THE IMPACT OF WOMEN EDUCATION ON ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT OF EKITI STATE
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This study investigate women education and its impact on political and economic development of Nigeria: A case study of Ado-Ekiti Local Government Area, Ekiti State. A descriptive research of the survey type was adopted for the study. Questionnaire was designed and used to collected data from sample of hundred (100) literate and semi literate women in Ado Local Government that were randomly selected. Data collected were analyzed using frequency counts and percentage scores. Findings revealed that women education contributes immensely to the political and economic development of a Nigeria. Education goes along way in shaping the political and economic beliefs and attitudes of women by passing requisite political and economic value to succeeding generations. Recommendations were made on how to enhance women education directly towards political and economic development of a Nigeria.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Table of Contents
CHAPTER ONE: Introduction
Background of the study
Statement of the problem
Objectives of the study
Significance of the study
Delimitation of the study
Definition of terms
CHAPTER TWO: Review of Related Literature
Concept of Education
Concept of Politics
Concept of Economy
Concept of Development
Summary of the Literature
CHAPTER THREE: Research Methodology
Population of the study
Validity of Research Instrument
Administration of Research Instrument
CHAPTER FOUR: Results and Discussion
CHAPTER FIVE: Summary, Conclusion & Recommendation
Background of the Study
Globally, the history of impact of women education of political and economic development of a Nigeria had been predicated on struggles, women were traditionally perceived and treated as subordinates, inferior and weaker sex, yet they were regarded as an integral part of men that would build the world together.
This traditional view relegated women to the back ground and prevented them from contributing to and benefiting from development.
Studies over time have revealed that education is the most potent instrument for the emancipation of any group of people, Azikwe (1992), United Nations Information Centre (2000), Sambo (2000) opinioned that mental freedom can only be guaranteed by an effective system. This view was further crystallized by Okeke (1995), when she observed that education is a sure pathway to the liberation of mind and the improvement of socio-economic status of people. History, the world over is repelled with the achievement of men folk and their contributions to the development processes and from time immemorial, the position of women in the structure of society has never been considered on the same plain as that of men, they have been regarded as a second fiddle. It is on this believe that Ker (1999), argued that women all over the world have been categorized under the disadvantage groups of people and society itself has systematically and consistently pursued the socialization of women into accepting the notion of disadvantaged group.
Since creation, women have been endowed with gift which identified them as a group with the most important and essential tools and ingredients necessary for nation building in the traditional society, before the introduction of formal education, high premium placed them in conspicuous and important position.
In the family setting, women are looked upon as people of wisdom though, they are not as powerful like their male counterparts.
Osiruemu (2004), reported that the traditional African society sees the women within the realm of domesticity, hence the women is measured only by her power in child bearing/rearing and in the domestic front. This being the case, the man is the only one saddled with the responsibility of meeting the economic demands of the family. It can be stated that, at a time when women should be acquiring skills that would ensure their effective participation in the labour force, they are pre occupied with child bearing and rearing, since there are hardly any facility to take care of the children while the women go to work.
Oruwari (1996), Opined that female adolescents trends to commence sexual activities earlier than boys and these sexual activities often have critical consequences which tend to be more serious for girls than boys.
When sexual activities result in pregnancy, there are more negative consequences for the female the male. Girls are expelled from school and often their education is terminated. Fewer women than men applicants gain admission, observation revealed that the lower rate of school completion and fewer entrant into universities on the part of women have direct influence on the status of women in society, in terms of the job they do and the role they perform.
Adelabu and Adepoju (2007), reported that socio-cultural problems also hinder full participation of girls in schooling. When funds are limited in the family, preference is given are to the education of boys over girls while girls are made to run errands at home and also as care givers in the family. Other socio-cultural problems include harmful traditional practices that affect girls emotionally, such as early marriage and in some cases, religious constraints which prevent girls from aspiring to higher status and boys. There are often issues such as unwanted pregnancies, which often lead to girls dropping. The high incidence of premarital sex also hampered the education of girls more than boys. Parents who despite all the odds against women education risked educating their girls, did so under tension and stress. It was a period of fear and anxiety for such parents and was open to public criticism and discouragement by the unwilling parents.
Despite all the regulatory taboos imposed on women, few of the educated girls waded through the tempest and emerged professionals in their own fields. These few serve us impetuous for the unwilling daughters and parents. They now compete favourably with their male counterparts. Then the slogan “what a man can do, a women can do it better” emerged. The traditional belief that sees women as an appendages to men is been challenged. There is the awareness that women are needed as much as men, if only to maintain the family setting.
About a decade ago, Nigerian women have tried to make some marks in their chosen professions. Today in Nigeria, women are saddled with great responsibilities. Such women as prof. Dora Akunyili, Dr. Ndi Okereke Oniyiuke, Mrs. Ibru and others.
Statement of the Problems
Many authors and researchers have written a lot on the impact of women education on economic and political development of a nation but, there is no genuine data on which inference could be made. The barriers to girls.
Alagbe (2007), observed that until quite recently, women did not have the type of education that would enable them to participate at high management level of the economy. Closely tied to lack of self-confidence and a certain reluctant to aspire to such high level of administration, if the issue of inferiority complex. Women do not accept leadership or risk. They failed to understand that the world belongs to them as well as the men. such inferiority complex is reinforced by the patriarchal system. Attempts to get to the top by the women are frustrated and met with resistance in a male dominated STRUCTURE.
Socio-cultural factors, which encourage early marriage, plurality of children, and excessive dependence on the men for support in the absence of access to education and income generating activities, have weighted women down and constituted a serious handicap to any spirited efforts to improve their lot.
Generally, female adolescents tend to commence sexual activities earlier than boys (Oruwari 1996). These sexual activities often have critical consequences which tends to be more serious for girls than boys (Osiruemu, 1995). When sexual activities result in pregnancy, there are more negative consequences for the female than the for male, girls are expelled from school and often their education is terminated.
One distinct fact about women’s education in Nigeria is that fewer women apply for universities as a result fewer of them completing secondary school education. Fewer women than men applicants gain admission. Observation revealed that the lower rate of school completion and fewer entrants into Universities on the part women have direct influence on the status of women in society in terms of job they do and the role they perform.
Poverty and economic issues, with 70% of the population living below the poverty line, girls are often sent to generate income for families by selling wares in the market or in the street.
Cultural and religious biases, many Nigerian parents especially in large families with limited resources, enroll boys in school instead of both boys and girls. Some parents also keep their daughters out of school due to misinterpretation of the tenets of Islamic religion.
Adelabu and Adepoju (2007) identified the gender gap in higher education as a great influence on the effective participation and sustainable development by women. As opined by Adelabu and Adepoju, Education empowers women, and it is believed that if your educate a woman, you educate the nation. Educating girls carries with it a wide range of benefit.
Education of girls reduces poverty, promotes sustainable development and ensure the human right of all citizens. An educated woman is empowered socially, economically and politically.
i. Should gender inequality be frowned at in Ado Local Government?
ii. Should formal and informal education of female population be given priority attention in Ado Local Government?
iii. Do you agree that opportunities should be given to women to participate in politics in Ado Local Government??
iv. Is there any difference between the educated men and women in Ado Local Government?
v. Should women be allowed to vote and be voted for in Ado Local Government?
Objective of the Study
With reference to the problems earlier stated in this work, the object of this study is to investigated the following:
i. Whether women are given the opportunity to participate effectively in Nigerian economic and politics of Ado Local Government.
ii. To find out if lack of adequate education is the major constraint to women participation in economy and politics in Ado Local Government
Significance of the Study
The significance of this study is to bring to the awareness of women in having the right attitude towards education. It would also help to established whether it is worthy for individuals and government to educate their girls-child.
The study is also considered as significant, because it will be an eye opener for people especially women to put in their effort in the area of the political and economic development to help educated women that they should not be made to play the second fiddles in all sphere of life.
Delimitation of the Study
This study is delimited to Ado-Ekiti Local Government Area of Ekiti State. However, only educated and illiterate women were random selected both from the rural and urban areas of the local government area.
Definition of Terms
In this study, the researcher made use of some terms which are considered necessary to be operationally defined. Such terms includes:
Women: An adult female human being
Education: A process of teaching, training and learning especially in schools or colleges, to improve knowledge and develop skills.
Impact: It is an effect either functional or dysfunctional
Political: This is connected with the state government or public affairs
Economics: It is the study of how a society organizes its money, trade and industry
Development: This is the gradual growth of a society.
Nation: This is a community of people composed of one or more nationalities with its won territory and government (Webster’s New encydopedia Dictionary)