal to many senses at a time. The learner can see, touch, smell or taste thereby making learning more meaningful. This agrees with the Chinese proverb that state: I hear, I forget, I see, I remember, and I do, I understand.
The use of instructional materials provides the teacher with interesting and compelling platforms for conveying information since they motivate learners to learn more. Furthermore the teacher is assisted in overcoming physical difficulties that could have hindered his effective presentation of a given topic.
Larson (2001) quoted Lane (1994) who noted that the use of electronically mediated instruction to duplicate the traditional face to face classroom has resulted in a shift from teacher- to student-centred classes. In this situation the responsibility for learning is shifted to the students. The teacher facilitates the learning by acting as a coach, resource guide and companion in learning. The use of instructional materials does not only encourage teachers and students to work collaboratively but also results in more cooperative learning activities among the students. Ikerionwu (2000) refers to instructional materials as objects or devices which help the teacher to make learning meaningful to the learners. Similarly, Ezegbe (1994) classified them into two as visual materials, made up of reading and non-reading materials and audio-visual materials comprising electrically operated and non-electrically operated materials. Business studies  is a subject that depends on the use of a number of resources.
Osakwe and Itedjere (1993) summarized these resources as textual like books, audio-visual and human resources. They stated that these resources are either used individually or collectively in any meaningful teaching and learning situation. The purpose of instructional materials is to promote efficiency of education by improving the quality of teaching and learning. Incorporating these tools and materials present, support and reinforces teaching. According to Aduwa-Ogiegbaen and Imogie (2005) these materials and resources including audio tape recorders, video tape recorders, slide projectors, opaque projectors, over-head projectors, still pictures, programmed instruction, filmstrips, maps, chart, graphs and many more offer a variety of learning experiences individually or in combination to meet different teaching and learning experiences.
Other investigators including Jimoh (2009), Yeager (2000), Nwanyanwu (1999), Bozimo (1992) and Ogbondah (2008) have similarly emphasized the importance of instructional materials and resources in the effective delivery of Business studies  lessons in secondary schools. These views have been corroborated by international investigators including Bolick, Berson, Coutts and Heinecke (2003), Killen (2006), Dahar and Faize (2011). Bolick, Berson, Coutts and Heinecke (2003) observed that while some educators are fascinated by the potential of instructional materials in enhancing teaching and learning, other teachers lagged behind in using instructional materials to teach. However, achieving these laudable goals of conscientious utilization of instructional materials and resources in Business studies  teaching and learning has been very challenging in developing countries such as Nigeria. As noted by Garuba (2003), the Nigerian teacher operates from a deficient environment where teaching and learning is seriously impoverished particularly in the rural set up. And even in the urban areas only few schools are connected to the national grid while virtually all the rural schools do not enjoy basic facilities like pipe borne water and electricity.
Instructional materials are print and non-print items that are designed to impart information to students in the educational process (Bradley et al. 2005). Among these items are textbooks, charts, magazines, newspapers, pictures, recordings, slides, transparencies and many more. The use of instructional materials in secondary schools has been widely researched and the findings indicate that the benefits of using them are immense. The integration of instructional materials in classroom practice is believed to bolster the quality of instruction by fostering student-centred pedagogies (Abdo and Semela 2010). Furthermore, according to Mateer et al. (2012) the use of relevant instructional media in the classroom is invaluable since it engages students, aids their retention of knowledge, motivates interest in the subject matter and helps to illustrate the relevance of many concepts taught.

 Community institutions, people and businesses are a rich reservoir of instructional materials for Business studies  teachers because such materials can be sourced from local magazines, newspapers, government publications or the internet with minimum expenditure of time, energy and money. Business documents such as source documents (in Accounting), financial reports, bank withdrawal and deposit slips, consumer protection pamphlets and many more can be gathered from the business community for use in collaborative classroom activities. Today, free internet teaching resources have become a very important tool to impart education. Many government and private organisations have created internet-enabled free teaching resource materials that can be accessed anywhere by both teachers and students (Borrington 2004). The use of community resources in teaching can make students appreciate the local and international relevance of what they learn in school while affording them the opportunity to apply
Business studies  theory in context. This is supported by Chew (2008), who, in her study on the development of localised instructional materialsin Hong Kong, came to the conclusion that teaching and learning in business education could be enhanced to a great extent by using instructional resources based on local contexts, because such resources would be more authentic and more relevant to students’ needs.
This study therefore aims to study the problems associated with inadequare use of instructional material in teaching Business studies  in -------------------------local government area of--------state
Statement of the Problem
 Since the inception of the National Junior Secondary School Business studies  Curriculum in Nigeria, few studies have been devoted to evaluating the availability and utilization of instructional materials and resources in the teaching of Business studies  in the Junior Secondary Schools of Nigeria. At the threshold of the new millennium, Business studies  teachers face both old and new challenges and need to evolve strategies to engage learners in activities that are active, meaningful and challenging.
It has been said that instructional materials has objects or devices which help the teacher to make learning meaningful to the learners. According to Bradley et al. (2005), instructional materials are print and non-print items that are designed to impart information to students in the educational process. Also, according Chew (2008), teaching and learning in business education could be enhanced to a great extent by using instructional resources based on local contexts, because such resources would be more authentic and more relevant to students’ needs.
Therefore these have brought to recognition the essentiality of instructional materials in teaching and learning of Business studies , hence this research work is designed to examine the  problems associated with inadequate use of instructional material in the teaching and learning of Business studies  in ilaje local government area of Ondo state

1.3   Purpose of the Study
     The main purpose of this study is to investigate the Problem  associated with inadequate use of instructional material in teaching Business studies  
Specifically, this study sought to:
1.     Investigate the availability of instructional materials for the teaching and learning of Business studies   in the secondary schools in Ilaje Local Government Area of Ondo State.
2.     Determine how often Business studies   teachers use instructional materials to teach Business studies   in secondary schools in Ilaje Local Government Area of Ondo State.
3.     Investigate the reason why instructional materials are not effectively used during Business studies   teaching and learning in Ilaje Local Government Area of Ondo State.
4.     To determine the impact of instructional materials on the attitude of Business studies   students towards the teaching and learning of Business studies   in secondary schools in Ilaje Local Government Area of Ondo State.
1.4     Significance of the Study
This study which is concerned with investigating the problem associatd with inadequate use of instructional material in the teaching and learning of business subjects in Ilaje Local government Area of Ondo State is bound to be of immense benefits to students, teachers, school authorities, curriculum planner, educational stakeholders and Ministries of Education at different level of government.
 The finding from this study will be of immense benefit because it will enhance the learning processes of the students and thereby improve on their overall academic performance, since it will increase the motivation of the students, add clarity to the topics taught and make learning more interesting.
Also, the result from this study will help to re-emphasis the need for Business studies   teachers of secondary schools on importance of making the use of instructional materials a factor to be considered in promoting teaching and learning of Business studies  . And this in no small measure provides a basis that compliments and supports the use of teaching skills and enhances effectiveness.
The findings will further help to reveal and create awareness among the school authorities of the importance or otherwise of the impact of instructional materials in teaching and learning of Business studies   in secondary schools.
Furthermore, finding from this study has much significance on the ministries of education at all government level in Nigeria. This is because it will serve as a source of information to the government that the non-provision of instructional materials to teaching and learning of Business studies   is one of the problems leading to poor academic performance in the subject.
1.5     Scope of the Study
The study will be delimited to investigate the the problem associatd with inadequate use of instructional material in the teaching and learning of business subjects. The study will cover all the Business studies   students in five (5) secondary schools within Ilaje Local Government.
1.6     Research Questions
          The following research questions are to guide this study:
1.     Are instructional materials available for the teaching and learning of Business studies   in the secondary schools in Ilaje Local Government Area of Ondo State?
2.     How often do Business studies   teachers use instructional materials to teach Business studies   in secondary schools in Ilaje Local Government Area of Ondo State?
3.     What are the problems hindering effective use of instructional materials during Business studies   teaching and learning in Ilaje Local Government Area of Ondo State?
4.     Do instructional materials have impact on the attitude of Business studies   students towards the teaching and learning of Business studies   in secondary schools in Ilaje Local Government Area of Ondo State?
 1.7     Operational Definition of Terms
Academic performance: Is defined as successful completion, through effort, of the acquisition of academic content and skills mostly determined by the grades or scores that the student gets in a test.
Effective learning– is learning which develops understanding of learning in the changing world. Effective learning involves individuals moving beyond making connections of new ideas to old ones into restructuring their thinking radically by changing the connections among the things they already know or even discard some long-held beliefs about the world.
Learning- is the act of acquiring new, or modifying and reinforcing, existing knowledge, behaviours, skills, values or preferences and may involve synthesizing different types of information.
Teaching: Teaching is the concerted sharing of knowledge and experience, which is usually organized within a discipline and more generally, the provision of stimulus to the psychological and intellectual growth of students by teachers.
Assumptions of the study
          The researcher assumes that there is lack of use of instructional material in teaching of Business studies   in secondary schools in Ilaje local government area of Ondo State. Also, the researcher assumed that if instructional materials are properly used in teaching and learning of Business studies   in secondary schools in Ilaje local government area of Ondo State, the academic performance of the students will become better and improved.