THE IMPACT OF DEMOCRATIC RULE ON SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA: A CASE STUDY OF EKITI STATE
This project covers to a finite extent the socio-economic impact of democracy in Nigeria, a case study of Ekiti State. The total sample that was used in carrying out this work is about 50 towns and villages in Ekiti State. The main method or instrument used in data collection was through consultation, visitation, textbooks, and relevant document in the library. This study makes me to view the past administration in Ekiti on how they have in one way or the other influence the socio economic of Ekiti State during their era, and how people enjoy the dividend of democracy in particular, we recommend that the government of the day should allow the people in the state to participate in policy formation in the state, so that they can have the government of their own, that will act in interest of the people, and enjoy what we called democracy in our land, the socio-economic impact of democracy must be put in place for all citizen irrespective of their statue, gender, sex in the state.
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Table of Contents
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
Background of the Study
Statement of Problem
Purpose of the Study
Assumption of the Study
Significance of the Study
Delimitation of the Study
Limitations to the Study
Scope of the Study
Definition of Terms
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
The Meaning of Democracy
Democracy and Democratic Failure
Prospect of Democracy in Nigeria
CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY
Sampling and Sampling Technique
Administration of Research Instrument
CHAPTER FOUR: RESULT AND DISCUSSION
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
On October 1st 1960, Nigeria was granted full independent, under a constitution that provided for a parliamentary system of government and a substandard measure of self-government for the country’s three regions, after she had been under the ruling of the colonial alters for several decades since some years back, the Nigeria speaking people had been trying hard but unsuccessful to have their own independent country carded out from the colonial era. Therefore, at independence their dream was realized but not fully because of the circumstances under which the new country was created.
In October 1st 1963, Nigeria proclaimed itself the Federal Republic of Nigeria and formal Governor Gerbera Nnamdi Azikwe became the country’s first president from the outset Nigeria’s ethnic and religious tension were magnified by the disparities in economic and educational development between the South and the North, the AG was maneuver out of control of the Western Region by the Federal government and a new pro-government Yoruba party’s the shortly afterward the AG opposition leader Chief Obafemi Awolowo was imprisoned without foundation. The 1965 national election produces a major realignment of politics and a disputed result. That set country on the path of civil war.
The dominant northern N.P.C went into a conservation alliance with the new Yoruba NNPD, leading the Igbo NCNC to coalesce with the remnants of the AG in a progressive alliance. In the vote, widespread electoral proud was alleged and riots elected pro-government NNPD reproductive. After military rules for some years on 15th of January 1966, a group of army officers (the young majors) mostly southeastern Igbo overthrew the N.N.D.P., N.P.P.C the premiers of the northern and western region.
However, the bloody nature of young majors coup caused another coup to be carried out by General Aguyi Ironsi, the young majors went in to hiding major Emmanuel Ifeajuna pled to Kwami Nkbrumetis Ghana where he was welcomed as a hero, some of the Ironsi government. Among the Igbo people of the eastern region, however, the Hausa and Fulani people demanded that the detainees be placed on trial for murder.
The Federal military government that assumed power under general Johnson Aguyi Ironsi was to quit ethnic tension on acceptable to all section of issue of other lasses, additionally, the Ironsi government was unable to produce a constitution acceptable to all section of the country most fateful for the Ironsi government was the decision to issue decree no 34 which sought to unify the nation in 24th May 1966 raised tension and lead to another coup by largely northern officer in July leadership, of major general Yakubu Gowon, the name Federal Republic of Nigeria was restored on 31st August 1966. In a move towards greater antimony to military divided the four regions into 12 states. However, the Igbo rejected attempts at constitutional revisions and insisted on full antimony for the east on May, 29th, 1967 it Col. Emeka Ojukwu the military governor of the Eastern region who emerged as the leader of increasing Igbo secessionist sentiment, debarred the independence of the eastern region as the Republic of Biafra, on May 30th 1967 the ensuing Nigeria civic war resulted in an estimated with Gowon’s famous “No victor, no vanquished ‘speech in 1970, following the civil war the country turned to the task of economic development revenues increased speculaculay with the oil price rises of 1973-74 on July 29th, 1975 Gen Murtala Muhammed and a group of officers staged bloodless coup, accusing Gen Yakubu Gowon corruption and delaying the promised replaced thousand of civil servants and announced a October 1st, 1960. He was assassinated on February 13th 1976 in an abortive coup and his chief of staff a lit, Gen Olusegun Obasanjo become head of state in the second Republic between 1979-1999.
A constitution in 1977 to draft constitution, which was published on September 21th 1978, when the ban on political activity was lifted in 1979, give political panties competed in a series of election in which Alhaji Sheu Shagari of the National Party of Nigeria (UPN) was elected president. All five parties won depresentative in the national ascended.
During the 1950 prior to independence oil begin to make Nigeria a wealthy nation. However, the spike in oil prices from $12 per barrel, following the Yom kipper war in 1973 brought a sudden rush of money to Nigeria. Another sadder rise in the price of oil in 1979 to $19 per barrel occurred as a result of the lead up to the Iran-Irag war; all of this meant that by 1979, Nigeria was the sixth largest producer of oil in the world with revenues from oil of $24 billion per year. In August 1983, Shagari and the NPN were returned to power in a landslide victory with a, majority of 12 state government. But the election was marred by violence and allegation of widespread vote rigging, and electoral malfeasance, leading to legal battle over the result.
On December 31st, 1983 the military overthrew the second republic Major General Muhammad Buhari emerged as the leader of the Supreme Military Council (SMC) the country’s new ruling body. The Buhari was peacefully overthrown by the S.M.C. third-ranking Major General Ibrahim Babangida in August 1985. Babangida (IBB) cited the misuse of power violence of human right by the key officers of the S.M.C and the government failure to deal with the country’s deepening economic crisis as justification for the takeover burning this first day in officer president Babangida moved to restore freedom of the press and to release political detainees being held without charge as plant he a 15 months economic emergency plan he announced pay cuts for the unmilitary, police, civil servicemen and this private sectors president Babangida demonstrated his hit end to encourage public participation in decision making by opening a national debate on proposed economic recovery unmeasured, the response convinced Babangida of inter opposition to an recession.
The abortive third republic Head of State Babangida pronounced to return the country rule by 1990 which was later extended until January 1993, in easy 1989 a constitution assembly completed a constitution and in the spins of 1989 politic activity was again permitted in October 1989 the government established two parties the National Republican Convention (NRC) others parties were not allowed to register.
In April 1990, mid-level officers attempted unsuccessfully to overthrew the government and 69 accused plotters were executed after secret trials before military tribunal in December 1990 the first stage of partisan election was held at the local government level. Despite 100 turnouts there was no violence and both parties demonstrated strength in all regions of the country with the (SDP) winning control of a majority of local government councils.
In December 1991, state legislative election were held and Babangida decreed that previously banned political could contest in primaries scheduled for August these were canceled due to fraud and subsequent primaries scheduled for September also were canceled. All announced candidates were disqualified from standing for president ones a new election format was selected the president election was finally held on June 12th, 1993 with the inauguration of the new president scheduled to take place.
August 27th, 1993 the eight anniversary of president Babangida counting to power. In the historic June 12th, 1993 president election which most observers deemed to be Nigeria’s fairest early returns indicated that wealthy Yoruba business man M.K.O Abiola won a decisive victory. However, on June 23rd, Babangida, using several pending law soils as a pretense annoyed the election, throwing Nigeria into turmoil more than 100 were killed in roils before Babangida agreed to hand power to an interim government on August 27th, 1993. He later attempted to renege this decision but without popular and military support he was forced to hand over to Ernest Shonekan, a prominent nonpartisan businessman. Shonekan was to rule until election scheduled for February 1994.
Although he had lead Babangida transitional councils since 1993, Shonekan was unable to reverse Nigeria’s economic problems or to defuse lingering political tension. With the country shading into class Defense Minister Sanni Abasha assumed power and forced Shonekan’s resignation on November 17th, 1993. Abasha dissolved and replaced governors with military officers, although province restoration of civilian rule he refused to announce a transitional timetable until 1995.
Following the annulment of the June 12th election the United State imposed sanction on Nigeria including travel restrict on government officials and suspension of arms sales and military assistance.
Additional sanctions were imposed as a result of Nigeria failure to gain full certification for its counter-narcotics efforts.
On October 1st, 1995 Abasha announced the time table for a 3 years transition to civilian rule. Only five political parties where approved by the region and votes turnout for local election in December 1997 were eight civilians on changes of soup plotting. Abasha died of heart failure on June 8th, 1998 and was replaced by General Abdulsalami Abubakar, the Military Provisional Ruling Council (P.R.C.) under Abubakar committee the sentence of these accused in the alleged coup during the Abasha regime and relapsed almost all know civilian political detainees pending the promulgation of the constitution written in 1995, the government observe some provision of the 1979 and constitutions neither Abasha and Abubakar lifted the decree suspending the 1979 constitution and the 1959 constriction was not implemented. In August 1998 Abubakar appointed the Independent National Electoral Commission (INEC) to conduct election for local government council’s state legislatures and governors, the National Assembly, and President, the NEC, successfully held election on December 5th, 1998, 1998 January 9th, 1999, February 20th, and February 27th, 1999, respectively were granted provisitional registration with three fulfilling the requirement to contest the following election, the parties were the People’s Democracy Party (PDP), All People’s Party (APP) and the predominantly Yoruba. Alliance for Democracy (AD) former military head of state Olusegun Obasanjo freed from prison by Abubakar ran as a civilian candidate and won the presidential election. The (P.R.C) promulgated a new constitution before the May 29th, 1999, inauguration of the new civilian president; the constitution includes provision for a bicameral legislature, the National Assembly consisting of a 360 member’s seat.
The Fourth Republic, the emergence of democracy in Nigeria on May 1999 ended 16 years of consecutive Military Rule; Olusegun Obasanjo inherited a country suffering economic stagnation and the deterioration of most institution, Obasanjo a former general was admired for his stand against the Abasha dictatorship, his record of returning the Federal government to civilian rule in 1979, and his claim to represent all Nigeria regardless of religion. The new president took over a country that faced many problems, including a dysfunctional bureaucracy, collapsed infrastructure and a military that wanted a reward for returning quickly to the barracks. The president moved quickly and retired hundred of military officers holding political positions established a blue ribbon panel to investigate human right violence released scores of person held without change and resends numerous questionnaire licenses and contracts lift by the previous regimes the new president face the curiting task of rebuilding petroleum based on economy, whose revenue have been squandered through corruption and mismanagement the further major problem created by the oil industry is the drilling of pipelines by Local population in an attempt to drain off the petroleum for personal use or as a source of income. This often leads to major explosions and high death toils particular notable disaster in this area have been 1st October 1998, Jeese, 1100 death 21st July 2000, Jeese, 250 death 3 September 2004, near Lagos 60 death, 4 May 2006 Illado, Approxi 150-200 deaths.
In the 2007, general election Umaru Yar’dua and Goodluck Jonathan, both of people democratic party, were elected president and vice president respectively. The election was marred by electoral fraud and denounced by other candidate and international observers.
Yar’dua’s presidency was fraught with uncertain as media reports said he suffered from kidney heart disease. In November 2009, he fell ill and was flown out of the country to Saudi Arabia for medical attention. He was there for over 50 days and later died.
In February 2010, Goodluck Jonathan began serving as acting president in the absence of Yar’dua.
Like the other country, the people of Nigeria are now enjoying the dividends of democracy that are deprived of when they are under the ruling of the colonial and the past administration.
This project work is aimed at examine the socio-economic and political impact of Democracy in Nigeria.
The case study of Ekiti State is a state in South west Nigeria, on October 1st 1996, Ekiti became an independent state for several decades since some years back. The Ekiti speaking people had been trying hand unsuccessful to have their own independent state carded out from Ondo State, therefore at independence their dream was realized under the dictatorship of the territory of old Ondo State, on creation, it took off with sixteen 16 local government areas having had an old ones. Ekiti state is one of the thirty-six states (Federal Capital Territory Nigeria) that constitute Nigeria. Ekiti is reputed to have produced the highest number of professors in Nigeria.
After military rules for three years a democratic elected system of government was put in place in the state, under the umbrella leadership of Otunba Adeniyi on May 29th, 1999 as the first Executive Governor then the socio-economic and political lines of the Ekiti had witnessed a tremendous change positively. Governor Adeniyi Adebayo having ruled the state for four years, and another election was conducted which ushered in a Peter Fayose as the governor who was sent packing following a prolonged political crisis, President Olusegun Obasanjo in posed a military.
Adunni station (general Tunji Olurin) on Ekiti state in October 2000 on April 27th, Olurin was replaced by Tope Ademuluyi, in the PDP primary of 2006, 1st place finisher, Yinka Akerele and 2nd place Adesegun Ojo were supposed to be in a run-off to determine who would be the nominee of the Nigerian ruling party when president Obasanjo imposed the candidate who came third-engineer Segun Oni he was later elected in 2007, but the election was marred by widespread irregularities and the AC candidate Dr. Kayode Fayemi challenged his election and forces a return in May 2009. The May 2009 return was characterized by even worse rigging and the election was disputed again. Eventually, after three years, the election of Oni was thrown out and Dr. Kayode Fayemi was declared the duly elected governor of Ekiti state.
Like the other states, the Ekiti people are now enjoying dividends of democracy that are being deprived when they are under the past administration. This project is aimed at examining the social-economic and political in part of democracy in Ekiti state the gains and pains of democracy under the past and present administration are the things we want to thoroughly look deeply into in this research work.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
It appears that despite the things the country stands to gain as a democratic. Country there are still some states or town that are still being deprived of democracy. Due to this, the focus of this project will be on both the positive and negative impacts of democracy in Nigeria or in Ekiti state.
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
1. To examine the positives and negative impacts of democracy in Ekiti state.
2. To investigate the significant differences between Otunba Adeniyi administration and that of Dr. Peter Ayodele Fayose.
3. To investigate whether the resource in the state are equitably distributed.
4. To investigate some shortcoming of democracy in Ekiti state.
ASSUMPTION OF THE STUDY
The researcher assumes that there will be significant differences in the responses of the urban and rural people, the government because the urban living people are the one enjoying most of these basic facilities provided.
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The study elicits information from the indigene of Nigeria on the positive and negative impact of democracy in Ekiti state.
It is hoped that finding from work will enable the people of Nigerian to evaluate the gain and pain of democracy since independence to date. It will also enable the incumbent government to know their shortcoming and works to warding improving on their lapses.
SCOPE/DELIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The research is limited to socio-economic and political impact of democracy in Nigeria by studying the case study of Ekiti state and the fact that many things are said to have been achieved from the day Ekiti has been created.
LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The likely problems to be encounter in the course of the research are lack of adequate finance, experimental mentality, and unwillingness of the respondents to disclose information etc.
1. What are the socio-political and economic impacts of democracy in Nigeria?
2. What are the shortcomings administrations in Ekiti state?
3. What are the things to do to improve on these shortcomings?
These will be significant difference in the responses of the member of the People’s Democratic Party (PDP) and Action Congress of Nigeria (CAN) on the impact of democracy in Ekiti state.
DEFINITION OF TERMS AND VARIABLES
Democracy: democracy has been defined by Abraham Lincoln (1863) as quoted by Late Chief Obafemi Awolowo (1966) as “the government of the people, by the people and for the people”.
Democracy consists of two Greek word “demos” meaning the “people” and the “Kratein” meaning “to rule”. Ancient philosophers and State men used this concept a democracy because the administration of this in the land of the many and not of the few. According to Cohen (1971) defines democracy as “government by consent rule by the majority”.
Politics: according to Aristotle, the Greek philosopher “politics is the essence of social existence. When two or more men are interacting with one another they are invariably involved in political relationship. It is the process of adjustment and inter-play of power and interests within the public life and affairs of a society, national and multinational levels hence we have national and international.
Impact: it is the effect or influence that an event, situation e.t.c. has on someone or something.