THE INFLUENCE OF GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING PROGRAMME ON ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN BENUE STATE. A CASE STUDY OF AGATU LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA - UNIPROJECTS

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THE INFLUENCE OF GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING PROGRAMME ON ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN BENUE STATE. A CASE STUDY OF AGATU LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA



THE INFLUENCE OF GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING PROGRAMME ON ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN BENUE STATE. A CASE STUDY OF AGATU LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA

ABSTRACT
A guidance and counselling programme in a school assist students to harmonize their abilities, interests and values and thereby develop their full potential. All this is geared towards improving the self-image of the students and facilitating better achievement in academic performance. This study sought to establish the influence of guidance and counselling programme on academic performance of secondary school students in Agatu local government area of Benue State. A random sample of 196 students, ten teacher counsellors and ten head teachers were selected from the five schools. Data were collected through administration of questionnaires with the selected respondents. The collected data were then processed and analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics with the aid of Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 16 for windows. The study established the following findings: Secondary schools in the study area differed in the number of guidance and counseling services that they had implemented. Teacher counsellors had little training in guidance and counselling. Stakeholders adequately supported guidance and counselling programme in the schools. Students were aware of the role and importance of career counselling in their schools. There was poor academic performance among students. Guidance and counselling programme has a positive impact on the academic performance of students. Based on these study findings, the following recommendations were made: There is need for the teacher counsellors to implement all the services required for a guidance and counselling programme. There is need to improve the level of training of teacher counsellors in guidance and counselling. Teacher counsellors should take advantage of the positive attitude of the students to enhance career counselling in their schools. Guidance and counselling programme should be strengthened in order to improve the academic performance of secondary schools in the area.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page                                                                                                       i
Certification                                                                                                  ii
Approval page                                                                                              iii
Dedication                                                                                                     iv
Acknowledgements                                                                                     v
Abstract                                                                                                        vii      
Table of contents                                                                                         viii
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION
Background Information                                                                                        
Statement of the Problem                                                                                       
Objective of the Study                                                                                         
Research Questions                                                                                             
 Significance of the Study                                                                                   
The Scope of the Study                                                                                    
Assumptions of the Study                                                                                      
Definition of Terms                                                                                                           
 CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW
Introduction                                                                                                            
Genesis of Guidance and Counselling                                                                 
Role of Guidance and Counselling in Secondary Schools                              
An Effective Guidance and Counselling Programme in Secondary Schools
Causes of Poor Academic Performance in Schools                                           
Theoretical Framework                                                                                        
Conceptual Framework                                                                                          
CHAPTER THREE RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Research Design                                                                                                      
Area of the Study                                                                                                   
Population of Study                                                                                             
Sample and Sampling Techniques                                                                                             Instrumentation for data collection                                                                
Validation of the instrument                                                                                 
Validation of the Instrument                                                                                 
Administration of the instrument                                                                     
Data Analysis                                                                                                      
CHAPTER FOUR RESULTS AND DISCUSSION                                          
CHAPTER FIVE SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Introduction                                                                                                              
 Summary of the Findings                                                                                  
Conclusion                                                                                                               
Recommendations                                                                                                  
Suggestions for Further Research                                                                         
References                                                                                                              
Appendices                                                                                                              

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
 Background to the study
Guidance and counselling are two closely interrelated concepts and each determines the availability and efficient of the other. According to Makinde (2004) and Patterson (2007), “guidance” refers to a abroad area of all educational activities and services aimed at assisting individual students to understand themselves and adjust to school life. In Kenya, the Ministry of Education (1977) considers guidance as a continuing process concerned with determining and providing for the developmental needs of „learners‟. Mutie and Ndambuki (1999) defines “counselling” as a learning-oriented process which usually occurs in an interactive relationship with the aim of helping the client learn more about him/herself. Guidance and counselling is therefore aimed at bringing about maximum development and self-realization of human potential for the benefit of the individual and the society. In a school, the programme assists students in harmonizing their abilities, interests and values and enables them to develop their full potential. It directs students on appropriate career and subject choices; solving discipline, education, social and psychological problems; and general adjustment to school life (Gerardo, 2006).
According to Gururani,G.D. (2006,p-1) Guidance is commonly understood as leadership, instruction or direction. Counseling may also be taken as a psychological process of helping an individual to achieve his self-direction, self-understanding and mental balance necessary to make the maximum adjustment to the school, home and society. Bhatnagar & Gupta (1999) view guidance as a process of helping individuals to find solutions of their problems. They further say that guidance is an integral part of education; a continuous service; both generalized and specialized service, for the “whole” child and is not confined only to some specific aspects of his personality. Guidance and counseling has been conceptualized as a programme of activities which has provided us with the gateway out of the existing numerous problems in our present age of complex scientific and technological development (Okobiah and Okorodudu 2004). The country like Pakistan wherein the literacy level is already falling below the desired level as well as drop out ratio is alarming, an optimistic scenario could be arisen by applying guidance and counseling techniques to improve the academic performances of the students. Olayinka (1996) and Yahaya (2003) view that passing examination to secure certificates either for admission into higher institution or secure good jobs is the main goal of education to many people and not the acquisition of knowledge and skills through studying. Many students perform poorly because they lack the right attitude to study and do not have the right orientation from home and from the society (Obilade, 1987; Ladipo, 2000; Eweniyi, 2002). The attitudes of human beings play significant role in their behaviours. The study of human habits and attitudes is relevant and essential to counseling, as it can help in the understanding of the rationale for their behaviour and provides basis for prediction and assistance. Abiri (1996) argued that if the society is not to be plaque by a band/group of disgruntled, frustrated and unrealistic individuals, it is desirable that adequate guidance and counseling and career information be provided, to enable the school and society arrive at a realistic vocational choice for their children/wards with due realization of their potentialities. Akpama (2005) perceive that the issue of sex and academic performance has attracted reports while some propose that males perform better than females in academics, others argue that the reverse is the case, and still another group says that the difference in performance between the two is insignificant. Guidance services are presented by Nwachukwu (2007) as information services, placement services, appraisal services, vocational guidance services, counseling services, referral services, evaluation, follow-up, consultancy and research services. As a vital component of any type and any level of education the absence of non utilization of these services in the present day school system has led to the unprecedented rise in the crime wave, violence among students, fuelled cultism, wrong career choice, and wrong subject combination among other issues.


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