This study attempts to make a comparative study of the opinion of parent, teachers and adolescents towards the introduction of sex education programme in the Ondo State secondary schools and to know if there will be mass support or rejection. It further explores when the parents, teachers and adolescents will prefer most to provide sex education to the children among the parents, teachers and minister of religion. It also explores the area of contents the three classes of people will support most among sex education maturation, the use of contraceptive and boy, girl relationship. It also looks into the organizational pattern the three classes of people will accept best among instructing males and females apart, male and female together and by group guidance procedures: the findings are discussed in the essay. Lastly some recommendations are made from the findings. These recommendations are for parents, teachers, educators, researchers and other social workers for successful implementation of sex education programme in our secondary schools.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page i
Approval page ii
Table of content vi-viii
1.0 Introduction 1
1.1 Background of the study 1-6
1.2 Statement of the Problem 6-8
1.3 Purpose of the study 8
1.4 Significance of the study 8-9
1.5 Hypothesis 9-10
1.6 Delimitations of the study 10
1.7 Limitations of the study 10-11
1.8 Definitions of the study 11-12
2.0 Literature Review 13-14
2.1 Sexuality 14-18
2.2 Sex organ 18-19
2.3 Sex maturation 19-21
2.4 Pattern of heterosexual development 21-22
2.5 Sexual interests, attitudes and practices 22-24
2.6 Organization of sex education 24-30
2.7 Problems that sex Education manifest in school 30-30
2.8 Summary 31-32
2.9 Empirical studies 32-34
2.10 Sex Education 34-40
3.0 Methodology 41
3.1 Research Design 41-42
3.2 Area of study 42
3.3 Population 42-43
3.4 The sample/sampling procedure 43
3.5 Instrumentation 43-44
3.6 Method of Data collection 44-45
3.7 Validity of the instrument 45
3.8 Reliability of the instrument 45
3.9 Method of Data Analysis 45
4.0 Analysis of Data 46-68
4.1 Discussion 68-71
5.0 Summary 72
5.1 Conclusion 72-73
5.2 Recommendation 73-74
5.3 Suggestions 75
1.1 Background of the study
The most popular issues of discussion on radio, television, even in dailies magazines and public discussion is the sexual behaviours among the adolescents and adults in our society. To understand the degree of the present social crisis and problems, I need to look into the manner of Nigeria sexology from the past to the present time and in addition to point out some of the casual factors of the problem.
In the first instance, sexual behaviour is a social phenomenon which has strong urges and the opposite sex attraction when the two parties interact. According to Durojaye in the post, sexual urges were weak in the adolescent because of the prevailing situations. Boys and girls of non related blood were brought up in separate homes and they had little or no interactional change. Even in the extended family set ups, boys and girls were brought up together, the adolescent know that it is a taboo to have sexual dedinets among the blood related children. The adolescents lived up to twenty and above before having the first sexual experience. This situation is not the case in the modern Nigerian where western education has created opportunities for both boys and girls of non – related blood to interact from age of sex to the extend that before they reach early adolescence, the sexual urges had developed so strong in both sexs that start to play games of sex ranging from romance to sexual intercourse before, during and after adolescence.
Secondly, maturity is a function of nutrition and environment. Poor nutrition resulting from ignorance and poverty, which characterized the decades gave adolescents of these days stunted growth leading to late maturity with late sexual experiences. On the other hand good nutrition and conducive environment arises as a result of improved standard of living that gives the present day children a rapid growth consequently resulting in early sexual experience.
This situation looks so marvellous to the old people than they have the view that nature is really changing possibly that the world is running towards destruction as many of them explain.
Thirdly, sexual behaviour is really a function of attitude and values, that people have towards it which is also relative to time. In the past, our parents regarded sexuality as very private and confidential and hence great shame and guilt were attributed to any girl or boy that mess up herself or himself about it. Because of this situation both boys and girls tend to control the sexual urges to earn the dignity that is attached to it. Couples had no pre – marital sex, how much less for a girl to mess up with other men. The idea of virginity was well preserved and earned the girls and their parent prestige on the day of their marriage. The parents controlled and watched over their daughters to see that they remain virgin before marriage. Thus a wife disvirgined by her proposed husband in the evening of their marriage day received a gift which varied across different culture. In Yoruba land for instance, two naira, ten kobo (
N2:10k) is given to the
wife. In addition to this money she
would receive many presents from her parents because it indicates their own
good training as a good family.
In constrast, the present Nigerian has developed a change of value for sexual behaviour. How many parents watches over their daughters to see that they remain virgin before marriages? How many parents rebuke or scold their daughters when they even know that they have messed up with their virginity? How many men of nowadays look for virgin girls for marriage? This is because the society has developed a change of value towards sexual behaviour. Consequently, both boys and girls make free sexual intercourse to the extent that boys regard sexual behaviour as hobbies and use many slangs to express the number of girls that fall as prey to them when they hold discussion with their peer groups. Such slangs include ‘ele’ ‘sussy’ ‘baby mi’ etc.
Within our society today, we can observed a lot of hazards and problems associated with sexual laxity which include loss of life through both traditional and modern method of abortions or use of contraceptive sterility cause by drug abuse among young married women, veneral diseases resulting into ill health of adolescent, illegitimate children and very common in our society, cases of uncompromises between adolescent boys and girls on clarions of pregnancies or babies to which social welfare centers are now interviewing and premature marriages of young adolescent girls of those rich adult impregnate them leading to stoppage of their education, these girls are later expelled from the house when they cannot be controlled any more later become prostitute. This practice is mostly common in the northern part of the country.
Addition to these sexual laxity has led to a break down of disciplines in various educational and vocational institutions where teachers and bosses prove too low before their students and workers respectively because of sexual affairs, which are responsible in part to poor academic performance and low productivity in schools and in the civil service. There are many leakages of examination papers because of man – woman relationships. Because of these situations the idea of introducing sex education into the school systems now a crucial issue to which two schools of thought have emerged, one supporting and the other against.
Durojaye declared that sex education is necessary to be organized in our secondary schools because the traditional practices with the age grade and initiation ceremonies and other activities that provide general education including sex education are now more open to African children. He stressed further that sex education in our secondary schools would lay good foundation for marriage and family hung.
Beir in a report of symposium about adolescents warn against the danger of scrupulosity i.e. a tendency to make an individual see evil when there is no evil. He believed that introducing sex education in our schools will inculcate the freedom to practice intercourse at the early stage of life and this will worsen the present situation.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
All over the world today, various opinions are being generated by different categories of people in relation to sex. The cultural background of various community determine to a great extent the belief of the community about sex. For example the Yoruba holds in high esteem the preservation of virginity of young girls before marriage. Also if the virginity is preserved, it gives more dignity to the parents of such girl. However, some categories of parents of old and present still believe that discussion about sex is still a taboo, which should not be talked about. Some teachers still see discussion and teaching of sex education in the school as immoral act hence, the teachers shy away from involvement in either discussion or teaching about sex. The adolescents also see any discuss about sex as immoral due to the orientation they have gotten from the parents and adults in the society as regards sex.
The various ideas, believes and orientation of parents, teachers and adolescents about sex had generated some agitations about what and how is sex in the community. This result to failure of parent to discuss sex education with their children. Likewise teaches shy away from the feality of discussing sex education with their student. More so adolescents avoid discussion about sex, even the society shy away from facing the realites of the importance of sex education programme.
1.3 Purpose of the study
In view of the diversified opinion towards the introduction of sex education into the school system, it is really the purpose of this study to explore the opinion of the parent, teachers and adolescents towards the idea of introducing sex education in the secondary school system of education and to draw paralled line among their views. The study will further explore the views of the three classes of people as regards who is to teach sex education among, parents, teachers and ministers of religion. It will also look into the attitude of the people on what should be the content of sex education in the schools, it will finally examine the organizational pattern of sex education that will b e preferable to parents, teachers and adolescents.
1.4 Significance of the study
Sex education is a crucial issue to which many people hold intrinsic values and feelings and hence any study on this issue will be of great significance to the society as a whole. In the first instances this study will help in revealing the views which parents, teachers and adolescents have towards sex education which will enable the government to know whether to introduce sex education in the school system or not.
It will further help to reveal the feelings and ideas, which the various classes of people hold about one another especially on sex affairs.
The study is expected to test the following hypothesis:
1) There is no significant difference between the opinion of adolescent and parents about sex education.
2) There is no significant difference between the attitude of male parents, male teachers and male adolescents about sex education.
3) There is no significant difference between the attitude of female parents, female teachers and female adolescents about sex education.
4) There is no significant different between the attitude of parents, teachers and adolescents on who is to be instructor of sex education in secondary schools.
5) There is no significance different between the attitude of male and female parents teachers and adolescents on who is to be the instructor of sex education.
1.6 Delimitations of the study
This study covered the Ondo State secondary schools alone. Six secondary schools were randomly selected among the secondary school in the state. 50 teachers and 50 students shall be involved in the study. The study shall also cover some public places like hospital, secretariat bank, maternity centers etc. 50 parents will also be involved in the study.
1.7 Limitations of the study
This study is on comparative study of attitudes of parents, teachers and adolescents towards sex education programme in Nigeria secondary schools encountered some limitations during the time of this findings.
The limitations encountered are numerous but few ones will be mentioned. The first limitation encountered was the communication gap between the researchers and supervisor.
The limitations encountered also include inability to get the relevant text books for review of literature and for other necessary information for the project.
Some students, teachers and even parents felt reluctant to fill the questionnaires because they believe it is immoral to discuss about sex in our society. It took the researchers a lot of time to convince those who filled the questionnaire.
1.8 Definition of terms
Opinion: Current judgment or the sum total of the attitudes and beliefs held about the need for sex education.
Adolescents: Growing persons whose ages i.e. between childhood and adulthood. They are mostly students of secondary school.
Parents: Father and mother
Teacher: The class of workers that give formal teaching to the learners in the schools.
Sex Education: Systematic instruction about male and female characteristics and maturation.
Ministers of Religion: The class of workers that teach the Christian and Muslim religions in our society, which include the vicars and Mallams.
Group Guidance: Free discussion of students on sex in groups under the supervision of the teacher or any other adult.