1.1 Background of the Study
Nigeria as a nation state is under several internal socio- economic and security threat. As a more general level, the threat has social, economic, political and environmental dimensions has greatly affected the nation’s stability, and can be traced t the ethnic militia armies, ethnic and religious conflicts, poverty, terrorism, armed robbery, corruption, economic sabotage and environmental degradation (Ilufoye, 2009).
Boko haram’s insurgence becomes the major problem facing Nigerians in the recent time. These groups have perpetrated several bombing that killed millions of people that are innocent citizens of this country (Nigeria) and also caused the destruction of both private and public properties worth of billions of naira. This devices from their bid to make people in the north east geo-political zone of Nigeria to embrace their view on Islamic Nigeria code and western education.
The predominant threat and security challenges in the area are emendating from un-abating attacks on Nigeria citizens, individuals, public and governmental installations, kidnapping and destruction of properties. All these effect of boko haram’s activities are serious crimes against the Nigeria state, which has threatened its national security and socio-economic activities. This has posed a great challenge to the ground strategy for national security of which the primary aim is “ to strengthen the federal republic of Nigeria to advance her interest and objectives ,to contain instability, control crime, quality of life of every citizens, improve the welfare and eliminate corruption” (Damba –zau 2007: 51).
Boko haram activities has destabilized socio-economic activities. Increased crime and destruction of both life and property of Nigerian citizens. This can be attested to by the mass movement of people living in the northern parts of the country most especially Maiduguri, which is the capital of Borno state. This situation has made it impossible for the citizens in that part “northern” of Nigeria to carry on their legitimate businesses. It is also scaring foreign investors out of the country. Students have been forced to flee their schools. The gravity of the crisis has made some government to vow never to allow Nigerian students from their state to go to the northern part fo Nigeria for anything. Boko haram activities also affected the posting of students of southern and eastern extraction on national youth service corps (N.Y.S.C) to the north, to the extent that parents are strongly insiting the posting of their children as copper to the north.
Boko haram itself, is a fatal blow to the noble objective of the scheme as a unifying strategy, the unity of Nigeria is seriously threatened by Boko haram fundamentalist set and therefore, considered to be a major potential terrorist threat affecting Nigeria mostly on the part of socio-economic activities of the country.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Boko haram activities was described by our intelligence agents in November 2011 “as a local salafist group attacking Christians and local police stations with matchet and poison tipped arrows in Nigeria’s north eastern Bornu state”. According to him:
Boko haram is a way of thinking, it is politically driven, they are loosely organized grass root insurrection against not only the Abuja government but the traditional Muslim establishment as well. (Campbell 2011).
After nearly a decade of violence, Nigeria government still does not have an effective strategy for dismantling the group. The terrorist organization preys on the disillusioned Muslims of the north who are fed up with corruption and have few economic opportunities. Nigeria is a heterogeneous country divided by two religious beliefs aside traditional religion. The northern half of the country is almost completely Muslim (50 percent of the total Nigerians population) and the southern half is mostly dominated by Christians (40 percent of the total Nigerian population). Originating in the Muslim dominated northern region of the country, the movement other rejected everything deemed western. The activities of this groups “Boko Haram” grew its ranks by taking the advantages of the wide spread anger in the north over the country’s gap. In the north, 72 percent of the population live below the poverty line, compared to only 22 percent in the southern part (Christopher Bavtolta, 2011).
The political goal of boko haram seef is to create an Islamic nation in the twelve northern state of Nigeria, eventually, spreading to the rest of the country. From its inception Boko Haram viewed Nigeria as a state or a country running by unbelievers and made the government its main target, ever when the country had a Muslim president.
Therefore, this research work seems to find the following:
1. Is poverty inducing the boko haram insurgency in Nigeria?
2. Does the boko haram insurgence have any socio-economic implication on Nigerians development?
3. Is dialogue a desideration to the boko haram menace in Nigeria?
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The broad objectives of the study are to examine the activities of the Boko Haram and its socio-economic implication on Nigeria’s development. Using boko haram’s terrorism in Nigeria as a case study. To achieve this, specifically, this research work is designed to examine the following:
1. To determine if property is inducing the Boko Haram insurgency in Nigeria.
2. To assess the socio- economic implication of boko haram insurgence on nation (Nigeria).
3. To determine if dialogue is a desideration to the boko haram menace in Nigeria.
For the purpose of this study, this hypotheses were formulated:
HI: Poverty and unemployment seem to be the driving force of boko haram insurgence.
HO: Boko haram insurgence has led to lose of revenue and seeming disunity in Nigeria.
1.6 Significance of the Study
All individuals live in a world prone to crisis. No nation is free from crisis. Violence is endemic in human relations. The global threat of terrorism respect no boundaries or borders. Nigeria is not free from these threats, emanating from Boko Haram activities, therefore he debating questions are:
1. What is the nature of the threat?
2. Have the security agencies handled the situation well?
3. What has gone wrong with strategy employed?
4. How should government respond to these recent terrorist bombing?
5. Can militaristic approach without move work, work?
6. Are there lessons to be learned in the way other countries handle such threats?
This research work will attempt to answer these questions, and build up relevant literatures on Islamic fundamental, and contributes to the academic, professionals and security at large as it enlightens, develops and inform citizens and government of the reoccurring activities of domestic terrorists and making of possible for policy makers to strategize measure to handle the conflict in Nigeria.
Beyond serving as an addition to already existing literature, it will serve as a practical guide for those in the field of criminal investigation departments, anti-terrorism or counter insurgence.
This study is thereby motivated by strong desire to contribute to the ranging dissolution its socio-economic implications on Nigeria’s development. It is therefore, hoped that this study will be relevant and of benefits to the students and scholars of Economics, political science, history, intelligent and security studies and the society at large.
1.7 Scope and Limitations of the Study
The scope of this research work is quite broad that it encompasses the investigation “the effect of Boko Haram’s insurgence on the socio-economic development of Nigeria”.
The limitation of this study, various factors contributed in affecting researchers comprehensiveness and totality in carrying out the study. Among these factors are scarcity of relevant materials on the issue due to its continuous evolving nature and virginity experienced its apex in the course of the research interval.
Despite the financial problem, hindrance and shortcomings, the research work will defiantly come to accomplishment
1.8 Definition of Terms
Insurgence: This is defined as a political battle waged among a cooperative or acquiescence populace in order for a group of outsiders to take over (or at less undermine) the government of a nation.
Crime: On the definition of crime, the united nation research institution observed that;
Crime in the sense of branch of a legal prohibition, is a universal concepts, out what actually constitutes a crime and how seriously it should be regarded, varies enormously from one society to another perception of crime are not determined by any objective indicator of the degree of injury or damage, but by culture values and power relations (UN Research Institute for Social Development, 1995).
In a strict legal definition, however, a crime is a violation of the criminal law, which is subsequently followed by legal punishment (Dambazau, 2007).
Violence: Violence is defined by World Health Organization (W.H.O) as the international use of physical force of power, threatened or actual against oneself, another person, or against a group or community, that either results in or has a high likelihood of resulting in injuries, death, psychological harm, mal development or deprivation (Wikipedia, WHO).
Sect: Sect can be seen as a body of person distinguished by peculiarities of faith and practice form other bodies adhering to the same general system. Specially, the adherents collectively or older form of faith or believe (Britanic World Language Dictionary).
Peace: Peace is generally defined as the absence of war, conflict, anxiety, suffering, violence and absolute peaceful co-existence. However, peace connotes move than a more absence of war hostilities because an absence of conflict is inevitable. Therefore, peace could be defined as a political conditions that justice and social stability through formal or informal institutions, practices and norms (Howard, 1987).
Security: Security can be defined to mean “the total sum of actions measures, including legislative and operational procedures, adopted to ensure peace, stability and the several wellbeing of a nation and its citizens (Shinikaiye, 2004:2).
Terrorism: Terrorism is perhaps the most controversial Problematic concept to define in the world today. This is made more problematic blurred distinction between legitimate act of resistance and criminal act of terrorism. Despite these difficulties, however, terrorism could conceptualized as the politically motivated gets of violation perpetrated against civilian targets with the aim of inflicting mass causalities, instilling fear and a sense of insecurity and affecting a change in the policies and action of the victims (Nolan, 1998).
National Security: National security is best described as a capacity to control those domestic and foreign conditions that the public opinions of a given community believes necessary to enjoy its own self-determination or autonomy, prosperity and wellbeing (Maier 2000:5).
Islamic Fundamentalism: Islamic fundamentalism is a term used to describe religious ideologies seen as advocating a return to the fundamentals of Islam. The Quran and the summah, it is deemed problematic by those who suggest that Islamic belief requires all Muslims to be fundamentalists (Bernands, 1993). Islamic fundamentalists oppose the infilteration of secular and westernizing influences and seek to institute Islamic law including in Muslim and strict code of behavior.
Domestic Terrorism: Domestic terrorism is the commission of terrorist attacks in a state by forces inside or originating from the state, as opposed to terrorist attack by forces external to the state. In other words, domestic terrorism is a terrorist act practice in one’s own country against her own people (Online Dictionary).