AN APPRAISAL OF PRACTICAL WORK IN TEACHING GEOGRAPHY IN SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN IKERE – EKITI - UNIPROJECTS

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AN APPRAISAL OF PRACTICAL WORK IN TEACHING GEOGRAPHY IN SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN IKERE – EKITI



AN APPRAISAL OF PRACTICAL WORK IN TEACHING GEOGRAPHY IN SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN IKERE – EKITI 

TABLE OF CONTENT
Title page
Certification
Dedication
Acknowledgement
Abstract
Table of Content
List of Tables
CHAPTER ONE:         INTRODUCTION
Background to the study
Statement of Problem
Research Questions
Need for the study
Significance of the study
Delimitation of the study
Limitation of the study
Definition of Terms

CHAPTER TWO:        REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Introduction
Geography and Educational Objectives
Practical work in Geography
Aspects of Practical work in Geography
Methods of Teaching Geography
CHAPTER THREE:    RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Introduction
Research Design
Population of the study
The Sample Selection
Instrumentation and Validation
Data Collection
Procedure
Data Analysis
CHAPTER FOUR:       RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Introduction
Results and Discussion
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, RECOMMENDATIONS, IMPLICATION AND CONCLUSION
Summary of Finding
Recommendations
Implication of the study
Suggestion for further study
Conclusion
REFERENCES
APPENDIX

LIST OF TABLES
1.                 Qualification of Teachers
2.                 T – test of Practical Geography on sex
3.                 T – test of Practical Geography on Single sex and mixed sex schools.
4.                 Percentage distribution of teacher’s attitude responses to practical work in Geography.
5.                 Percentage distribution of Teacher’s involvement of students in practical activities in geography.

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1            BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
In recent decades geography has been undergoing major changes in its concepts, methodology and techniques.  The “new” geography, can be describe as a recent development and changes as a revolution.
For instance, with regard to the concept of geography and the unit of study, it is becoming widely accepted that a geographer can today study a unit area as small as a single farm, a river or stream, a classroom or even a teachers table.  The organization of space and the processes operating within a classroom, such as the relationship of space and distance between the students through their seating arrangements or between the class and the teacher.
To be a good geographer, one has to be very sound in the practical aspects of geography.  Practical work is an essential method used to realize the objectives of geography teaching, some of the objectives includes:
i.                   Developing the students ability to understand and explain natural phenomenon and marvels of nature.
ii.                 To develop in students, the ability to think critically and to have respect for accuracy as well as orderly and objective method of investigation.
The deductive approach of starting from a problem for study and a set of reasoned hypotheses to be tested and accepted, rejected or modified for further testing is favoured.  Scientific methodology or approaches, which can be tried and reproduced elsewhere, with similar or stated varying conditions and premises now mark the science of geography.
Geographical techniques are therefore improved and new tools of geographical investigation and testing are being developed in order to meet the demands of new trends in the subjects.  Without a knowledge of practical work in geography all the skills and techniques that are required in the new geography cannot be acquired.
Local geography, field work and map work as suggested by Majasan have come to form core areas in practical work in geography.  In local geography, students are made to study their home environment by assembling and analyzing its physical and human resources with a view of assessing its potentials and problems in development.
Map work is another major theme forming a subsection of practical in geography, just as field work is also a major theme and similarly a subsection of practical work.  According to Amosun (1994), the need for cartographers is being taken care of by practical work in map work.  Map work in geography can be subdivided into map making and aerial photography.
1.2            STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
This study sought to appraise the practical work in geography in terms of availability of materials and instruments and how frequent the teachers get the students involved in practical work or activities in geography.  Teachers do not pay attention to this area of geography and students see practical aspects to be boring and tough.  Most schools do not have enough material to carry out this aspect.

1.3            STUDY OBJECTIVES
To appraise and to know the importance of practical work in Geography.
1.4            RESEARCH QUESTIONS
In order to achieve the purpose of the study, the following research questions are posed:
i.                   Is there any significant difference between the male and female teacher’s appraised of practical work in geography?
ii.                 Is there any significant differences between the teacher’s appraised of practical work in geography in mixed schools (co-educational schools) and single sexed schools?
1.5            NEED FOR THE STUDY
The researcher carried out this study, so as to appraise the place of practical work in geography in some secondary schools in Ikere – Ekiti, and also to suggest possible corrections and solutions in the areas where needed.


1.6            SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The researcher carried out this study so that finding of this study will possibly be useful to teachers.  It might pump them into action by reassessing their current level of engaging their students in practical activities that could help students become professionals and contribute to the society’s well being and developing, help geographical bodies to organize seminars, workshops, conferences and book publishing on the area of weakness.  Also to provide useful information upon which future research work in the area of students activities as required in practical work in geography can be based. (Amosun 1994).
1.7            DELIMITATION OF THE STUDY
Due to distance and financial problem, this type of study cannot be successfully made on a nation wide basis by the researcher.  Because of these constraints, the study has been restricted mainly to the secondary schools in Ikere – Ekiti.


1.8            LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
There are certain problems that would confronted the researcher and made her finding of limited applicability in a study of this nature.
The limited period at the disposal of the researcher made it difficult for her to extend her study to other parts of the country.
Any conclusion based on these findings should therefore be considered with caution when applying the findings to all secondary schools in Nigeria.
The research instrument, that is the questionnaire has its own limitations.  Though, it was validated, the respondents’ responses differ, not only in terms of how frequently they are engaged or what materials is available, but also in their differences in moods in interpreting the questions.
1.9            DEFINITION OF TERMS
In a study like this, there is need to define some of the concepts or variables that are used in the course of this study.  This is to enable anyone reading this essay to understand the various concepts or variables with little or no help.
APPRAISAL: To estimate the quality or value of something.
FIELD WORK: This involves actual geographical study or work carried out on the field.
GEOGRAPHY LABORATORY: This is the room where most of the practical work in geography takes place and materials are kept.
LOCAL Geography: This is the geographical study of certain aspects of major physical and cultural features of child’s home environment.
MAP: This is the representation of physical and human features observable on the earth’s surface on a piece of paper.
MAP WORK: This is the art and science of interpretation and analysis of features on the map.
PRACTIAL WORK: This is concerned with the actual practice or action.  It also has to do with real life experiences.

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