ASSESSMENT OF METHODS AND RESOURCES FOR TEACHING AND LEARNING ECONOMICS IN ESE-ODO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF ONDO STATE - UNIPROJECTS

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ASSESSMENT OF METHODS AND RESOURCES FOR TEACHING AND LEARNING ECONOMICS IN ESE-ODO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF ONDO STATE



ASSESSMENT OF METHODS AND RESOURCES FOR TEACHING AND LEARNING ECONOMICS IN ESE-ODO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF ONDO STATE  

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page                                                                                         
Certification                                                                                   
Dedication                                                                                      
Acknowledgment                                                                             
Table of Contents                                                                             
Abstract                                                                                           
CHAPTER ONE
Introduction                                                                                              
Background of the study                                                                            
Statement of the problem                                                                 
Objective of the Study                                                                    
Research Questions                                                                           
Significance of the study                                                                             
Delimitation of the study                                                                   
Definition of Terms                                                                                  
CHAPTER TWO
Reviewed of related literature                                                           
CHAPTER THREE
Research Methodology                                                                     
Research Design                                                                                
Population of the study                                                                    
Sample and Sampling Techniques                                                   
Procedure for Data Collection                                                                   
Data Analysis Techniques                                                            
Validity and Reliability of Instrument                                                       
CHAPTER FOUR
Data Analysis and Results                                                               
Summary of findings                                                                       
CHAPTER FIVE
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations                                 
Summary                                                                                     
Conclusion                                                                                       
Recommendations                                                                                     
References                                                                                        
Appendix


ABSTRACT
This study was carried out to assess the methods and resources for teaching and learning economics in Ese-Odo Local Government Area of Ondo State. Ten schools out of thirty secondary schools in the studied area were used. Questionnaires were distributed to economics teacher to collect their opinion on methods and resources used for teaching economics. Descriptive analysis and percentage were used to analyze the collected data. The findings of the research showed that some methods of teaching such as the lecture method, discussion, Socratic and story telling are frequently used, some rarely used methods of teaching include the field trip etc and some are never used for teaching economics e.g. the computer assisted instruction, team teaching etc. Also, the study revealed that some resources are frequently used e.g the use of charts, printed materials, some are rarely used e.g. the use of community resources and resources persons, some are never used for teaching and learning economic in the studied e.g the use of video tape and video CD player, television, radio programme etc. Based on the findings, some recommendations were made which would enhance the usage of some rarely and never used methods and resources for teaching and learning economic in Ese-Odo local government area. Some of the recommendations are: Organizing workshops and Seminars to improve the knowledge of the teachers, proper supervision by educational administrators and giving incentive to teachers which would enable them in their commitment to work.

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Background of the Study
Teaching in this modern period has grown in scope and in increasingly becoming more complex. Modern day teaching is technical and transeeds the use of traditional methods and old fashioned materials alone for actualizing effectiveness and efficiency. The development in technology has led to the discovery of modern instructional resources to complement teacher’s efforts in teaching. Some of the sources are still in use.
The curricular development has extensively and frequently combined the use of traditional and modern resources for teaching-learning process. Moreso, in the last fifteen years there are has been developed several organizational practices used in various secondary schools and the practices represent new idea about teaching and learning at the secondary school level (Olorundare 2001)
Effective teaching-learning process depends on good communication between the teachers and students. Verbal instruction which seems to be the easiest means of instructional delivery system besides real experiences is always very abstracts (Ijaiye in Ogun Seyi, 2000) since entire into schools with varying degree of ability and potentials, teachers need instructional methods and resources that will consider individual differences of learners through which effective communication can be enhanced.
The teaching of economics in secondary schools can be effective and efficient through the use of relevant instructional materials and instructional resources that will guide the teacher. Teachers of various ages right from the early man’s era down to make use of aids to produce better results in the teaching-learning process (Adefemi, 2002). In other words, the availability of different resources for teaching-learning process is not as important as how the teacher uses them.
Economics is an important subject in the school curriculum, West African Examination Council (2004) economics syllabus is to expose students to the basic economic principles as useful guide to rational decision making relating to individuals,  businessman, government and society in general, and to enhance their understanding and appreciation of economic field of study but also as a practical subject. Also, the syllabus has the following objectives for economic students (WAEC,2004)
Students are expected to be acquainted with basic economic principles, concepts and the tools for economic analysis;
Students shall be familiar with the structure and functioning of economic institutions commercials industrial and financial students are to understand the basis for rational economics decisions;
Understand and be able to explain the basis and structure of the West African Countries in international economic relationships.
   Students should appreciate the problems West African Countries encounter in their economic development. Resources are materials that are capable of satisfying human wants. In other words, they are materials that could assist man to achieve a particular goal (Adefila, 2000). To a classroom teacher, resources could be pieces of chalk, chalkboard, ruler, projector, films, or any of the audio-visual aids that could help him to impart knowledge successfully. A resource could be just become a resource until man discovers its uses to increase satisfaction (Adefila, 2000), hence the level of technological development determines to a large extent the level at which man can go in interacting with his environment to explore and exploit the desired resources. Resources of all kinds both human (teacher and resources persons in community) and non-human (motion pictures, films trips, slide, charts and those of audio and visual types) are of fundamental importance of the success of an instructional programme (Ajayi, 2002) Ajiboye (2000) argued that modern teaching and learning of economics demand that the necessary facilities, well qualified teachers, suitable texts and instructional materials are needed to achieve the aims and objectives of teaching economics at secondary school level. (NPE 200 section A).
According to Olorishade (2002). Methodology of teaching is the study and practice of various ways of imparting knowledge. It is the study of different methods and the systematic ways of presenting subject matter and learning experiences. However, many of the methods of teaching have origins in the various learning the ones. To make a success of various methods of teaching Fadairo, (2002) recommended that the teacher should be imbedded with the understanding the theory and practice of methodology.
Using the method to teach according to the nature of the topic, the learners, the available resources in the school are the environments; Considering the individual differences of the learner. Developing a good report with the students, colleagues and the school administration; and using the knowledge of child psychology and personality development to determine the teaching procedure and evaluation technique to be used.
Even before now, some researchers had looked into the problems that result in the poor performance of the students in economics. Various factors such as inadequate instructional aids, unqualified teachers, nature of administration of the school by the ministry of education etc. have been identified as contributing factors to the falling standard of students in their performance in economics at secondary school level (Ayeni, 2000) and Samuel, 2003)
It has been observed that in secondary schools, instructional resources have been limited to the teacher himself and few non-human resources like chalkboard and charts which are yet to bring full potentials of the students and also hinder the students to fully cope with the academic challenges in this technological age. As quoted by Fakomogbon (1999), we receive 75% of what we learn through sight. 13% of what we learn through hearing, 6% of what we learn through touching, 3% through feeling. It also follows that we remember 10% of what we read, 20% of what we hear, 30% of what we see. 5% of what we see and hear, 30% of what we say, and 90% of what we say and do at the same time. In the same vain, instructional methods include verbal exposition by the teacher or the verbal presentation of ideas to the students. The bulk of knowledge gained in the school by the students involve basic information about the content areas and teachers usually pass on these pieces of information to the student through some methods (Abimbola, 2001)
Therefore, the important of teaching and learning resources and methods of teaching cannot be overemphasized to the teachers, instructional resources can be easily taught taight using instructional resources and suitable teaching method (Odewumi 2002)
Statement of the Problem
Studies have shown that students perceive the study of economics as being difficult due to its abstract nature and also because of inclusion of some concepts that are mathematical or statistical in nature in secondary school syllabus. The focus of this study therefore is to assess the methods and resources for teaching will look into various method of teaching and also learning from which the assessment of the methods and resources for teaching and learning in Ese-Odo local government area will be made.
Objectives of the Study
          The study is to assess
i.                   The methods and resources used for teaching and learning in Ese-Odo local government area of Ondo State
ii.                 Whether the available method for teaching are frequently used, rarely used or never used
iii.              Whether the various resources are frequently used, rarely used, or never used.


Research Questions
          These research questions are designed to assess the methods and resources for teaching and learning in economics in Ese-Odo Local government area of Ondo State, The research questions are:
-                     What are the available methods of teaching and learning in economics in Ese-Odo local government area?
-                     What are the available resources for teaching and learning in economics in Ese-Odo local government area?
-                     Are they available frequently rarely or never used?
Significance of the Study
          The significant of the study would be helpful to the teacher, curriculum designers, the school administrators and other educational stakeholders. Through this study, the economics teacher would know those method and resources that are frequently used, methods and resources could be improved upon, without neglecting those they have been used to frequently
          The school administrators would be able to make necessary provisions for the resources used for teaching, through this, the teachers would and never use resources effectively, in the same vain the stakeholders and the community would be able to develop and make provision for some community resources which could enhance the proper and frequent usage of the some methods of teaching for example the field trip method.
Delimitation of the Study
          The research topic is the assessment of resources (the visual, audio, audio visual and the human resources) and method (e.g lecture method, discussion, discovery, field trip etc) for teaching and learning economic in Ese-Odo Local Government Area of Ondo State. This study is limited to the response and collected data from selected schools in Eso-Odo Local Government Area. In this study, all economic teachers in the selected schools are used.
Definition of Terms
          The operational definitions will be given to some terms used in this research work. The terms are;
Assessment: It entails an in-depth analysis for the purpose of evaluation through which desirable results or outcome could be achived.
Methods: These are the ways by which pieces of information are dissemination by teachers to students in teaching-learning process.
Resources: These are materials that we capable of satisfying one’s needs in order to achieve the at down goals and objectives.