A STUDY INTO THE REHABILITATION OPPORTUNITY FOR RETIRE TEACHERS AND CIVIL SERVANT IN EKITI STATE - UNIPROJECTS

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A STUDY INTO THE REHABILITATION OPPORTUNITY FOR RETIRE TEACHERS AND CIVIL SERVANT IN EKITI STATE



A STUDY INTO THE REHABILITATION OPPORTUNITY FOR RETIRE TEACHERS AND CIVIL SERVANT IN EKITI STATE 
ABSTRACT
          The rehabilitation of the retired teachers and other civil servants in the state and most especially in Ifelodun/Irepodun local government Area is giving a concern to our society today.
          The mass retirement/retrenched by our government today seem to be creating more problems than it could solve.
          Most of the retire/retrenched workers are confused while some others who never had any prio plans see themselves as been dejected by the society.
          This study was carried out in Ekiti state with particular refrences to Ifelodun/Irepodun local government area.
          This purposes of this study are:
          To identify the casues of the mass retirement retrenchment by the government.
          To identify measures by the government to stop or reduce the mass retirement/retrenchment of workers in our state.
          To identify measures of rehabilitating these retired/retrenched workers.
          Guideline for the study was made available through a review of literature.  The population was made up of the retired/retrenched teachers and other civil servants in the locality.
          A total of one hundred and twenty (120) retired/retrenched workers selected from the locality constituted the sample of the study.
          Questionnaires were used to collect the required data fro the study.  The questionnaires were administered to the retired workers.
          The data were tabulated and worked out in percentages.
          From the responses to the questions, it was discovered that most of the retired workers had not made a proper planning before their retirements.
          Also, most of their retirement benefits and gratuities are not paid as and when due.
          Based on the findings therefore, the researcher recommend that:
Before any retirement/retrench is made, due notice should be given to those concerned to allow room for proper planning.
Workers should know that the working places or positions are not for them alone and should prepare in advance for retirement or any eventuality.
The government should pay the workers the gratuities and other benefit as and when due.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page
Certification
Dedication
Acknowledgement
Abstract
CHAPTER ONE
Introduction
Background of the study
Statement of the problem
Purpose of the study
Significance of the study
Scope of the study
Limitation or problem of the study
Definition of the terms
CHAPTER TWO
Review of literature
The meaning and preparation for retirement
Adequate income substantially
Adequate accommodation
Absorbing interest
Opportunities for rehabilitation
Setting for a job of your linking
Opportunities for professionals
Opening a business of your own
Problems associated with retirement/retrenchment
CHAPTER THREE
Methodology and design
Area of study
Sample population
Sampling techniques
Instrument of used
Data collection
Method of presentation and interpretation of data
Validation of instrument

CHAPTER FOUR
Analysis of data
Introduction
Research question
Table i
Table ii
Table iii
Table iv
Table v
Table vi
Table vii
Table viii
This major findings
CHAPTER FIVE
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
Discussion of findings
Summary
Conclusion
Recommendation
REFERENCES
APPENDIX 1
APPENDIX 2

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Background of the study
Even up to the middle of last century, most people believed that plants, animals and men were all created at the beginning of the world as described in Holy Book of Genesis; and the date was traced back to 4004 B.C. By the 19th century.  Facts were discovered which suggested a different time scale.
Meanwhile, it is not the intention of the researcher to argue with any of the various school of thought on the origin of man on earth.
It is only fair to assume that perhaps it is impossible to say precisely when man first lived on the plant called earth.
One outstanding characteristic in geologists/Archeologists search for the date of man’s first existence on earth is that of evidence on man’s activity way back at about 600,000 B.C. In order for man to maintain himself, he had to make tools with which to hunt animals; one may recall to the story of the early man.
In this study, we will therefore prime into the concept of work and the worker’s retirement. 
When one looks at work as a concept, he may blame the creator for condemning Adam and Eve and thus humanity to go to work.  This gives the erroneous impression that work was bad.  But referring to the early chapter of genesis, God established work as a blessed part of human life.  A look at the third chapter after the fall into sin and rebellion by man that work now becomes toil; out of the sweat of thy brows thou shall eat bread.  Work was not really the creator’s punishment rather toil.
Also, the frustration that comes from meaningless work was not plan rather, we may add that because of industrialization the idea of work’s inherent virtue may have seemed temporality implausible to generations who blaboured in the mines and mills.
For the purpose of this research project, we shall centre our discussions on one aspect of the working class and to limit it the more, we shall restrict ourselves to the government employee both the civil and public servant.
A seemingly trival question one might be compelled to ask is what is retirement and when does a civils servant actually retires? A commonly presumed meaning of retirement is the act of giving up one’s work, position or business as a result of age, disability, infirmity, gross official misconduct etc. There are two major forms of retirement – the voluntary and the compulsory retirements.
In voluntary retirements, the civil servant decides early enough (before attaining the age of 60) to give up his job may be due to his desire to go into private sector, politics, or even to be conferred a traditional title form his community.
This was more pronounced during the last civilian Regime even in the recently concluded councillorship and chairmanship elections which was Barrister onyenacheya of Mbaitoli local government area as chairman and his colleagues to their respective seats.
Compulsory retirement is one what “sees off” a civil or public servant on an attainment of the age of 60 (note that the Obasanjo regime purported a rise in the nation’s life expectancy and pushed up the official compulsory retirement age), it may also come as a result of gross official misconduct as was witnessed during the 1975 civil servant purge.  The Murtala and Obasanjo administrations were determined to give the nation a new lease of life.
It was evidently known that the public service under Gowon was Rncedeep in malpractices as the administration it advised and served.  This was why general murtala undertook the purge of public servant and about 10,000 lost their jobs either by retirement or total dismissal on various reasons sometimes without benefits.
Also during one of the last civilian regimes in the country (1975 – 1983), Nigeria witnessed a tremendous rise in the number of her employees.  The number of civil servant both in the federal civil service, states and local governments rose tremendously.  The numerical strength of teachers both in primary and secondary schools also rose to a double.  There was the proliferation of schools due to the universal primary Education scheme which came into being in 1976.
The government offered automatic employment in the teaching field to the graduands of these schools whether they all passed their examinations or not.
The tremendous rise in the number of employees brought additional burden to the government, the number of staff on their pay roll rose astronomically without a corresponding increase on the economic resources.  The effect was that the government was spending more money on the personal emoluments and wages; coupled with the fact that the national minimum monthly wage rose from N60.00 to N125.00 which invariably became an extra burden on the government.  Today, the Uman Musa Yar Adua administration has continued to make series of increases on the minimum wage though this varies from one state to another and from one ministry to another.  This has brought no standard uniform in the salary structure of the various organs of the government and ministries.
It was not long before the then government realized that is could no longer cope with the burden that salaries were owed in arrears.  It became the order of the day for government to owe teachers and civil servant salaries in arrears for upwards of four to six months and mine months here in Ekiti State and other states of the federation before the military took over power on the 31st of December, 1983.
Today, Nigeria like many other countries of the world and African continent in particular, is struggling to surpass the world wide economic recession. 
Different regimes have used different measures at different times to solve this perennial problem.  General Obasanjo in his own regime introduced austerity measures’ or economic measures such as reduction in basic traveling allowance (B.T.A.) banon importation of luxiry goods.  Cut down on government spending increase in prices of fuel, which has become the order of the day.  These economic measures were introduced to help conserve foreign reserve which was diminishing at a very fast rate. 
Through the instrument known as the economic “stabilization Act” enacted by the federal parliament in 1987, the Shagari administration introduced stringent economic measures when it became evident that foreign reserve was almost exhausted.
Since the inception of the second republic and the advance of the military, there have been series of economic measures taken by the administration and all are aimed at improving the already battered economy of the nation.  For example, they have reduced the number of ministers, commissioners, closed down or emerged some schools, colleges, ministries etc.
Here in Ekiti State, the present governor Segun Oni nearly served for almost one year without commissioners.  This is in order to conserve the little resources of the state.  There is also ban on the importation of foreign goods freely by the public.
To crown it all is the wave of mass retirement/retrenchment since the military took over power.  This does not mean that the present government introduced the retirement of workers in the public service.  Perhaps, what is different in the new dispensation is that it has been pursued meticulously and vigorously resulting in an increase in the number of retired personnels.
In the recent past, the government has decided to use certificate and nature of work as criteria for the retirement/retrenchment of workers.  The teachers who were referred commonly as C.T.R’s (Certified Trained Referred Teachers) were retrenched on the ground that they did not possess the complete certificate.  Non tutorial staff which included labourers, cooks and stewards, laboratory attendants, security men, carpenters and measons were laid off on the group that their works were non essential and in order to keep with the government’s new policy on trimming the civil/public service so as to be in line with the economic realities of the nation and state in particular.
The private sector is not left out in this exercise.  The work force in factories and industries was initially reduced due to the decline in their output and in recent times, most factories have been closed down due to recurrent problems of raw materials procurement.  The result is that all the workers in these companies have been laid off while those still in production have streamed their work force to almost half because of their rate of production which is lesser than their capacities.
In this study however, the writer is concerned with the problems of retired civil and public servants and is investigating into how they will be rehabilitated, what they would like to do; what they are now doing and the problems they are confronting, with particular reference to Ifelodun/Irepodun local government Area of Ekiti State of Nigeria.
Statement of Problems
The national purge of 1975 under taken by General Murtala Mohammed spread across the nation like wild.  This saw the removal from office of civil servants numbering about 8,000 or more.  These people were compulsorily retired from service as a result of gross official misconduct, age limitation, years of service, and/or declining productivity; since then up to data, the exercise has been a continuous one as it manifests in the succeeding regimes.  Presently, the military Administration in the country is taking its own turn in retiring civil servants and teachers compulsorily.  All the states of the federation and the federal government is not left out in this exercise.  Teachers and public servants numbering in thousands have do far been removed from office.  Here is Ekiti State and more in Ifelodun/Irepodun local Government Area, the exercise have become a continuous one.  Some time in the past almost all the non tutorial staff of the states schools system were retrenched.
This compulsory retirement exercise is causing a lot of hues and cries among the affected staff in particular and the entire public in general.
Many people have formed divergent opinions about the way and manner the exercises have been undertaken and is still going on.  Those of them who were affected by the exercise, their families, friends, relations and the entire public are now using the exercise as the day’s topic for public discussions.
There have been series of debate in our television and radio houses on the issue.  Many scholars and personalities have talked and aired their views on the issue.
The researcher’s aim here is to investigate into or find out the area of rehabilitation available to these retired workers and the problems associated with this compulsory retirement exercise in Ekiti State with particular reference to Ifelodun/Irepodun local Government Area.
Purpose of the study
The purpose of this study is to find out the following:
1)          The number of people so far affected by the exercise and their feelings on the whole issue.
2)          The category of staff affected by the retirement exercise in Ifelodun/Irepodun local Government Area.
3)          The plan if any, the government has made or is making for their rehabilitation.
4)          What vocations/trade they now do or would want to do for their livelihood and the maintenance of their families.
Scope of the study
       The researcher is out to investigate into the availability of opportunities necessary for effective rehabilitation of retired workers.
       The study is limited to retired workers who were formely in the employment of government establishments and parastatals in Ifelodun/Irepodun local government area.
       It would have been desirable to extend the study to other towns and states but due to financial handicaps and time factors, the study is limited to the geographical scope of the work.
Significance of the study
       The result of findings of the study will be of dual purpose.  It will be of benefit to the affected retired teacher and civil servant on one hand and the government and workers still in their employment on the other side.
       When the researcher is successfully concluded, the findings and recommendations will help to suggest ways of making retired workers to able to resettle themselves on other vocations/trades.
       It will also help to make civil servant to accept retirement from service in good faith and not to regard it as a punitive measure against them, the result will help to suggest to the government serving teacher and other workers on the need for proper planning and preparation for a happy resettlement on retirement.
       In all, it will serve as a base for further researches on the issue and other related topics.
Limitations or Problems of the Study
       The following problems were encountered by the researcher.
1)                The time available for the study was too short and as a result, the researcher could not give the study the indept investigation it deserves.
2)                Lack finance was the main problem
3)                There was the problem of tracing the retired workers as they were not located at a particular place.
4)                Some of the respondents were not willing to respond to the questionnaires.
5)                The instrument for data collection were not pretested before administering them to the respondents.
Definition of Terms
1)                U.P.E:         Universal Primary Education.  An educational programme launched in 1976.
2)                C.T.R:         Certificate Trained Referred Teachers.  These are teachers who have finished their training but failed to pass all their subjects in the final examination.
3)                B.T.A         Basic Traveling Allowance.  This is the allowance in foreign exchange usually allowed travelers visiting overseas e.g. pilgrims.
4)                Rehabilitation To resettle
5)                Retirement Relinquishing one’s post or office.