SELECTED MEDICINAL PLANTS USED IN TREATMENT OF MALARIA - UNIPROJECTS

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SELECTED MEDICINAL PLANTS USED IN TREATMENT OF MALARIA



ABSTRACT
Malaria is a major public health problem, in many tropical and subtropical countries and the burden of this disease is getting worse, mainly due to the increasing resistance of plasmodium falciparum against the widely available anti malaria agents Herbal medicine for  the treatment of various disease including malaria are an important part of the cultural diversity and tradition of which Ikere-Ekiti biodiversity has been an integral part. Two major anti malaria drugs widely used today came originally from indigenous medical system that is quinine and atemisin in respectively. Malaria infection is the second largest killer disease after HIV IN Nigeria failure of the orthodox medication due to drug adulteration high cost of procurement of anti malaria drugs and in the use of high dosage of the new anti malaria drug combination thereby has timed the attention of the people in the world towards the used of local herbs this study investigated selected medicinal plants used in treatment of malaria in Ikere Local Government Area, Ekiti State and how the treatment ( selected plant) are very efficient and active in treatment of malaria. Malaria is one of the most common major health problem all over the world. Pharmacothropy is the most common treatment strategy for the disease. But the main obstacle behind this is emergence of resistance for many of these drugs. Hence, to overcome this problem, the major often available since the ancient times is medicinal plants all over the world. Mankind is blessed with wide range of herbal plants for various ailments with lot of those useful for malaria treatment also. In the review we have highlighted many of those plants all over the world which are being used since ancient times for the treatment of malaria.



INTRODUCTION
          Malaria is the world’s most important parasite disease especially when plasmodium falciparum is the causative agent. Malaria is endemic in about 100 developing countries, and kill an estimated 1.2 million people each year in Africa (WHO 2001). In Nigeria and some West African, one in five children will die before they are five and 75% of those death are attributed to malaria (NWAKA 2006). Pregnant woman and children under five years of age are the most vulnerable. The socio economic consequences of these diseases are particularly dramatic in rural areas where poverty and malnutrition’s are more pronounced. In the absence of an effective vaccine, the fight against malaria depends on chemotherapy and the reduction and prevention of human anopheles mosquito contacts through the use of insecticides treated bed nets and environmental care.
          In Nigeria, a large number of plant species have been identified as anti malaria. Pure products have been isolated from same of these plant amongst which are those whose anti-malaria activities are resistant stains of  P. falciparum. It is therefore imperative that anti malaria drug development has to be pursued further with those highly active product to perianal, manufacture and distribution and then final marketing phamarcovigilance. We report on the plants which have been identified as anti malaria and the work done so far in evaluating their anti-malaria potential the review is structured according to plant families and the extent of investigation carried out in the specific plant families to date some of these selected plant used in treatment of malaria in Ikere Local Government Area in Ekiti State are
VERNACULAR NAME
BOTANICAL NAMES
Bitter kola (orogbo)
Garcinia Kola
Neem (dangoyaro)
Azadiracthta  indica
Garlic
Allium  Sativum
Bitter leaf (Ewuro
Vernonia  amydalina
Scent leaf (Efinrin)
Ocinum  gratissium
Wild Sunflower coconut
Tithania  diversifolia
Coconut (Agbon
Cocos  nucifera
Paw-paw
Carica  papaya
Mango
Mangifera  Indica

[1]     Bitter Kola Health Benefit for Malaria
Bitter kola is locally called Orogbo and the botanical names is  Garcinia kola. Considerable experimental studies found the chemical constituent in bitter kola have anti malaria properties that is aside, traditional healer have for many years prescribed bitter kola for the treatment of malaria infection. Researcher who reported that bitter kola had anti—malaria effect. In the 2010 issue of journal of medicinal plant research form a survey of plant used by traditional healer in Ikere-local government of Ekiti State. They found extract from bark, stem and seed of bitter, kola tree inhibit the growth of malaria parasite (plasmodium falciparium) by at least 60% a low concentration of 6mg/ml. further more, kolaviran, the powerful chemical compound found in bitter kola was reportedly tested on a malaria parasite and found in bitter kola was reportedly tested on a malaria parasite and found to inhibit malaria activity. The bark, the stem and the seed of bitter kola all contain anti-malaria properties. Bitter kola has thick  slash and garish brown bark and buttressed trunk. It bears greenish white flaws and orange –colored fruit carrying brown seed embedded in the pulp. It belong to family Guithferae
[ii]     Dongoyaro health benefit of malaria
          Azadirachta    indica is  common in Ikere Local Government of Ekiti State otherwise called Neem the potency of dongoyaro is indisputable as it is has been used by many generation of rural area in the country. The dongoyaro is very bitter. It usually takes as anti-malaria medication. Hot pot of dongoyaro is cook and inhale the steam. It is an ever green tree and usually grows between 10metre with great but under utilized potential. Its effectiveness in the treatment of chloroquine-resistant malaria.   Neem tree is the permanent cure for malaria. The part used is the bark and the leaves method of extraction is decoction. Single plant (monotherapy) can be used or in combination of more than one part.  Dongoyaro is also used in treatment of cerebral malaria. It occur when malaria parasite filled blood cell block small blood vessel to the brain, causing swelling of the brain the usual symptom when it affects the brain are severe headache and pain at the neck, severe vomiting and finally coma. The symptoms is high fever accompanied by chills, headache, shivering and general body pain. Neem is a medicinal plant commonly used in the Ikere-Ekiti whose usefulness in the treatment of malaria has been demonstrated
GARLIC HEALTH BENEFIT OF MALARIA
          Allium  sativum as its called botanically, the compound disulfides, occur naturally in garlic onions and mahogany tress for years scientist have suspected chew are flesh bulb of garlic with lot of water first thing in the morning Garlic is called Nature antibiotic. It both detoxified and rejuvenate everything in the body with which it carry compound in garlic may be helpful against malaria. The part used is the bulb of the garlic and method of extraction is by concoction tincture (the prepare of the medicine out of many ingredients)
Leaf Extract Of Mango And Papaya Health Benefit For Malaria
          A combination of the two leaf extract exhibited a higher anti malaria efficacy than separate leaf extract add decoction of unripe pawpaw and mango has anti-malaria properties the juice made from the pawpaw leaf and mango leaves reduce side effect it does not have any toxic effect on the body.

How to prepare paw and mango juice at home
          It is very important to remember that the papaya leaf has to be raw which means no boiling nor cooking  the juice is squeeze out with hand and raw fresh papaya leaves and mango leaves are used .
Expert have found that the water extract of pawpaw and mango leaves showed potencies against malaria parasite and they cut leaves from a mango tree  wash them properly get two grapes or limes in a cooking pot add water and boil for 20 minutes and there you have your drinks. Take half a glass of the drink twice a day
Bitter Leaf Health Benefit of Malaria
          Bitter leaf called Ewuro in Yoruba language is a medicinal and food plant in Ikere-Ekiti. It is used in the various types of native soup like Egusi (melon) Okro. The leaves, stem and roots are used for various herbal preparation in Ekiti State and other part of Nigeria. The water from the squeezed leaves cures malaria and reduces upset with malaria. The bitter leaf obtained after washing crushing the leaves in clean water take good care of malaria. Very few people are aware that this vegetable is highly medicinal and can be used to cure diseases as well as help to keep out body in good health condition. The important thing this leaf does is to clean the blood hence prevent sickness this is made by squeezing the fresh leaves to get the juice. Drink about a glass of the juice three [3] times a day. Bitter leaf also medicinal for malaria treatment because of the presence of natural Quinine regular intake of this bitter leaf juice will prevent malaria sickness.
Scent Leaf Health Benefit for Malaria
Efirin (Ocimum  grahssimum) the extract of the fresh ocimum  grassimum leaves contains thymol an anti  malarial agent component which make the plant very effective the plant is wonderful in the treatment of malaria with palm wine. The palm wine is use to squeeze the leaf and taken orally 3 times daily. Efirin is used as cold infusion. The essential oil produced the activity with the respective percentage it belong to family Lamiaceae.  A ployherbal preparation of a water extract obtained from the leaves of ocimum  grassimum show analgesic and anti  malaria activity. It best know species are cooking herb. Efirin is a sacred herb in Ikere-Ekiti used as healing remedies and cooking it is a home grown plant and is also commercially cultivated. The plant give out a sweet scent of camphor these plants are aromatic perennial herbs which go through several variation in cultivation to attain improved growth it has anti-malaria component that are used in treating the disease. It is best to avoid this herb during pregnancy
Ticthona   diversifolia (commonly called wild sunflower)
It is are of medicinal plants under consideration locally Known as Jogbon among the Yoruba researcher have found it to the effective in the treatment and prevention of malaria extract from the leaf of sunflower used in folk medicine for treatment of various ailment were-tested, under laboratory condition for anti malaria and mosquito repellency properties chloroquine. In the extract from the leaf showed that T diversifolia was 100 percent effective in clearing parasite the administration of the plant extract during the malaria episode was effective with longer period of administration sunflower leaf is extracted by cold infusion due to its bitterness. 7up is used to squeeze it or water can also be used, the part used is the leaf of the wild sunflower the aqueous and methanol extract has 50% & 70% clearing of parasites respectively conquer to 100% for chloroquine more effective when administered at the onset of infection.
Coconut health benefit for malaria
Cocos   nucifera husk fibre and white flesh are used in folk medicine for the treatment of malaria. In vitro studies have authenticated the acclaimed anti malaria and potentials of the hut fibre extract of five cocos   nucifera
Cymbopogon   citratus-         Lemon grass health benefit for malaria
          It is commonly called Ewetea and cymbopogan  citrotus botanically lemon grass is a genus of about 55 species which is indigenous in tropic and semi-tropical area of Africa. The grasses with a rhizomatous as with citrus flavor and can be dried and powdered or use trash. The anti malaria activity the essential oils of cymbopogan  citratus was found to produce 86.6% suppression in the growth of plasmodium bergbei when compared with chloroquine. The fresh leaf essential oil has anti-malaria activity. Study in mice have shown that lemon  grass is effective lemon-grass tea is taken internally in the treatment of headache, cold, asthma the part used is the leaf decoction method is used is the leaf. decoction method  is used (boiling  of leaves is used only or with another herb such as lime and alabukun drug to kill malaria resistance. Lemon grass is locally called Ewe tea in Ikere-Ekiti for treating malaria.
SUMMARY
The selected medicinal plant used in treatment of malaria have been tested with the method of extraction
Method Of Extraction
Botanical Names
Part Used
Concoction Tincture
Allium sativum
Bulb
Infusion
carical papaya
Fruit, Leaves
Infusion
Tithania  diversifolia
 Leaves
Decoction
Azadirachta  indica
Bark, Leaves
Decoction
Mangifera   indica
Bark, Leaves
Decoction
Garcinia kola
Seeds, Leaves
Infusion
Ocinum   gratissiumgra
Leaves
Decoction
Cocos   nucifera
Fibre
Infusion
vernonia  amygadina
Leaves

CONCLUSION
          The present seminar brings out information on different medicinal plant used various part of Ikere local government area for the treatment of malaria according to the investigation each plant has gone through.
Over 50 medicinal plant have been used for treatment of malaria but 10 medicinal plant have been recorded here for their used as anti malaria in Ikere-Ekiti. Only one third of the medicinal plant have been tested for their anti malarial activity. There is need to advance the work on plants which have already been shown to have anti malaria activity through further invitro and invino testing in annual modes of malaria followed by sub acute and chronic toxicity tests.





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