MISCONCEPTION OF STUDENTS ABOUT TEACHING OF GENETICS AND EVOLUTION AS A FACT OR FICTION - UNIPROJECTS

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MISCONCEPTION OF STUDENTS ABOUT TEACHING OF GENETICS AND EVOLUTION AS A FACT OR FICTION



TABLE OF CONTENT
Title page
Certification
Dedication
Acknowledgement
Table of contents
Abstract
CHAPTER ONE
1.0     INTRODUCTION
1.1            Background to the Study
1.2            Statement of the Problem
1.3            Significance of the Study
1.4            Delimitation
1.5            Research Question
1.6            Hypothesis
1.7            Definition of terms
CHAPTER TWO
2.0     LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1     Could life originate by chance?
2.2     The origin of the genetic code
2.3     Mutations – A basis for evolution
2.4     Human evolution
2.5     Disagreements about evolution
2.6     Evolution as a fact and not fiction
2.7     Summary
CHAPTER THREE
3.0            RESEARCH METHODOLOGY AND PROCEDURE
3.1            Population for the study
3.2            Sampling Procedure
3.3            Research Instrument
3.4            Collection of Data
3.5            Data Analysis
CHAPTER FOUR
4.0            ANALYSIS OF DATA
4.1            Response of students
4.2             Students response in percentage
4.3            Numbers of students with highest percentage
4.4            Analysis of the Data
CHAPTER FIVE
5.0            SUMMARY RECOMMENDATION AND CONCLUSION
5.1            Summary
5.2            Recommendation
5.3            Conclusion
REFERENCES
APPENDICES

ABSTRACT
This study was carried out with the aim of assessing the level of misconception of students about the teaching of Genetics and Evolution in selected Senior Secondary Schools in Ikere Local Government Area of Ekiti State.  During the course of this study, the importance of the method of teaching used in teaching learning process were emphasized on.  The study also examined the way the topic is been taught in schools as a fact or fictions.
The investigator however realized theoretically on the various relevant literatures which were reviewed accordingly.  The study designed questionnaires for students to which randomly and carefully selected.  The questionnaire sought the respondents views and opinions and the answered raised concerning the topic or subject matters and additional information through observations and records.
The study further confirmed that majority believes inspite of their religion that genetic and evolution is a fact and not a fiction.
Moreover, it was discovered that the method of teachings use in the teaching learning process is not presenting the topic as a fact.
It was recommended that the government (Federal and State) should initiate educative programs that will help the students.
Lastly, it was suggested that the ministry of education or the school management should allocate the subject or topic to a qualified teacher that can present it as a fact with relevant evidences.

CHAPTER ONE
1.0                                 INTRODUCTION
1.1     BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
                   Genetics is the science of heredity and variation in living organism.  The fact that living things inherit traits from their parents has been used since prehistoric times to improve crops plants and animals through selective breeding.  However the modern of genetics which seek, to understand the process of inheritance, only began with the work of cigor Mendel in the mid nine teeth century.
          In biology, evolution is the process of change in the inherited traits of a population of organisms from one generation to the next.  The gene that are passed on to an organisms offspring produce inherited traits that are the basis of evolution.  Any factor that contributes to such a change can be considered a mechanisms for genetic evolution.  The mechanism include natural selection. Mutation, random genetic, drift, and gene flow.
Evolution as a subject should be presented as reality, not as a concept that can be questioned.  The authority of the educational system then compels, belief”, Regarding evolutionary teaching in higher grades, he said. “A student is not permitted to hold personal beliefs or to state them.  If the students does so, he or she is subjected to ridicule and criticism by the teacher or instructor.  Often the students risk academic loss because his or her views are not correct about evolution as a fact, and the grade is lowered.
          Evolutionary views permeate not only the schools but all areas of science and others fields such as history and philosophy.  Books magazine articles, motion pictures and television programs treat it as an established fact: Often we here or read phrase such as when man evolved from the lower animals or, millions of years ago, when life evolved in the oceans? Thus people, students are conditioned to accept evolution as a fact and not fiction.
          According to Luria, Gould and Singer, in similar fashion, States, “evolution is a fact,: and asserts” “we might as well doubt that the earth revolves about the sum, or that hydrogen and oxygen make water” it also declares that evolution is as much a fact as the existence of granty.
          When leading educators and scientist assert that evolution is a fact, and imply that only the ignorant refuse to believe it, how many laymen are going to contradict them? Since it’s view permeate not only the schools but all areas of science and other fields.
          However at this point, once would have to look at the mechanism for genetic evolution that brings about changes in the inherited traits of a population of organisms from one generation to the next.  These will be done by way of explaining what these four terms are:
·                    Natural selection
·                    Mutation
·                    Randomgenetic drift and
·                    Gene flow
Natural Selection: Darwin and Wallace proposed that natural selection is the medianism by which new species arise from pre – existing species.  This hypothesis or theory is based on three observations and two dedications which may be summarized as follows: *individual within a population produce an average number of offspring than are needs to replace themselves.
v    The numbers of individuals in population remain approximately constant.
v    Variation exists within all populations mutation: A mutation is a change in the amount, arrangement or structure of the DNA of an organism.  This produces a change in the genotype which may be inherited by cell derived by mitosis from the mutant cell.  A mutation may result in a change in appearance of a characteristic in a population.  Mutation occurring in gamete cells are inherited, where as those occurring in somatic cells can only be inherited by daughter cells produced by mitosis the later are knows as somatic mutations.
Randomgenetic drift: This refers to the fact that variation in gene frequencies within population can occur by chance rather than by natural selection.  Random genetic drift or the fewall Wright effect (named after the American geneticist) who realized its evolutionary change in small or alleles which are representative of that species may be present.  Chance events such as the premature accidental death prior to mating of an organism which is the sole possessor of a particular allele would result in the elimination of that allele from the population.
Gene flow: Within the gene pool of a given breeding population there is a continual interchange of alleles between organisms.  Frequency as a result of mutation, gene reshuffling will confer genetic stability or equilibrium on the gene pool.  If a mutant allele should arise, it will be distributed throughout the gene pool by random fertilization.
Gene flow is often used loosely to describe the movement of alleles within a population as described above, but strictly speaking it refers to the movement of alleles from one population to another as a result of interbreeding between members of the two populations.
Breeding experiments also confirm, scientists have tried to keep changing various animals and plants indefinitely by crossbreeding.  They waited to see if in time, they could develop new forms of life.
1.2            Statement of Problem
In Dubey, D.L et al (1979), both the teacher and the students should be given a kind of orientation on the importance of learning in the classroom for a productive academic achievement.  Using or adopting effective method of teaching the topic evolution is a problem in the teaching of biology.  Lack of competence on the part of the teachers to use the right method of teaching has lead many students to take evolution as a fiction which brings about misconception; also contributed into the ineffectiveness of the teaching learning situation.
This write up is therefore meant to look into the method of teaching and it’s effect on the teaching of genetic evolution.
a)                 What method of teaching chance better understanding of the topic genetic evolution.
b)                What are the effect of misconception on the parts of the students in teaching.
1.3            Significance of the Study
This study is carried out with a view to finding out the misconception of students about teaching of genetics and evolution as a fact or fiction and to provide or give some suggestions on what could be done in the teaching of genetics and evolution for better understanding of the students in classroom setting.  The study is intended to serve as eye opener for the govern at the educational administrators and the white populace in general to see the inherent problems that result from method of teaching as it affects classroom setting.
Moreover, this study will help the school administrators especially the teachers to know the right method to present the topic as a fact for better understanding of the students.
Furthermore the study will help in furnishing the government school administrator and teachers, with some information in the method of teaching for effective classroom management and how this affect the teaching and learning situation.
1.4            Delimination
The study is deliminated to senior secondary school students in Ikere Ekiti, Ekiti State.
1.5            Research Question:
1)                Is there any significant difference between boys and girls who misconcept genetic evolution?
2)                Is there any significant difference between the student religion background?
3)                Is there any significant difference between religion and evolution?



1.6            Hypothesis
The following hypothesis were formulated for the study.
1)                There is no significant difference between the boys and girls who misconcept genetic evolution.
2)                There is no significant difference between the student religion background?
1.7            Definition of Terms:
The terms used are defines as follows:
Gene: The basic unit of heredity.  A segment of DNA molecule that usually codes for the synthesis of a poplypeplide chair that eventually determines the nature of an inherited character.
DNA: Deoxynbonucleic acid.
Genetic make – up: The sum total of the genes that an offspring inherits from its parents.
Mutation: A permanent change in DNA structure.
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