EFFECT OF TEACHER EDUCATION IN TEACHING AND LEARNING OF PHYSICS IN SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL - UNIPROJECTS

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EFFECT OF TEACHER EDUCATION IN TEACHING AND LEARNING OF PHYSICS IN SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL



EFFECT OF TEACHER EDUCATION IN TEACHING AND LEARNING OF PHYSICS IN SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL 
ABSTRACT
The study examined the effect of teacher education in teaching and learning of physics in senior secondary school physics in Ikere – Ekiti.  The purpose was to determine whether the status of the teacher has any impact on the performance of the students in physics.  the survey type of descriptive research design was adopted.  The sample for the study consisted of 100 senior secondary school physics students in Ekiti State and the teachers that prepared and presented the students in each school for 2009/2010 West African School Certificate Examination.  The year’s result summary for each school was collated with the bio – data of their respective physics teachers.  Four hypothesis were postulated and tested at 0.05 significance level.  The data collated were analyzed using inferential statistics.  The result revealed that students taught by teachers with higher qualification performed better than those taught by teachers with lower qualification.  It was also showed that teacher’s gender has no effect on their ability to impact knowledge on the students, much as he/she is a skilled teacher in that field of study.  However, the experience of the teachers is significant at impacting the students’ performance in physics.  Based on the findings, it was recommended that experienced teachers with professional qualification in higher level should teach physics at the certificate class.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page                                                                            
Certification                                                                                   
Dedication                                                                            
Acknowledgement                                                                  
Abstract                                                                                 
Table of Content                                                                    
CHAPTER ONE
Introduction                                                                           
Background of the study                                                                
Statement of Problem                                                           
Research Questions                                                                
Research Hypotheses                                                             
 Purpose of the study                                                             
Scope of the study                                                                           
Significance of the study                                                                  
Limitation of the study                                                           
Assumption                                                                                     
Definition of Terms                                                              
CHAPTER TWO
Literature Review                                                                             
Teacher Qualification                                                             
Teacher Experience                                                                
Teacher Self – Efficacy                                                           
Teacher Attitude                                                                     
Teacher Gender                                                                      
CHAPTER THREE
Research Method                                                                    
Research Design                                                                    
Population of study                                                                
Sample                                                                                  
Sampling Procedure                                                               
Instrumentation                                                                      
Validity and Reliability of Instrument                                             
Procedure of Data Collection                                                 
Data Analysis                                                                         
CHAPTER FOUR
Result and Discussion                                                            
Research Question I                                                               
Research Question II                                                              
Research Question III                                                             
Teachers with H.N.D Qualification                                        
Summary of the Finding                                                                  
Discussion                                                                              
CHAPTER FIVE
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations                       
Summary                                                                                
Conclusion                                                                             
Recommendations                                                                            
Suggestions for further research work                                             
Implication of Findings                                                         
REFERENCES                                                                     
QUESTIONNAIRE                                            

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CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Background of the Study
Education, being the greatest hope a nation especially for a developing country like Nigeria, cannot just be left in the hands of mediocre.
Hence, the transmission of knowledge and information from one generation to another requires the service of someone adequately trained and skilled in the field.  The person is teacher.  The teacher is considered as a veritable tool in nation building, better human relationship, technological and social awareness and at the same time producing balanced and well equipped school products (student).
For the successful implantation of education programs, there is the need for qualified and diligent teachers to be employed.  It is however very important to consider the qualification of her teachers.  Therefore, a subject like physics needs to be handled by professional qualified teachers.  Thus, profession is an occupation based on a specialized intellectual study and training the purpose of which is to supply skilled services to others for a definite fee and salary.
The performance of students in science generally is a major concern to science educators.  Agheneku in Sakiyo and Sofeme (2008), noted that students’ performance in science subject is low in both national and state examinations.  A number of reason can be identified to be accountable for the poor performance of students in science.  These include the science curricula, teachers’ method of teaching, parents, government, lack of science facilities and others (Ahiakwo, 2003). Survey from schools (Ajayi, 2007) revealed that inadequacy of good instructional materials, equipment and laboratory facilities in the schools also affect negatively the effective learning of physics in the schools.
According to Ango (1990), students poor performance in physics globally is basically due to lack of involving the student in the teaching learning activities right from the beginning of any new concept to be taught, lack of qualified teachers as well as experience in teaching and unavailability and/or insufficiency of material in the laboratories.
The impact of the teachers in the performance of the student is germane.  The teachers are the facilitators who are to impact into the student the concept expected to be learnt.  However, Olarewaju and Nwagbo were of the opinion that ignorant of the teachers or neglect of activities.  Oriented method by the teacher grossly contributed to students’ low performance in physics.
When considering growth in technology, the development of human capital is paramount (Fajonyemi, 2007).  This was in line with the view of Ogbazi (1987) who noted that problem of industrial development in Nigeria is that of inadequacy of sufficiently trained human resources and this has been a major constraint on the rate of technological and economic development of the country.  The teacher is the major manpower saddled with the responsibility of impacting the concepts considered fundamental to technology through the teaching of these basic concept from the secondary school.  This was why Adeniyi (1993) noted that a country’s manpower development depends on the quantity of her well – qualified teachers.  As stipulated in the Nigeria National Policy on Education (2004), physics teaching at the secondary school is meant to develop essential scientific skill in the learners so as to prepare them for technological application in order to stimulate and enhance creatively in them.  This laudable objective would not be realize when the student are taught by incompetent teachers.  Such teachers would not be able to properly and adequately disseminate the concept to the students.  Physics, being one of the pivotal subject in technological, its effective teaching must be handled with all seriousness.  The competence of the physics teachers in this regards would be of immeasurable value.  One thing is to be well grounded in the conceptual understanding of a subject; another thing is to be well acquitted with the best method to pass the concepts across to the learners for proper compression.  A professional teacher would be desirable in this regard.
The issue of professionalism in teaching has been on course, for quite some decades ago.  Scholars argued the necessity of skilled teachers for effective learning.  Ngada in Fajonyemi (2007) emphasized that the success or failure of any educational programme rests majorly on the adequate availability of qualified (professionals), competent and dedicated teachers.  Seweje and Jegede (2005) noted that the ability of a teacher to teach is not derived only from one’s academic background but it is based upon outstanding pedagogical skill acquired.  The realization of the national growth in technology as highlighted in the Nigeria National Policy on Education hinges (among others) largely on the quality of the physics teachers.  This view is supported by Nkwodimah’s (2003) submission that the teachers quality will inevitably be seen in the citizens to morrow.  Okebukola in Ngada (2008), while remarking on teachers’ quality, observed that over 80% of respondent in a survey research were of the view that teachers are carriers of weaknesses.  These weaknesses include, among others, inadequate exposure to teaching practice, poor classroom management and control, shallow subject matter of and lack of professionalism.  From Ajayi’s (2009) point of view, the professional qualities of a teachers have to do with the following.
·                    Mastery of the subject matter
·                    Sense of organization
·                    Ability of clarify ideas
·                    Ability to motivate students
·                    Good imagination
·                    Ability to involve the students in meaningful activities throughout the period of teaching
·                    Management of the detail of learning
·                    Frequent monitoring of students progress through tests, formal and informal, written and oral quizzes.
The availability of professional teachers in our schools is low (Ngada, 2008), the reason may not be farfetched.  Teaching is seen as a dumping ground for any unemployed schools learners, irrespective of their area of specialization.  This group of able bodied young men and women thus handle the job as a bye – pass venture to their desired ends.  Consequently, their input on the job would be very low since it lacks the dedication lack the technical know how of teaching since they were never trained on the job.  The resultant effect on the students’ performance is catastrophic.  The major evil done by this is half – backed and shallow – knowledge students who often perform poorly in their examination.  This eventually culminates to a decline in the national technological growth.
The issue of gender differences is paramount to educational researcher nowadays.  There had been divergent views and reports as to the comparative ability of male and female in human endeavours, especially in education.  A survey conducted by Ogbonnaya and Okunmiri (2008) on administrative effectiveness of male and female principals in Imo – State, Nigeria revealed that female principals are more effective than their male counterparts in the management of instructional programmes, staff personnel administration, student personnel administration, management of finance and management of physical resources while the male principals are better in school – community relationships.  Fauth (1984) also noted that women have been found to be more concerned than men about the academic achievement of student and participate more in professional growth activities.  Adebayo (1997) however observed that regardless of school gender type, male students did better than female students in all science subjects.
Statement of Problem
The minimum teaching qualification is to be National curriculum conference of 1969; the conference recommended that holders of NCE certificate are to be limited to the JSS classes.  This by implication means that Holder National Diploma (HND), and Bachelor in Science B.sc (Hons) certificates is to teach in the senior secondary school.  That is those with or without educational qualification are to teach in either of the two levels, also as it was speculated that teachers qualification h as significant effect on the overall performance of students in their senior secondary examination.
This study intends to find out the extent to which student taught by professional qualified teachers and non – professional qualified teachers would perform.
Secondly, it will determine that effect of teachers qualification on the academic performance of student in physics.

Research Questions
The following research questions are raised for the study;
·                    What are the qualification of teachers teaching physics in senior secondary schools in Ikere Local Government Area of Ekiti State?
·                    How many qualified professional teachers are available to teach physics in the schools?
·                    Would students taught by professional qualified teachers perform better than these taught by non – professional qualified teachers?
Research Hypotheses
          The following hypotheses were generated for this study;
Ho1: There is significant difference in the mean performance of students taught by NCE teachers and their counterpart B.Sc. (ED) degree holder in physics.
Ho2: There is significant performance difference in the mean performance of students taught by B.Sc (ED) and B.Sc. (ED) and B.Sc. (Hons) holders in physics.
Ho3: There is significant difference in the mean performance of student taught by professional qualified teachers NCE and B.Sc. (ED) and non – professional qualified (OND, HND and B.Sc (Hons)) holders in physics.
Purposes of the Study
The purpose of the study was to investigate how the qualification of physics teachers affect the academic achievement of students in physics examinations in the senior secondary schools in Ikere Local Government Area of Ekiti State.  Beside it will also find out whether student taught by NCE certificate holders would perform better than those taught by B.Sc (ED) certificates holder.  Also to find out the effect of professional qualified teachers on teaching and learning, and the academic performance of students in senior secondary school physics.
Scope of the Study
Geographically, this study covered some schools in Ikere Local Government Area of Ekiti State.

Significance of the Study
This study is significant because apart from self relevance policy of the nation; it wants individual to be academically progressive so as to increase her social economic scientific and technological aspiration through the introduction of trained specialists in physics.
This research will be help the government and policy maker to adjust properly in order to achieve her aim for introducing the subject into the school curriculum.  It will equally help the ministry of Education to embark upon more inspection and employing of professional qualified teachers to handle the subject (physics) to ensure effective teaching/learning that will results in better academic performance of students in physics examinations.  More so, students will develop interest in the subject and as a result to improve their logical reasoning and better academic performance both at the senior secondary and other higher educational levels.
The researcher will be able to offer suggestion that will promote effective teaching/learning which in turn will result in excellent academic achievement of students’ physics at senior secondary school examination.
Limitation of the Study
This study would have covered a large area but due to the fact that most villages in area under study have bad roads and also time factor is very limited more so, the damages on the bridges linking these villages.
Assumption
This study assumed that teacher’s qualifications were related to better academic performance of students in senior secondary school physics examination.  Also higher professional teaching qualification believed to have exposed the teacher to have sufficient subject matter knowledge and teaching skills to be effective teachers which in turn affect the academic performance level of students in physics as a core academics subject in the senior secondary school.
Definition of Terms
Professional Qualifications: Means of any teaching qualifications.
Qualified Teachers: Someone having necessary professional certification to teach (a well trained teacher).
Unqualified Teachers: Someone who does not posses the professional certification.
Non – Professional Qualification: Any non – teaching qualification.